Cycling is the use of bicycles, or - less commonly - unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles and other similar wheeled human powered vehicles (HPVs) as a means of transport, a form of recreation or a sport. The bicycle, cycle, or bike is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind A unicycle is a one-wheeled Human-powered vehicle. Unicycles are similar to but less complex than Bicycles History The unicycle's history began A tricycle (often abbreviated to trike) is a three-wheeled vehicle A Quadricycle is a four-wheeled human-powered vehicle. It is also referred to as a quadracycle, quadcycle, quadrocycle or as a four-wheel Human-powered transport is the Transport of person(s and/or goods using Human Muscle power Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Recreation or fun is the expenditure of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one's Body or Mind. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively It is done on roads and paths, across open country, through tunnels, over bridges, on snow, or even over ice (icebiking). Ice is a Solid phase, usually crystalline, of a Non-metalic substance that is liquid or gas at Room temperature, such as Ammonia Icebiking (also referred to as snowbiking or winter biking is the activity of Cycling in cold winter weather on roads and paths covered with Snow,
As a sport, cycling is governed internationally by the Union Cycliste Internationale in Switzerland (for upright bicycles) and by the International Human Powered Vehicle Association (for other HPVs, or human-powered vehicles). Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI is a Cycling association that oversees competitive cycling events internationally Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation An upright bicycle is a Bicycle on which the rider sits astride the saddle and stands on the pedals this is the most common type of bicycle The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is an association dedicated to promoting the design and development of Human powered vehicles It was founded in 1978 Cycling for transport and touring is promoted on a European level by the European Cyclists' Federation, with associated members from Great Britain, Japan and elsewhere. European Cyclists' Federation is an umbrella organisation for national Cycling organisations throughout Europe. Regular conferences on cycling for transport are held under the auspices of Velo City; global conferences are coordinated by Velo Mondial . Velo-City is a series of cycle planning conferences occurring every two years
In many countries, the most commonly used vehicle for road transport is a utility bicycle. Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. Road transport ( British English) or road transportation ( American English) is Transport on Roads of passengers or goods A utility Bicycle (aka city bicycle or ute bicycle) is one which is designed for a practical purpose, as opposed to "sport bicycles" These have frames with so-called relaxed geometry, protecting the rider from shocks from the road, and easing low speeds steering. Road bikes tend to have a more upright shape and a shorter wheelbase, which make the bike more mobile but harder to ride slowly. The design, coupled with low or dropped handlebars, requires the rider to bend forward more, which reduces air resistance at high speed.
The price of a new bicycle can range from US$50 to more than US$20,000, depending on quality, type and weight (the most exotic road bicycles can weigh as little as 3. 2kg (7 lb)) ). Being measured for a bike and taking it for a test ride are recommended before buying.
The drivetrain components of the bike should also be considered. The bicycle, cycle, or bike is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind A middle grade dérailleur is sufficient for a beginner, although many utility bikes come equipped with hub gears. Derailleur gears are a variable-ratio transmission system commonly used on Bicycles consisting of a chain, multiple Sprockets and a Hub gears or internal-gear hubs are a type of Gear system used on Bicycles Hub gears are used mostly on utility bikes and various types If the rider plans a significant amount of hillclimbing, a triple-crank (three chainrings) front gear system may be preferred. Hill climbing is one of the key skills required to make Cycling more enjoyable The crankset, or chainset, is the component of a Bicycle Drivetrain that converts the reciprocating motion of the rider's Legs into rotational Shimano xt rear derailleurjpg|right|thumb|Shimano XT rear derailleur on a mountain bike]]The gearing on a Bicycle is the selection of appropriate gear ratios for optimum efficiency Otherwise, the relatively lighter and less expensive two chainrings may be better.
Many road bikes include clipless pedals to which special shoes attach via a cleat, permitting the rider to pull on the pedals as well as push. A bicycle Pedal is the part of a Bicycle that the rider pushes with his or her foot to propel the bicycle A cleat is a type of Shoe designed especially for Sports played on Grass or dirt such as soccer or American football. Other possible accessories for the bicycle include locks, mudguards (UK)/fenders (US), luggage carriers and pannier bags, water bottles and bottle cages.
For basic maintenance and repairs, cyclists can choose to carry a pump, a spare inner tube, a CO2 cartridge, a puncture repair kit and tyre levers. A backpack (also called A bicycle pump is a type of positive-displacement Pump specifically designed for inflating Bicycle tires Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single A tire iron ( tyre iron, or tyre lever, in British English is a specialized metal Tool used in working with Tires that have Inner tubes Cycling can be more efficient and comfortable with special shoes, gloves, and shorts. Cycling shoes are Shoes designed for Cycling. They come in a variety of designs depending on the type and intensity of the Cycling for which they are intended Cycling shorts (also known as bike shorts or bicycling shorts) are short skin-tight legwear designed to improve comfort and efficiency while Cycling In wet weather, riding can be more tolerable with waterproof clothes, such as cape, jacket, trousers and overshoes.
Items legally required in some jurisdictions, or voluntarily adopted for safety reasons, include bicycle helmets, generator or battery operated lighting, and audible signaling devices such as a bell or horn. A bicycle helmet is a Helmet intended to be worn while riding a Bicycle. Bicycle lighting has two purposes seeing and being seen There are many types of Bicycle lights available each with its own advantages and disadvantages Extras include studded tires and a bicycle computer. This article is about tires used on road Vehicles including pneumatic tires and solid tires. A cyclocomputer is a device mounted on a Bicycle that calculates and displays trip information similar to the instruments in the Dashboard of a car
Learning to ride efficiently and safely in traffic is important. Vehicular cycling, or VC, is the practice of Driving Bicycles on Roads in a manner that is visible predictable and in accordance with the principles In the United Kingdom, many primary school children take the Cycling Proficiency Test, to help them travel more safely. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Cycling Proficiency Test is a test given by Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA which serves as a minimum recommended standard for cycling on British roads However, the Cycling Proficiency Test has now been superseded, for children, by 'Bikeability' and the National Standards for Cycle Training. In countries such as the Netherlands, where cycling is popular, cyclists sometimes ride in bike lanes at the side of or separate from, the main highway. Many primary schools participate in the national road test in which children individually complete a circuit on roads near the school while being observed by testers.
Cyclists, pedestrians and motorists make different demands on road design which may lead to conflicts. Some jurisdictions give priority to motorised traffic, for example setting up one-way street systems, free-right turns, high capacity roundabouts, and slip roads. In the field of Road transport, an interchange is a road junction that typically Others may apply traffic restraint measures to limit the impact of motorised transport. Traffic calming is a set of strategies used by Urban planners and traffic engineers which aim to slow down or reduce Traffic, thereby improving safety In the former cases, cycling has tended to decline while in the latter it has tended to be maintained. Occasionally, extreme measures against cycling may occur. In Shanghai, where bicycles were once the dominant mode of transport, bicycle travel on a few city roads was banned temporarily in December 2003. Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million Mode of transport (or means of transport or transport mode or transport modality or form of transport) is a general term for the different
In areas in which cycling is popular and encouraged, cycle-parking facilities using bicycle stands, lockable mini-garages, and patrolled cycle parks are used to reduce theft. A bicycle stand, also commonly called a bike rack, is a device to which bicycles may be securely attached Local governments promote cycling by permitting the carriage of bicycles on public transport or by providing external attachment devices on public transport vehicles. A bicycle carrier, also commonly called a bike rack, is a device attached to an Automobile or Bus for transporting bicycles Conversely, an absence of secure cycle-parking is a recurring complaint by cyclists from cities with low modal share of cycling.
Extensive bicycle path systems may be found in some cities. Segregated cycle facilities are Roads tracks paths or marked lanes designated for use by Cyclists from which motorised traffic is generally excluded Such dedicated paths often have to be shared with in-line skaters, scooters, skateboarders, and pedestrians. Segregating bicycle and automobile traffic in cities has met with mixed success, both in terms of safety and bicycle promotion. At some point the two streams of traffic inevitably intersect, often in a haphazard and congested fashion. Studies have demonstrated that, due to the high incidence of accidents at these sites, some such segregated schemes can actually increase the number of car-bike collisions. 
Bicycles are considered a sustainable mode of transport, especially suited for urban use and relatively shorter distances when used for transport (compared to recreation). Case studies and good practices (from European cities and some world-wide examples) that promote and stimulate this kind of functional cycling in cities can be found at Eltis, Europe's portal for local transport. ELTIS ( wwweltisorgis short for the 'European Local Transport Information Service'
In the Netherlands bicycle paths are widespread and are (in the cities) not allowed for scooters. Cyclists in the Netherlands are well protected as the law assumes the stronger participant (i. e. the car) guilty party in all accidents involving weaker traffic unless evidence of the opposite is provided. Furthermore, drivers know to expect bikes, which are plentiful and treat traffic rules more as guidelines. Due to these issues the number of car-bike collisions with serious consequences is not alarmingly high in the Netherlands
The postal services of many countries have long relied on bicycles. Utility cycling encompasses any Cycling not done primarily for fitness, Recreation such as cycle touring, or Sport such as cycle Mail, or post, is a method for transmitting information and tangible objects wherein written Documents typically enclosed in Envelopes and also The British Royal Mail first started using bicycles in 1880; now bicycle delivery fleets include 37,000 in the UK, 25,700 in Germany, 10,500 in Hungary and 7000 in Sweden. Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The London Ambulance Service has recently introduced bicycling paramedics, who can often get to the scene of an incident in Central London more quickly than a motorised ambulance. The London Ambulance Service NHS Trust (LAS is the largest "free at the point of contact" ambulance service in the world that does not directly charge its patients The term Central London refers to the districts of London England which are considered closest to the centre
Late in the 20th century, urban police bicycles became more common, as the mobility of car-borne officers was increasingly limited by traffic congestion and pedestrianisation. Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ pronounced) is a state in the southern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country A Police bicycle is a Land vehicle used by police departments most commonly in the form of a Mountain bicycle. Car-free zones (also known as auto-free zones and pedestrian zones) are areas of a city or town in which automobile traffic is prohibited
Bicycles enjoy substantial use as general delivery vehicles in many countries. In the UK and North America, generations of teenagers have got their first jobs delivering newspapers by bicycle. London has many delivery companies that use bicycles with trailers. Most cities in the West, and many outside it, support a sizeable and visible industry of cycle couriers who deliver documents and small packages. Bicycle messengers (also known as bike or cycle couriers are people who work for courier companies (also known as messenger companies carrying and delivering items by In India, many of Mumbai's Dabbawalas use bicycles to deliver home cooked lunches to the city’s workers. Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial A dabbawala ( Marathi डब्बावाला literally one who carries a box, see Etymology) also spelled as dabbawalla or dabbawallah In Bogotá, Colombia the city’s largest bakery recently replaced most of its delivery trucks with bicycles. Bogotá —officially named Bogotá DC (DC for " Distrito Capital " which means "Capital District" formerly called Santa Fe de Bogotá Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Even the car industry uses bicycles. At the huge Mercedes-Benz factory in Sindelfingen, Germany workers use bicycles, colour-coded by department, to move around the factory. Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of luxury Automobiles Buses coaches and Trucks It is currently a division of the Sindelfingen is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Bicycles are used for recreation at all ages. Bicycle touring is a Leisure Travel activity which involves touring exploring or Sightseeing by Bicycle. Bicycle touring, also known as cyclotourism, involves touring and exploration or sightseeing by bicycle for leisure. Bicycle touring is a Leisure Travel activity which involves touring exploring or Sightseeing by Bicycle. A brevet or randonnée is an organized long-distance ride. For other uses see Brevet. In the sport of Randonneuring, a brevet or randonnée is an organised long-distance
One popular Dutch pleasure is the enjoyment of relaxed cycling in the countryside of the Netherlands. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time The land is very flat and full of public bicycle trails where cyclists aren't bothered by cars and other traffic, which makes it ideal for cycling recreation. Segregated cycle facilities are Roads tracks paths or marked lanes designated for use by Cyclists from which motorised traffic is generally excluded Many Dutch people subscribe every year to an event called fietsvierdaagse — four days of organised cycling through the local environment. The Dutch people ( Dutch:) are the dominant Ethnic group of the Netherlands. A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the Orbit of the Earth around the Sun The fietsvierdaagse ("cycling four-day" is a Dutch Bicycle event Paris-Brest-Paris (PBP), which began in 1891, is the oldest bicycling event still run on a regular basis on the open road, covers over 1200 km and imposes a 90-hour time limit. Paris-Brest-Paris (PBP was originally a 1200km Bicycle racing from Paris to Brest and back to Paris. Similar if smaller institutions exist in many countries.
Many cycling clubs hold organized rides in which bicyclists of all levels participate. Portland is a city located in the Northwestern United States, near the Confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers A cycling club is a society for cyclists It can be local or national general or specialised The typical organized ride starts with a large group of riders, called the mass, bunch or even peloton. For the supercomputing project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory see Peloton (super computer, and for the military unit see Peloton (military. This will thin out over the course of the ride. Many riders choose to ride together in groups of the same skill level to take advantage of drafting.
Most organized rides, for example Cyclosportives, Challenge Rides or reliability trials, and hill climbs (Hillclimbing (cycling)) include registration requirements and will provide information either through the mail or online concerning start times and other requirements. Cyclo Sportives (sometimes spelled Cyclo Sportifs but correctly Cyclosportives, since the full name is randonnée cyclosportive and randonnée is a female Challenge riding is a form of Cycling where the riders challenge themselves rather than each other A reliability trial is an organised Bicycle ride which challenges a Cyclist to complete a course passing through designated control points within a preset time limit Hill climbing is one of the key skills required to make Cycling more enjoyable Rides usually consist of 25, 50 and 100 mile routes, each with a certain number of rest stops that usually include refreshments, first aid and maintenance tools.
Mountain biking grew in the late 20th century, including recreation and racing. Mountain biking entails the Sport of riding Bicycles off-road often over rough terrain whether riding specially equipped Mountain bikes or hybrid road bikes
Shortly after the introduction of bicycles, competitions developed independently in many parts of the world. Bicycle racing encompasses many forms in which Bicycles are used for competition Early races involving boneshaker style bicycles were predictably fraught with injuries. Boneshaker is a name used from about 1869 up to the present time to refer to the first type of true Bicycle with pedals, which was called " Velocipede Large races became popular during the 1890s "Golden Age of Cycling", with events across Europe, and in the U. S. and Japan as well. At one point, almost every major city in the US had a velodrome or two for track racing events. A velodrome is an arena for Track cycling. Modern velodromes feature steeply banked oval tracks consisting of two 180-degree circular bends connected by two straights Track racing is a Motorcycle sport where teams or individuals race opponents around an oval track However since the middle of the 20th Century cycling has become a minority sport in the US whilst in Continental Europe it continues to be a major sport, particularly in France, Belgium and Italy. The most famous of all bicycle races is the Tour de France. History See also:CategoryTour de France by year The dominant sports newspaper in France This began in 1903, and continues to capture the attention of the sporting world.
In 1899, Mile-a-Minute Murphy became the first man to ride a bicycle a mile in under a minute. Charles Minthorn Murphy (Oct 1870 &ndash Feb 16, 1950) but more popularly known as " Mile-a-Minute" Murphy, was an American
As the bicycle evolved its various forms, different racing formats developed. Road races may involve both team and individual competition, and are contested in various ways. They range from the one-day road race, criterium, and time trial to multi-stage events like the Tour de France and its sister events which make up cycling's Grand Tours. A criterium, or crit, is a type of bike race held on a short course (usually less than 5  km) often run on closed-off city centre streets In Road bicycle racing, a Grand Tour refers to one of the three major European professional cycling stage races Tour de France Recumbent bicycles were banned from bike races in 1934 after Marcel Berthet set a new hour record in his Velodyne streamliner (49. CNC Cruzbike 2007jpg|thumb|300px|Cruzbike Sofrider (a PBFWD recumbent and woman at end of the "Ride Across North Carolina" 2007]] A recumbent bicycle is a Bicycle The hour record for Bicycles is the record for the longest distance cycled in one Hour on a bicycle 992 km on 18 November 1933). Events 326 - The old St Peter's Basilica is consecrated 1302 - Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Track bicycles are used for track cycling in Velodromes , while cyclo-cross races are held on rugged outdoor terrain. A track bicycle or track bike is a bicycle designed for racing at a Velodrome. Track cycling is a Bicycle racing Sport usually held on specially-built banked tracks or Velodromes (but many events are held at older velodromes where the A velodrome is an arena for Track cycling. Modern velodromes feature steeply banked oval tracks consisting of two 180-degree circular bends connected by two straights Cyclo-cross (sometimes cyclocross, CX, cyclo-X or ' cross) is a form of Bicycle racing. In the past decade, mountain bike racing has also reached international popularity and is even an Olympic sport. Mountain biking entails the Sport of riding Bicycles off-road often over rough terrain whether riding specially equipped Mountain bikes or hybrid road bikes
Professional racing organizations place limitations on the bicycles that can be used in the races that they sanction. For example, the Union Cycliste Internationale, the governing body of international cycle sport (which sanctions races such as the Tour de France), decided in the late 1990s to create additional rules which prohibit racing bicycles weighing less than 6. 8 kilograms (14. 96 pounds). The UCI rules also effectively ban some bicycle frame innovations (such as the recumbent bicycle) by requiring a double triangle structure. A bicycle frame is the main component of a Bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted CNC Cruzbike 2007jpg|thumb|300px|Cruzbike Sofrider (a PBFWD recumbent and woman at end of the "Ride Across North Carolina" 2007]] A recumbent bicycle is a Bicycle 
The bicycle is not suited for combat, but it has been used as a method of reconnaissance as well as transporting soldiers and supplies to combat zones. Bicycle infantry are Infantry Soldiers who maneuver on the battlefield using Bicycles The term dates from the late 19th century when the " Safety Reconnaissance (also scouting) is a military and medical term denoting exploration conducted to gain information In this it has taken over many of the function of horses in warfare. Horses were first used in warfare over 5000 years ago The earliest evidence of the use of horses ridden in warfare dates Bicycles were used in the Second Boer War, where both sides used them for scouting. See also First Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The Second Boer War ( Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: In World War I, France and Germany used bicycles to move troops. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All In its 1937 invasion of China, Japan employed some 50,000 bicycle troops, and similar forces were instrumental in Japan's march or "roll" through Malaysia in World War II. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Germany used bicycles again in World War II, while the British employed airborne "Cycle-commandos" with folding bikes.
In the Vietnam War, communist forces used bicycles extensively as cargo carriers along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The Ho Chi Minh trail was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam through There are reports of mountain bicycles being used in scouting by U. S. Special Forces in the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and in subsequent battles against the Taliban. The War in Afghanistan, which began on October 7 2001 as the U The Taliban ( طالبان, also anglicised as Taleban; translation "students" is a Sunni Islamist, predominately British troops, designated Light Bicycle Infantry LBI, used bicycles to patrol in Basra, Iraq in January 2005. Basra ( BGN: AlBasrah also called Basorah Abillah and Uruk or IRAQ The name that British colony has adopted for Basra For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics.
The last country known to maintain a regiment of bicycle troops was Switzerland, who disbanded their final unit in 2003.
Two broad and correlated themes run in bicycle activism: one is about advocating the bicycle as an alternative mode of transport, and the other is about the creation of conditions to permit and/or encourage bicycle use, both for utility and recreative cycling. Portland is a city located in the Northwestern United States, near the Confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers Although the first, which emphasizes the potential for energy and resource conservation and health benefits gained from cycling versus automobile use, is relatively undisputed, the second is target of much debate.
It is generally agreed that improved local and inter-city rail services and other methods of mass transportation (including greater provision for cycle carriage on such services) create conditions to encourage bicycle use. However, there are different opinions on the role of the use of segregated cycle facilities and other items of the cycling infrastructure in building bicycle-friendly cities and roads. Segregated cycle facilities are Roads tracks paths or marked lanes designated for use by Cyclists from which motorised traffic is generally excluded Utility cycling encompasses any Cycling not done primarily for fitness, Recreation such as cycle touring, or Sport such as cycle " Bicycle-friendly " describes policies and practices which may help some people feel more comfortable about traveling by Bicycle with other traffic
Some bicycle activists (including some traffic management advisers) seek the construction of segregated cycle facilities for journeys of all lengths. Other activists, especially those from the more established tradition, view the safety, practicality, and intent of many segregated cycle facilities with suspicion. They favour a more holistic approach based on the 4 'E's; education (of everyone involved), encouragement (to apply the education), enforcement (to protect the rights of others), and engineering (to facilitate travel while respecting every person's equal right to do so). Traffic psychology is a young expanding field in Psychology. Whereas Traffic psychology is primarily related to the study of the behaviour of road In some cases this opposition has a more ideological basis: some members of the Vehicular Cycling movement oppose segregated public facilities, such as on-street bike lanes, on principle. Vehicular cycling, or VC, is the practice of Driving Bicycles on Roads in a manner that is visible predictable and in accordance with the principles Some groups offer training courses to help cyclists integrate themselves with other traffic. Vehicular cycling, or VC, is the practice of Driving Bicycles on Roads in a manner that is visible predictable and in accordance with the principles This is part of the ongoing cycle path debate. The cycle path debate concerns the issues surrounding the provision and use of Cycle paths A cycle path or bike path is a track or road designated for
Critical Mass is an event typically held on the last Friday of every month in cities around the world where bicyclists take to the streets en masse. A critical mass is the smallest amount of Fissile material needed for a sustained Nuclear chain reaction. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status "The world " is a proper noun for the planet Earth envisioned from an Anthropocentric or Human Worldview, as a place While the ride was originally founded with the idea of drawing attention to how unfriendly the city was to bicyclists, the leaderless structure of Critical Mass makes it impossible to assign it any one specific goal. In fact, the purpose of Critical Mass is not formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city streets. Direct action is political action which happens outside normal political channels via indirect actions such as electing representatives.
Midnight Ridazz is a massive established bicycle ride in Los Angeles based on recreational activism. Midnight Ridazz is a late-night group bicycle ride that celebrates Bicycle culture in Los Angeles California. The ride incorporates themes and ride routes designed to maximize fun and comraderie without any overt political agenda that might fracture the group of diverse riders. The one goal of Midnight Ridazz is to have fun riding a bike and thus inspire others to ride and have fun as well.
There is a long-running cycle helmet debate among activists. A bicycle helmet is a Helmet intended to be worn while riding a Bicycle. The most heated controversy surrounds the topic of compulsory helmet use. A bicycle helmet is a Helmet intended to be worn while riding a Bicycle.
Cyclists form associations, both for specific interests (trails development, road maintenance, urban design, racing clubs, touring clubs, etc. ) and for more global goals (energy conservation, pollution reduction, promotion of fitness). Energy conservation is the practice of decreasing the quantity of energy used Some bicycle clubs and national associations became prominent advocates for improvements to roads and highways. In the United States, the League of American Wheelmen lobbied for the improvement of roads in the last part of the 19th century, founding and leading the national Good Roads Movement. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The League of American Bicyclists (LAB is a non-profit membership organization which promotes cycling for fun fitness and transportation through advocacy and Education The Good Roads Movement occurred in the United States between 1880 and 1916 Their model for political organization, as well as the paved roads for which they argued, facilitated the growth of the automobile.
Bicycles are commonly used by people seeking to improve their fitness and cardiovascular health. Kansas ( is a Midwestern state in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American " In this regard, bicycling is especially helpful for those with arthritis of the lower limbs and who are unable to pursue sports such as running that involve more impact to joints such as the knees. Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation plural arthritides is a group of conditions involving damage to the Joints of the body Furthermore, since cycling can be used as a form of transportation, there can be less demand for self-discipline to maintain the exercise because of the practical purpose of the activity.
Cycling while seated is a relatively non-weight bearing exercise that, like swimming, does little to promote bone density. In Orthopedics, weight bearing is the amount of Weight a patient puts on the leg on which surgery has been performed Swimming is the movement by humans or animals through Water, usually without artificial assistance  Cycling up and out of the saddle, on the other hand, does a better job by transferring more of the rider's body weight to the legs. However, excessive cycling while standing can cause knee damage. It used to be thought that cycling while standing was less energy efficient, but recent research has proven this not to be true. There is no wasted energy from cycling while standing. 
Cycling on a stationary cycle is frequently advocated as a suitable exercise for rehabilitation particularly for lower limb injury due to the low impact that it has on the joints. In particular cycling is commonly used within knee rehabilitation programs. 
The physical exercise gained from cycling is generally linked with increased health and well-being. According to the World Health Organisation, physical inactivity is second only to tobacco smoking as a health risk in developed countries, and this is associated with many tens of billions of dollars of healthcare costs. Tobacco Smoking is the inhalation of smoke from burned dried or cured leaves of the Tobacco plant most often in the form of a Cigarette.  The WHO's report suggests that increasing physical activity is a public health 'best buy', and that cycling is a 'highly suitable activity' for this purpose. The charity Sustrans reports that investment in cycling provision can give a 20:1 return from health and other benefits. Sustrans is a British charity which promotes Sustainable transport.  It has been estimated that, on average, approximately 20 life-years are gained from the health benefits of road bicycling for every life-year lost through injury. 
Cycling is not generally considered as a high-risk activity.  In the UK, casualty rates per kilometre are comparable with walking, but are higher than for car occupants. Most cycle deaths result from a collision with a car or heavy goods vehicle.  A Danish study in 2000 concluded that cycling to work was linked to a 40% reduction in mortality rate; this included all causes of death, including road deaths. 
Injuries can be divided into two types:
Acute physical trauma includes injuries to the head and extremities resulting from falls and collisions. In Medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of a rapid onset a short course (as opposed to a chronic course Since a large percentage of the collisions between motor and pedal vehicles occur at night, bicycle lighting is required for safety when bicycling at night. Bicycle lighting has two purposes seeing and being seen There are many types of Bicycle lights available each with its own advantages and disadvantages Bicycle safety is the use of practices designed to reduce risk associated with Cycling.
The most common cycling overuse injury occurs in the knees, affecting cyclists at all levels. These are caused by many factors:
Overuse injuries, including chronic nerve damage at weight bearing locations, can occur as a result of repeatedly riding a bicycle for extended periods of time. Damage to the ulnar nerve in the palm, carpal tunnel in the wrist, the genitourinary tract or bicycle seat neuropathy may result from overuse. In Human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve which runs near the Ulna bone Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS or median neuropathy at the wrist is a medical condition in which the Median nerve is compressed at the Wrist, leading
Note that overuse is a relative term, and capacity varies greatly between individuals. Someone starting out in cycling must be careful to increase length and frequency of cycling sessions slowly, starting for example at an hour or two per day, or a hundred miles or kilometers per week. Muscular pain is a normal by-product of the training process, but joint pain and numbness are early signs of overuse injury.
Cycling has been linked to sexual impotence due to pressure on the perineum from the seat, but fitting a proper sized seat prevents this effect.  In extreme cases, Pudendal Nerve Entrapment can be a source of intractable perineal pain. Pudendal nerve entrapment ( PNE) is a source of Chronic pain, in which the Pudendal nerve (located in the Pelvis) is entrapped or compressed  Some cyclists with induced pudendal nerve pressure neuropathy gained relief from improvements in saddle position and riding techniques. 
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has investigated the potential health effects of prolonged bicycling in police bicycle patrol units, including the possibility that some bicycle saddles exert excessive pressure on the urogenital area of cyclists, restricting blood flow to the genitals. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (or NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations NIOSH is currently investigating whether saddles developed without protruding noses (which remove the pressure from the urogenital area) will alleviate any potential health problems. 
Riding a Recumbent bicycle or quadricycle where ergonomic principles are more closely respected will largely address these health issues, particularly those related to chronic nerve damage at weight bearing locations, simply because the body is supported in the normal sitting position. A Quadricycle is a four-wheeled human-powered vehicle. It is also referred to as a quadracycle, quadcycle, quadrocycle or as a four-wheel Ergonomics is the Scientific discipline concerned with Designing according to the human needs and the profession that applies theory principles data and methods
Also your back can suffer from strain; this can be induced by pushing big gears, incorrect positioning on the bike, poor core strength and a poor riding style.
Cycling Advocacy & Safety
Sports-related cycling and fast-paced recreation
Utility cycling and slow recreation
Ken Kifer ( October 23, 1945 &ndash September 14, 2003) was a Writer, Bicyclist and Webmaster. Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.