Cucumbers grow on vines
|Cucumber, with peel, raw|
Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for 5 oz)
|Energy 20 kcal 70 kJ|
|Percentages are relative to US|
recommendations for adults. Reference Daily Intake (or Recommended Daily Intake ( RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient which was considered (at the time they were defined to be sufficient
Source: USDA Nutrient database
The cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which includes squash, and in the same genus as the muskmelon. This article refers to the Dried fruit shell For the alternative country musical group of a similar name see The Gourds. Cucurbitaceae is a Plant family commonly known as Melons, gourds or cucurbits and includes crops like Cucumbers Squashes generally refer to four species of the genus Cucurbita native to the Mexico and Central America, also called marrows depending A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic Muskmelon ( Cucumis melo) is a species of melon that has been developed into many cultivated varieties Though it technically is a fruit, cucumbers are widely considered vegetables. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however
The cucumber is a creeping vine that roots in the ground and grows up trellises or other supporting frames, wrapping around ribbing with thin, spiraling tendrils. A pergola is a Garden feature forming a shaded walk or passageway of pillars that support cross beams and a sturdy open lattice upon which woody vines are trained The plant has large leaves that form a canopy over the fruit.
The fruit is roughly cylindrical, elongated, with tapered ends, and may be as large as 60 cm long and 10 cm in diameter. A cylinder is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes the Surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given Straight line, the axis Cucumbers grown to be eaten fresh (called slicers) and those intended for pickling (called picklers) are similar. Pickling, also known as brining or corning, is the process of preserving Food by Anaerobic fermentation in Brine (a solution Cucumbers are mainly eaten in the unripe green form. The ripe yellow form normally becomes too bitter and sour.
Having an enclosed seed and developing from a flower, cucumbers are scientifically classified as fruits. Much like tomatoes and squash, however, their sour-bitter flavor contributes to cucumbers being perceived, prepared and eaten as vegetables. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however Still, "vegetable" is a purely culinary term, and there is no conflict in classifying cucumber as both a fruit and a vegetable. Culinary art is the Art of Cooking. The word "culinary" is defined as something related to or connected with cooking or Kitchens A culinarian
A few varieties of cucumber are parthenocarpic, the blossoms creating seedless fruit without pollination. Shoots are new plant growth they can include stems, flowering stems with flower buds leaves In Botany and Horticulture, parthenocarpy (literally meaning virgin fruit is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of Pollination in angiosperms and Gymnosperms is the process that transfers pollen grains, which contain the male Gametes (sperm to where the female Pollination for these varieties degrades the quality. In the US, these are usually grown in greenhouses, where bees are excluded. A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse or hothouse) is a building where plants are cultivated In Europe, they are grown outdoors in some regions, and bees are excluded from these areas. Most cucumber varieties, however, are seeded and require pollination. Thousands of hives of honey bees are annually carried to cucumber fields just before bloom for this purpose. This article refers collectively to all true honey bees for the "common" domesticated honey bee see European honey bee Honey bees Cucumbers may also be pollinated by bumblebees and several other bee species. A bumblebee (or bumble bee) is any member of the Bee Genus Bombus, in the family Apidae; there are over 250 known species primarily
Symptoms of inadequate pollination include fruit abortion and misshapen fruit. Partially pollinated flowers may develop fruit which are green and develop normally near the stem end, but pale yellow and withered at the blossom end.
Traditional varieties produce male blossoms first, then female, in about equivalent numbers. New gynoecious hybrid cultivars produce almost all female blossoms. A cultivar is a cultivated Plant that has been selected and given a unique name because of its decorative or useful characteristics it is usually distinct from similar However, since these varieties do not provide pollen, they must have interplanted a pollenizer variety and the number of beehives per unit area is increased. Pollen is a fine to coarse powder consisting of microgametophytes ( pollen grains) which produce the male Gametes (sperm cells of A pollenizer or polleniser, sometimes pollinizer or polliniser (see spelling differences) is a Plant that provides Pollen Insecticide applications for insect pests must be done very carefully to avoid killing off the insect pollinators. An insecticide is a Pesticide used against Insects in all developmental forms A pollinator is the biotic agent ( vector) that moves Pollen from the male Anthers of a Flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish
There appears to be variability in the human olfactory response to cucumbers, with the majority of people reporting a mild, almost watery flavor or a light melon taste, while a small but vocal minority report a highly repugnant taste, some say almost perfume like. This likely has a genetic basis analogous to the bitter taste, phenylthiocarbamide. Phenylthiocarbamide, also known as PTC, or phenylthiourea, is an Organic compound that either Tastes very bitter, or is virtually
Cucumbers can be pickled for flavor and longer shelf life. A pickled cucumber, most often simply called a pickle in the United States and Canada, is a Cucumber that has been pickled in a A pickled cucumber, most often simply called a pickle in the United States and Canada, is a Cucumber that has been pickled in a As compared to eating cucumbers, pickling cucumbers tend to be shorter, thicker, less regularly-shaped, and have bumpy skin with tiny white- or black-dotted spines. They are never waxed. Color can vary from creamy yellow to pale or dark green. Pickling cucumbers are sometimes sold fresh as “Kirby” or “Liberty” cucumbers. The pickling process removes or degrades much of the nutrient content, especially that of vitamin C. Pickled cucumbers are soaked in vinegar or brine or a combination, often along with various spices. Pickled cucumbers are often referred to simply as "pickles".
Cucumber originated in India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country  Large genetic variety of cucumber has been observed in different parts of India.  The cucumber has been cultivated for at least 3,000 years in Western Asia, and was probably introduced to other parts of Europe by the Romans. Records of cucumber cultivation appear in France in the 9th century, England in the 14th century, and in North America by the mid-16th century.
The cucumber is believed to be native to India, and evidence indicates that it has been cultivated in Western Asia for 3,000 years. The cucumber is also listed among the foods of ancient Ur and the legend of Gilgamesh describes people eating cucumbers. Ur ( Sumerian:urim; Akkadian: ?) is modern Tell el-Mukayyar, Iraq, and was a city in ancient Sumer. Gilgamesh was the son of Lugalbanda and the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II first dynasty of Uruk ruling circa 2600 BC according to the Sumerian king Some sources also state that it was produced in ancient Thrace, and it is certainly part of modern cuisine in Bulgaria and Turkey, parts of which make up that ancient state. Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe From India, it spread to Greece (where it was called “vilwos”) and Italy (where the Romans were especially fond of the crop), and later into China. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The fruit is mentioned in the Bible (Numbers 11:5) as having been freely available in Egypt, even to the enslaved Israelites: We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely/the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The Israelites later came to cultivate the cucumber themselves, and Isaiah 1:8 briefly mentions the method of agriculture - The Daughter of Zion is left/like a shelter in a vineyard/like a hut in a field of melons/like a city under siege. The shelter was for the person who kept the birds away, and guarded the garden from robbers.
The Roman Emperor Tiberius had the cucumber on his table daily during summer and winter. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (or Tiberius I) born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16 42 BC – March 16 AD 37) was the second Roman The Romans reportedly used artificial methods (similar to the greenhouse system) of growing to have it available for his table every day of the year. They would be wheeled out in carts to sit in the sun daily, then taken in to keep them warm, stored under frames or in cucumber houses glazed with oiled cloth known as “specularia”. A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse or hothouse) is a building where plants are cultivated
Pliny the Elder describes the Italian fruit as very small, probably like a gherkin, describing it as a wild cucumber considerably smaller than the cultivated one. The Gherkin (French cornichon) is of the same species as the Cucumber ( Cucumis sativus) but is of a completely different race; this is contrary Pliny also describes the preparation of a medication known as “elaterium”, though some scholars believe that he refers to Cucumis silvestris asininus, a species different from the common cucumber.  Pliny also writes about several other varieties of cucumber, including the Cultivated Cucumber, and remedies from the different types (9 from the cultivated, 5 from the "anguine", and 26 from the "wild". The Romans are reported to have used cucumbers to treat scorpion bites, bad eyesight, and to scare away mice. Wives wishing for children wore them around their waists. They were also carried by the midwives, and thrown away when the child was born.
Charlemagne had cucumbers grown in his gardens in ninth-century France. They were reportedly introduced into England in the early 1300s, lost, then reintroduced approximately 250 years later. The Spaniards (in the person of Christopher Columbus) brought cucumbers to Haiti in 1494. Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: In 1535, Jacques Cartier, a French explorer, found “very great cucumbers” grown on the site of what is now Montreal. Jacques Cartier (December 31 1491&ndashSeptember 1 1557 was a French explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec
Throughout the 1500s, European trappers, traders, bison hunters, and explorers bartered for the products of Native American agriculture. This is an article about an animal For other uses see Bison (disambiguation. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture The tribes of the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains learned from the Spanish how to grow European vegetables. The Great Plains are the broad expanse of Prairie and Steppe which lie east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada Mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, often called the Rockies, are a Mountain range in western North America. The best farmers on the Great Plain were the Mandan Indians in what is now North and South Dakota. The Mandan are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the banks of the Missouri River and two of its tributaries—the Heart and North Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern and Western regions of the United States of America. South Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. They obtained cucumbers and watermelons from the Spanish, and added them to the vegetables they were already growing, including several varieties of corn and beans, pumpkins, squash, and gourd plants. Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ( Thunb) Matsum & Nakai family Cucurbitaceae) refers to both Fruit and Plant of a vine-like (climber Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Bean is a common name for large plant Seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae used for human food or animal Pumpkin is a Gourd -like squash of the genus Cucurbita and the family Cucurbitaceae (which also includes gourds Squashes generally refer to four species of the genus Cucurbita native to the Mexico and Central America, also called marrows depending This article refers to the Dried fruit shell For the alternative country musical group of a similar name see The Gourds. The Iroquois were also growing them when the first Europeans visited them. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse
In 1630, the Reverend Francis Higginson produced a book called, “New England’s Plantation”, in which, describing a garden on Conant’s Island in Boston Harbor known as “The Governor’s Garden”, he states: “The countrie aboundeth naturally with store of roots of great varietie and good to eat. Francis Higginson (1588-1630 was a Colonial American Puritan. Our turnips, parsnips, and carrots are here both bigger and sweeter than is ordinary to be found in England. Here are store of pompions, cowcumbers, and other things of that nature which I know not. . . ”
William Wood also published in 1633’s New England Prospect (published in England) observations he made in 1629 in America: “The ground affords very good kitchin gardens, for Turneps, Parsnips, Carrots, Radishes, and Pompions, Muskmillons, Isquoter-squashes, coucumbars, Onyons, and whatever grows well in England grows as well there, many things being better and larger. ”
In the later 1600s, a prejudice developed against uncooked vegetables and fruits. A number of articles in contemporary health publications state that uncooked plants brought on summer diseases and should be forbidden to children. The cucumber kept this vile reputation for an inordinate period of time: “fit only for consumption by cows”, which some believe is why it gained the name, “cowcumber”.
A copper etching made by Maddalena Bouchard between 1772 and 1793 shows this plant to have smaller, almost bean-shaped fruits, and small yellow flowers. The small form of the cucumber is figured in Herbals of the sixteenth century, but states, ‘if hung in a tube while in blossom, the Cucumber will grow to a most surprising length. ’
Samuel Pepys wrote in his diary on September 22, 1663: “this day Sir W. Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703 was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for Batten tells me that Mr. Newhouse is dead of eating cowcumbers, of which the other day I heard of another, I think. ”
Fredric Hasselquist, in his travels in Asia Minor, Egypt, Cyprus and Palestine in the 1700s, came across the Egyptian or hairy cucumber, Cucumis chate. Fredric Hasselquist ( January 3, 1722 &ndash February 9, 1752) was a Swedish traveller and naturalist. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. It is said by Hasselquist to be the “queen of cucumbers, refreshing, sweet, solid, and wholesome. ” He also states that “they still form a great part of the food of the lower-class people in Egypt serving them for meat, drink and physic. ” George E. Post, in Hastings’s “A Dictionary of the Bible”, states, “It is longer and more slender than the common cucumber, being often more than a foot long, and sometimes less than an inch thick, and pointed at both ends. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin ”
The cucumber is also a natural diuretic which is used in the fitness world by bodybuilders and people trying to cut fat.
In the United States, consumption of pickles has been slowing, while consumption of fresh cucumbers is rising. The Gherkin (French cornichon) is of the same species as the Cucumber ( Cucumis sativus) but is of a completely different race; this is contrary In 1999, the consumption in the US totalled 3 billion pounds of pickles with 171,000 acres (690 km²) of production across 6,821 farms and an average farm value of $361 million.
According to FAO, China produced at least 60% of the global output of cucumber and gherkin in 2005, followed at a distance by Turkey, Russia, Iran and the USA.
A Mediterranean cucumber, whole and cut open. (AA battery placed to compare sizes. )
A Marketmore Ridge cucumber.
An English cucumber.
A deli pickle.
History links and bibliographic references