Panoramic View of Cusco from Sacsayhuaman
|Nickname: La Ciudad Imperial (The Imperial City)|
Location in Peru
|Founded||1100 A.D. 1st|
|- Mayor||Marina Sequeiros Montesinos|
|Elevation||3,310 m (10,860 ft)|
|- Total||319,422 (2,002)|
|Time zone||PET (UTC-5)|
|- Summer (DST)||PET (UTC-5)|
|City of Cuzco*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Region†||Latin America and the Caribbean|
|Inscription||1983 (7th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Cusco (also spelled Cuzco, and in the local Quechua language as Qusqu IPA: ['qos.qo]) is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley (Sacred Valley) of the Andes mountain range. The Rainbow flag of Cusco is the official flag of Cusco, Peru. A nickname is a Name of an entity or thing that is not its Proper name. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Cusco ( Quechua: Qusqu suyu) is a region in Peru. It is bordered by the Ucayali Region on the north the Madre de Dios and Cusco Province is the smallest of thirteen provinces in the Cusco Region in the southern highlands of Peru. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit UTC−5 is the Time offset used in the North American Eastern Time Zone during Standard time and in the North American Central Time Zone during Daylight saving time ( DST UTC−5 is the Time offset used in the North American Eastern Time Zone during Standard time and in the North American Central Time Zone during A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating Telephone number ranges to countries regions areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The Urubamba Valley is located in Peru below the sacred city of Machu Picchu. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. It is the capital of the Cusco Region as well as the Cusco Province. Cusco ( Quechua: Qusqu suyu) is a region in Peru. It is bordered by the Ucayali Region on the north the Madre de Dios and Cusco Province is the smallest of thirteen provinces in the Cusco Region in the southern highlands of Peru. The city has a population of about 300,000, triple the figure of 20 years ago. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cusco, its altitude is around 3,300 m (10,800 ft). Cusco is the historic capital of the Inca empire. The Inca Empire (or Inka Empire) was the largest empire in Pre-Columbian America.
Upon the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors, the Quechua name ("Qosqo") was transliterated into Spanish as "Cusco", which is how it appears on maps from the 17th and 18th centuries. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America.  On maps from the 19th century (as early as 1810) and through the mid-20th century (until at least 1976), the name appears as "Cuzco". Today, in official Peruvian cartography the name has returned to the original transliteration: Cusco, with an S rather than a Z. The Z version of the name is still used in some official circumstances, such as the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites, but the S version is official usage in English. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex 
The Killke occupied the region from 900 to 1200 A. D. , prior to the arrival of the Incas in the 1200s. Archaeologists discovered, on March 13, 2008, the ruins of an ancient temple, roadway and irrigation systems at Sacsayhuaman, a famed fortress overlooking the Inca capital of Cuzco. Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Sacsayhuamán (also known as Saksaq Waman is an Inca walled complex near the old city of Cusco, at an altitude of 3701 m Previous carbon-14 dating of Sacsayhuaman revealed that the Killke culture constructed the fortress in the 1100s.  In 2007, excavations uncovered another temple on the edge of the fortress, indicating religious as well as military use of the facility. 
Cusco was the capital of the Inca Empire (1200s-1532). Inca empire|Cusco History Inca mythology|Inca historyThe Inca people began as a tribe in the Cuzco area around the 12th century AD The Inca Empire (or Inka Empire) was the largest empire in Pre-Columbian America. The Inca Empire (or Inka Empire) was the largest empire in Pre-Columbian America. Many believe that the city was planned to be shaped like a puma. The cougar ( Puma concolor) also puma, mountain lion, or panther, depending on region is a Mammal of the Felidae family The city had two sectors: the urin and hanan, which were further divided to each encompass two of the four provinces, Chinchasuyu (NW), Antisuyu (NE), Qontisuyu (SW) and Collasuyu (SE). Chinchasuyu was the northwestern provincial region of the Tawantin Suyu, or Inca Empire Anti Suyu is the eastern part of the Inca Empire which bordered with modern-day Upper Amazon region where the Anti inhabited Kunti Suyu or Contisuyu was the southwestern provincial region of the Inca Empire. Qulla Suyu (also Collasuyu) was the southeastern provincial region of the Inca Empire. A road led from each of these quarters to the corresponding quarter of the empire. Each local leader was required to build a house in the city and live part of the year in Cusco, but only in the quarter of Cusco that corresponded to the quarter of the empire in which he had territory. After Pachacuti, when an Inca died his title went to one son and his property was given to a corporation controlled by his other relatives (a process called split inheritance), so each title holder had to build a new house and add new lands to the empire, in order to own the land his family needed to maintain after his death. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (or Pachacutec) was the ninth Sapa Inca (1438-1471/1472 of the Kingdom of Cusco, which he transformed into the empire The God Emperor of the Inca Empire ( Quechua: Inka Qhapaq) of the Andes (the area including modern Peru, Ecuador, and
According to Inca legend, the city was built by Sapa Inca Pachacuti, the man who transformed the Kingdom of Cusco from a sleepy city-state into the vast empire of Tahuantinsuyu. The God Emperor of the Inca Empire ( Quechua: Inka Qhapaq) of the Andes (the area including modern Peru, Ecuador, and Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (or Pachacutec) was the ninth Sapa Inca (1438-1471/1472 of the Kingdom of Cusco, which he transformed into the empire But archaeological evidence points to a slower, more organic growth of the city beginning before Pachacuti. There was however a city plan, and two rivers were channeled around the city.
The first Spaniards arrived in the city on November 15, 1533. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro officially discovered Cusco on March 23, 1534, naming it the "Very noble and great city of Cusco". This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Francisco Pizarro González 1st Marqués de los Atabillos (c 1471 or 1476 &ndash 26 June 1541 was a Spanish Conquistador, conqueror of the Incan Empire Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. The many buildings constructed after the Spanish conquest are of Spanish influence with a mix of Inca architecture, including the Santa Clara and San Blas barrios. The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of forty (40 Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca The Spanish undertook the construction of a new city on the foundations of the old Inca city, replacing temples with churches and palaces with mansions for the conquerors. During the colony, Cusco was very prosperous thanks to the agriculture, cattle raising, mining as well as the trade with Spain. Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516-1700 when this country was ruled by the Habsburg dynasty (also associated to This allowed the construction of many churches and convents, and even a cathedral, university and Archbishopric. In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead Often, Spanish buildings were juxtaposed atop the massive stone walls built by the Inca.
A major earthquake in 1950 badly destroyed the Dominican Priory and Church of Santo Domingo, which were built on top of the impressive Coricancha (Temple of the Sun). The Coricancha (from the Quechua words Quri Kancha meaning 'Golden Courtyard' originally named Inti Kancha (' Temple of the Sun' was the most The city's Inca architecture, however, withstood the earthquake. Many of the old Inca walls were thought to have been lost after the earthquake, but the granite walls of the Coricancha were exposed, as well as many walls throughout the city. While some wanted to restore the buildings to their colonial splendor, a contingent of Cusco citizens urged city officials to retain the exposed walls. Eventually they won out. Cusco was also hit by a major earthquake in 1650.
The original Inca city, said to have been founded in the 11th century, was sacked by Pizarro in 1535. There are still remains, however, of the palace of the Incas, the Temple of the Sun and the Temple of the Virgins of the Sun. There are still Inca building remains and foundations, which in some cases have proved to be stronger than the foundations built in present-day Peru. Among the most noteworthy buildings of the city is the cathedral of Santo Domingo.
The major nearby Inca sites are Pachacuti's presumed winter home, Machu Picchu, which can be reached on foot by a Inca trail or by train; the "fortress" at Ollantaytambo; and the "fortress" of Sacsayhuaman. Machu Picchu (Machu Pikchu "Old Peak" 'mɑtʃu 'piktʃu is a Pre-Columbian Inca site located 2400 meters (7875 ft above sea level Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system, or Qhapaq Ñan was the most extensive Ollantaytambo is a town and an Inca archaeological site in southern Peru some 60 kilometers northwest of the city of Cusco. Sacsayhuamán (also known as Saksaq Waman is an Inca walled complex near the old city of Cusco, at an altitude of 3701 m
Other less visited ruins include: Inca Wasi, the highest of all Inca sites at 3,980 m (13,134 ft); Old Vilcabamba the capital of the Inca after the capture of Cusco; the sculpture garden at Chulquipalta (aka Chuquipalta, Ñusta España, The White Rock, Yurak Rumi); as well as Huillca Raccay, Patallacta, Choquequirao, Moray and many others. This article is about ruins in Architecture; for other meanings see Ruins (disambiguation. Vilcabamba was a city founded by Manco Inca in 1539 and was the last refuge of the Inca Empire until it fell to the Spaniards in 1572 signalling the end A sculpture garden is an outdoor garden dedicated to the presentation of Sculpture, usually several permanently-sited works in durable materials in landscaped surroundings Choquequirao ( Southern Quechua: Chuqi K'iraw Cradle of Gold is a partly excavated ruined city of the Inca in the south of Peru Moray is a town in Peru approximately 50 km Northwest of Cuzco near the town of Maras that is noted for a large complex of unusual Inca ruins
The surrounding area, located in the Huatanay Valley, is strong in agriculture, including corn, barley, quinoa, tea and coffee and gold mining. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for For the town with a similar name see Quinua Peru. "Quinoa" is also a title of a 1992 music album by Tangerine Dream. Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79
Thanks to remodelling, Cusco's main stadium, Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega, attracted many more tourists during South America's continental soccer championship, the Copa América 2004 held in Peru. The Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega is Cusco 's principal Stadium and the home venue of the local team Cienciano. The Copa América 2004 was a football tournament held in Peru, from July 6 to July 25, 2004. The stadium is home to one of the country's most successful soccer clubs, Cienciano. Club Cienciano del Cusco is a Football (soccer club from Cuzco, Peru. Cusco's local team has made a name for itself in the world of club soccer, as it has won several international competitions in South America. However, it has yet to achieve such success in its home country. Nonetheless, it is still considered to be one of the best teams in Peru. The team is greatly supported throughout Cusco, and a match to the people of Cusco is quite important. Men that don't have a television will stand in the street and watch the game on televisions in shop windows. The tickets are very popular and involve big queues.
The city is served by Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport.
|Climate chart for Cusco|
|temperatures in °C • precipitation totals in mm|
source: BBC Weather
Cusco is one of the andean cities of Peru where visitors may taste many spices, of different origins, and agricultural produce, mostly organic, treated and grown in environmental friendly and traditional ways, frequently using ancient techniques such as the "Chaquitajlla" (hands and foot soil remover). As headquarters to the Inca Empire, Cusco was always an important agricultural production region, and a natural reserve for thousands of Peruvian originary species, including hundreds of native potato varieties. The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae
During recent years, driven by Peruvian and foreign citizens, Cusco has began to host many fusion and neo-andean food places where traditional andean taste is found fusioned with modern techniques and ingredients, delivering a very innovative, exciting and trendy cuisine. 
Plaza de Armas
Plaza de Armas
The Church of La Compañia on the Plaza de Armas