The Culture of Vietnam is one of the oldest of such in the Southeast Asia region. Although Vietnam lies geographically in Southeast Asia, long periods of Chinese domination and influence has resulted in the emergence of many East Asian characteristics in Vietnamese culture, and generally Vietnam is said to be part of the East Asian cultural sphere, known widely as Chinese cultural sphere. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The history of Vietnam begins around 2700 years ago Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 Sinosphere, also known as Chinese world, Chinese cultural sphere or Chinese-character cultural sphere ( a term coined by linguist James Matisoff
Despite considerable foreign influence, Vietnamese people have managed to retain many distinct native customs which have always played a vital role in daily Vietnamese life throughout the millennia. The Vietnamese people (người Việt or vi ''người Kinh'' are an Ethnic group originating from what is now northern Vietnam and southern China. While Chinese culture has the largest foreign influence on traditional Vietnamese culture, there is also a much smaller influence from the Cham and later Western cultures (most notably that of France, Russia and the United States). The kingdom of Champa ( Chăm Pa in Vietnamese or Chiêm Thành in Hán Việt records was an Indianized kingdom and controlled what Western culture (sometimes equated with Western Civilization) are terms which are used to refer to Cultures of European origin This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
In terms of prehistory, most Vietnamese historians consider the ancient Dong Son culture to be one of the defining aspects of early Vietnamese civilization. The Đông Sơn culture was a prehistoric Iron Age culture that was centered at the Red River Valley of northern Vietnam. Vietnamese Traditional Foods Pho bo is a Vietnamese beef and noodle soup which is often eaten for breakfast, but also makes a satisfying lunch or light dinner. The boiling stock, fragrant with spices and sauces, is poured over the noodles, bean sprouts and scallions, and it poaches the paper-thin slices of raw beef just before serving.
About 74% of Vietnamese currently live in rural areas, and although many are being influenced by the process of westernization, traditional rural customs and traditions still play a vital role in shaping the culture of Vietnam. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time Westernization or occidentalization (from occident, see wiktionary) is a process whereby societies come under or adopt the Western Vietnamese really give consideration to protect and develop these traditions . Travelling to Vietnam means going on a trip to explore a different interesting culture.
In terms of societal levels of organization, the two most important units are làng (village) and nước (country). Vietnamese people usually say that "làng goes hand in hand with nước". Intermediate organizational units like the huyện (district) and tỉnh (province) are not as important. The culture is like a vast ocean of people.
In rural Vietnam, kinship plays an important role. If it can be said that Western cultures value individualism, then it can also be said that Eastern cultures value the roles of family and clan. Western culture (sometimes equated with Western Civilization) are terms which are used to refer to Cultures of European origin The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various Cultures social structures and philosophical systems of " the East " Comparing with Eastern cultures, Chinese culture values family over clan while Vietnamese culture values clan over family. The Culture of China (traditional Chinese 中國文化 simplified Chinese 中国文化 is home to one of the world's oldest and most complex Civilizations covering a history Each clan has a patriarch, clan altar, and death commemorations attended by the whole clan.
Most inhabitants are related by blood. That fact is still seen in village names such as Đặng Xá (place for the Đặng clan), Châu Xá, Lê Xá, so on so forth. In the Western highlands the tradition of many families in a clan residing in a longhouse is still popular. In the majority of rural Vietnam today one can still see three or four generations living under one roof.
Because kinship has an important role in society, there is a complex hierarchy of relationships. In Vietnamese society, there are nine distinct generations. Virtually all commemorations and celebrations within a clan follow the principles of these nine generations. Younger persons might have a higher position in the family hierarchy than an older person and still must be respected as an elder.
This complex system of relationships is conveyed particularly through the Vietnamese language, which has an extensive array of honorifics to signify the status of the speaker in regards to the person they are speaking to. Vietnamese ( tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ) formerly known under French colonization as Annamese ( see Annam) An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect when used in addressing or referring to a person
Historically, the so-called Tam Giáo ("triple religion"), characterizing the East Asian intricate mixture between Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism has always had a large impact on Vietnamese society and philosophy. The earliest established religions in Vietnam are Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism (called the "triple religion" or Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions Of the three, Vietnamese Buddhism has always been the most popular with commoners. Buddhism came to Vietnam in the first century CE By the end of the second century Vietnam developed a major Buddhist centre in the region commonly known as the Luy Lâu
Besides the "triple religion", Vietnamese life was also profoundly influenced by the practice of ancestor worship as well as native animism. Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals Most Vietnamese people, regardless of religious denomination, practice ancestor worship and have an ancestor altar at their home or business, a testament to the emphasis Vietnamese culture places on filial duty.
Along with obligations to clan and family, education has always played a vital role in Vietnamese culture. In the old days, scholars were placed at the top of society. Men not born of noble blood could only wish to elevate their status by means of studying for a rigorous Imperial examination which could potentially open doors to a position in the government, granting them power and prestige as Mandarin officials. The Imperial examinations ( in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the state's Bureaucracy. A Mandarin was a Bureaucrat in Imperial China, and also in the monarchist days of Vietnam where the system of Imperial examinations and
In the past, both men and women were expected to be married at quite young ages (by today's standards). The traditional Vietnamese wedding is one of the most important ceremonies in Vietnamese culture, with influence from Confucian and Buddhist Ideologies Marriages were generally arranged by the parents and extended family, with the children having little to no say in the matter.
In modern Vietnam, this has changed completely as people choose their own marriage-partners based on love, and in consideration primarily to their own needs and wants.
The traditional Vietnamese wedding is one of the most important of traditional Vietnamese occasions. The traditional Vietnamese wedding is one of the most important ceremonies in Vietnamese culture, with influence from Confucian and Buddhist Ideologies Regardless of westernization, many of the age-old customs practiced in a traditional Vietnamese wedding continue to be celebrated by both Vietnamese in Vietnam and overseas, often combining both western and eastern elements. Westernization or occidentalization (from occident, see wiktionary) is a process whereby societies come under or adopt the Western
Vietnamese cuisine is extremely diverse, often divided into three main categories, each pertaining to Vietnam's three main regions (north, central and south). Vietnamese wine is Wine produced in the Southeast Asian country of Vietnam. It is mainly based on rice, soy sauce, and fish sauce. Its characteristic flavor is sweet (sugar), spicy (Serrano peppers), and flavored by a variety of mints.
Vietnam also has a large variety of noodles and noodle soups. Different regions invented different types of noodles, varying in shapes, tastes, colours, etc. One of the nation's most famous type of noodles is phở (pronounced "fuh"), which consists of rice noodles and beef soup (sometimes chicken soup), as well as many special ingredients. Phở (fɤ̂ in Vietnamese; in English written pho and typically) is a traditional Vietnamese Phở is meant to be savored, incorporating several different flavors: the sweet flavor of beef, sour lemons, salty fish sauce, and fresh vegetables. This cuisine originated from North Vietnam, and has reached a level of worldwide popularity.
Currently, Vietnamese cuisine has been gaining popularity and can be found widely in many other countries such as the United States, Australia, Canada, South Korea, Laos, Japan, China, Malaysia, and France. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Vietnamese cuisine is recognized for its strict, sometimes choosy selection of ingredients. A chef preparing authentic Vietnamese cuisine may incorporate the ingredients provided in these countries, but generally will prefer ingredients native to Vietnam.
In feudal Vietnam, clothing was one of the most important marks of social status and strict dress codes were enforced. Clothing is an aspect of Human physical appearance, and like other aspects of human physical appearance it has social significance
Commoners had a limited choice of similarly plain and simple clothes for every day use, as well as being limited in the colors they were allowed to use. For a period, commoners were not allowed to wear clothes with dyes other than black, brown or white (with the exception of special occasions such as festivals), but in actuality these rules could change often based upon the whims of the current ruler.
The Áo tứ thân or "4-part dress" is one such example of an ancient dress widely worn by commoner women, along with the Áo yếm bodice which accompanied it. The Áo tứ thân or “4-part dress” is one out of several traditional Vietnamese costumes Peasants across the country also gradually came to wear silk pajama-like costumes, known as "Áo cánh" in the north and Áo bà ba in the south. Áo bà ba (or Vietnamese Silk Pajamas) is a traditional Vietnamese costume
The headgear of peasants often included a plain piece of cloth wrapped around the head (generally called Khăn đống), or the stereotypical Nón lá (conical hat). Headgear, headwear or headdress is the name given to any element of Clothing which is worn on one's head. The conical hat, sedge hat, rice hat, paddy hat or coolie hat is a simple style of Straw Hat originating in East For footwear peasants would often go barefoot whereas sandals and shoes were reserved for the aristocracy and royalty.
Monarchs had the exclusive right to wear the color gold, while nobles wore red or purple. Each member of the royal court had an assortment of different formal gowns they would wear at a particular ceremony, or for a particular occasion. The rules governing the fashion of the royal court could change dynasty by dynasty, thus Costumes of the Vietnamese court were quite diverse.
The most popular and widely-recognized Vietnamese national costume is the Áo dài, which is worn nowadays mostly by women, although men do wear Áo dài on special occasions such as weddings and funerals. National costume, also known as national dress, regional costume or folk dress, expresses an identity through Costume which usually Áo dài is similar to the Chinese Qipao, consisting of a long gown with a slit on both sides, worn over silk pants. The cheongsam is a body-hugging (modified in Shanghai) one-piece Chinese Dress for women It is elegant in style and comfortable to wear, and likely derived in the 18th century or in the royal court of Huế. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system ( 化 in Chữ Nôm) is the capital city of Thừa Thiên - Huế province, Vietnam. Áo dài is made compulsory in many senior high schools in Vietnam, and some colleges. Some female office workers (e. g. receptionists, secretaries, tour guides) are also required to wear Áo dài.
In daily life, the traditional Vietnamese styles are now replaced by Western styles. Traditional clothing is worn instead on special occasions, with the exception of the white Áo dài commonly seen with high school girls in Vietnam.
See also List of traditional Vietnamese handicraft villages. In the past after harvest time Vietnamese people made handicraft works to meet their own needs
Traditional Vietnamese art is art practiced in Vietnam or by Vietnamese artists, from ancient times (including the elaborate Dong Son drums) to post-Chinese domination art which was strongly influenced by Chinese Buddhist art, among other philosophies such as Taoism and Confucianism. Vietnamese art is art created in Vietnam or by Vietnamese artists from ancient times to the present The Nguyễn Dynasty (Nhà Nguyễn Hán Việt: Nguyễn triều 阮朝 was the last ruling family of Vietnam. Vietnamese art is art created in Vietnam or by Vietnamese artists from ancient times to the present Dong Son drums (also called Heger Type I drums) are Bronze Drums fabricated by the Dong Son culture, in the Red River Delta of northern The history of Vietnam begins around 2700 years ago Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 Buddhist art originated on the Indian subcontinent following the historical life of Gautama Buddha, 6th to 5th century BCE and thereafter evolved by contact with Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B The art of Champa and France also played a smaller role later on. The kingdom of Champa ( Chăm Pa in Vietnamese or Chiêm Thành in Hán Việt records was an Indianized kingdom and controlled what For practical purposes the history of French art has been divided into a series of separate articles accessible through the template to the right
The Chinese influence on Vietnamese art extends into Vietnamese pottery and ceramics, calligraphy, and traditional architecture. Vietnamese pottery refers to Pottery designed or produced in Vietnam. Currently, Vietnamese lacquer paintings have proven to be quite popular.
Calligraphy has had a long history in Vietnam, previously using Chinese characters along with Chu Nom. The art of Calligraphy is widely practiced and revered in the East Asian Civilizations that use or used Chinese characters. A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese ( Chữ Nôm ( IPA: /cɨ3ˀ5 nom33/ chữ Nôm in Unicode: 字[[wikt 喃|喃]]/ 𡨸 喃/ 𡦂 喃 chữ Nôm in Unicode However, most modern Vietnamese calligraphy instead uses the Roman-character based Quoc Ngu, which has proven to be very popular. The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters in collating order Description The Vietnamese alphabet called Chữ Quốc Ngữ
In the past, with literacy in the old character-based writing systems of Vietnam being restricted to scholars and elites, calligraphy nevertheless still played an important part in Vietnamese life. On special occasions such as the Lunar New Year, people would go to the village teacher or scholar to make them a calligraphy hanging (often poetry, folk sayings or even single words). This article is about the Vietnamese holiday For the 1968 military operation that began on that holiday see Tết Offensive. People who could not read or write also often commissioned scholars to write prayers which they would burn at temple shrines. A temple (from the Latin word Templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual activities such as prayer and sacrifice or analogous rites
See also Vietnamese literature
Traditional Vietnamese music and theatre is extremely diverse, consisting of many different styles varying from region to region. Vietnamese literature is Literature, both oral and written created largely by Vietnamese-speaking people although Francophone Vietnamese and English-speaking Vietnamese Traditional Vietnamese music is highly diverse and syncretistic, combining native and foreign influences Some of the most widely known genres include:
Vietnam has 54 different ethnics, each with their own traditional dance. Traditional Vietnamese dance includes several different forms Among the ethnic Vietnamese majority, there are several traditional dances performed widely at festivals and other special occasions, such as the lion dance. Lion dance ( is a form of traditional Dance in Chinese culture, in which performers mimic a lion's movements in a lion costume
In the imperial court there also developed throughout the centuries a series of complex court dances which require great skill. Some of the more widely known are the imperial lantern dance, fan dance, and platter dance, among others.
Water Puppetry is a distinct Vietnamese art which had its origins in the 10th century. Múa rối nước is Vietnamese water puppetry Múa rối nước literally means "puppets that dance on water In Water Puppetry a split-bamboo screen obscures puppets which stand in water, and are manipulated using long poles hidden beneath the water. Epic story lines are played out with many different puppets, often using traditional scenes of Vietnamese life. The puppets are made from quality wood, such as the South East Asian Jackfruit tree. See also Mangifera caesia The jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) is a species of Tree of the mulberry family ( Moraceae) Each puppet is carefully carved, and then painted with numerous successive layers of paint to protect the puppets.
Despite nearly dying out in the 20th century, Water Puppetry has been recognised by the Vietnamese Government as an important part of Vietnam's cultural heritage. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Today, puppetry is commonly performed by professional puppeteers, who typically are taught by their elders in rural areas of Vietnam. It is now extremely popular with tourists, and is performed at the National Museum in Ho Chi Minh city and in specialist theatres. In 2007 a Water Puppet troupe toured the USA to acclaim. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Vietnamese martial arts is highly developed from the country's long history of warfare and attempts to defend itself from foreign occupation. This article concentrates on the martial arts aspect of Vietnam Although most heavily influenced by Chinese martial arts, it has developed its own characteristics throughout the millennia in combination with other influences from its neighbors. Kung fu and wushu are popular terms that have become synonymous with Chinese Martial arts. Vietnamese martial arts is deeply spiritual due to the influence of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, and is strongly reliant on the "Viet Vo Dao" (philosophy of Vietnamese martial arts). Việt Võ Đạo (越武道 is the philosophy behind many Vietnamese Martial arts. It is probably most famous for its scissor kicks.
The general Vietnamese term for martial arts is "Võ-Thuật", which encompasses all of the countless styles. Some of the more popular include:
Vietnamese martial arts remains relatively unknown in the world today when compared to its counterparts from China, Japan, Korea or Thailand. Vovinam Viêt Võ Dao is a Vietnamese martial art. Vovinam is practiced with and without Weapons It is based on the principle of harmony Võ Bình Định is a Vietnamese Martial art. Vo (Võ "Martial Arts" Qwan Ki Do (Quán khí đạo is a Vietnamese Martial art. Qwan Ki Do mostly uses hand- foot- jumping and scissor techniques animal forms China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj However, this is seeing a definite change as schools teaching various styles of Vietnamese martial arts are starting to pop up all over the world, notably in countries such as Spain. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
Vietnam has a number of UNESCO-listed World Heritage Sites, as well as cultural relics deemed as Intangible heritage. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex The notion of intangible cultural heritage (ICH emerged in the 90s as a counter part to the World Heritage that focusses mainly on tangible aspects of culture These are split into specific categories:
Cultural heritage sites
Natural heritage sites
Intangible Cultural Heritage
There are a number of other potential world heritage sites, as well as intangible cultural heritages which Vietnam has completed documents on for UNESCO's recognition in the future. The Space of Gong Culture in the Central Highlands of Vietnam ( Vietnamese: Không gian văn hóa Cồng Chiêng Tây Nguyên) was recognized by UNESCO as
Vietnam celebrates many holidays, including traditional holidays which have been celebrated in Vietnam for thousands of years, along with modern holidays imported predominantly from western countries. The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of
Among the traditional holidays, the two most important and widely celebrated are the Lunar new year (Tết), followed by the Mid-autumn lantern festival (Tết Trung Thu), although the latter has been losing ground in recent years. This article is about the Vietnamese holiday For the 1968 military operation that began on that holiday see Tết Offensive. The Mid-Autumn Festival, also known as the Moon Festival, or in Chinese Zhongqiu Jie ( is a popular harvest festival celebrated by Chinese
VIETNAMESE FOOD Pho bo is a Vietnamese beef and noodle soup which is often eaten for breakfast, but also makes a satisfying lunch or light dinner. The boiling stock, fragrant with spices and sauces, is poured over the noodles, bean sprouts and scallions, and it poaches the paper-thin slices of raw beef just before serving.
|Date||English Name||Local Name||Remarks|
|January 1||New Year's||Tết dương lịch||New years day. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC The New Year is an event that happens when a Culture celebrates the end of one Year and the beginning of the next year|
|Between late January - late February||Tết (Lunar New Year)||Tết Nguyên Đán||Largest holiday of the year, officially first three days of lunar calendar, but celebrations are held for the week before and after those three days|
|April 30||Liberation Day||Ngày miền Nam hoàn toàn giải phóng, và ngày thống nhất Việt Nam. This article is about the Vietnamese holiday For the 1968 military operation that began on that holiday see Tết Offensive. This article is about the Vietnamese holiday For the 1968 military operation that began on that holiday see Tết Offensive. A lunar calendar is a Calendar that is based on cycles of the Moon phase. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Liberation Day is a Day, often a Public holiday, that marks the liberation of a place similar to an Independence day.||The day Saigon's liberated, leading to the South Vietnam government's dissolvement and Vietnam's unification.|
|May 1||Labour Day||Ngày Quốc tế Lao động||Celebrates the economic and social achievements of workers. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Labour Day is an annual Holiday celebrated all over the world that resulted from efforts of|
|September 2||National Day||Quốc khánh||Ho Chi Minh's speech in 1945|
|Date||English name||Local name|
|March 8||International Women's Day||Quốc tế Phụ nữ|
|November 20||Teacher's Day||Ngày Nhà giáo Việt Nam|
|December 25||Christmas||Giáng sinh/Nôen|
|15/1 (lunar)||Full moon of the 1st month||Rằm tháng giêng|
|10/3 (lunar)||Hung Vuong Kings Conmemoration Day||Ngày Giổ Tổ Hùng Vương|
|15/4 (lunar)||Buddha's Birthday||Lễ Phật Đản|
|5/5 (lunar)||Midyear Festival||Tết Đoan ngọ|
|15/7 (lunar)||Full moon of the 7th month||Rằm tháng bảy|
|15/8 (lunar)||Mid-Autumn Festival||Tết Trung thu|
|23/12 (lunar)||Kitchen guardians||Ông Táo chầu trời|
See also List of festivals in Vietnam