Cuba and the United States of America have had interest in one another since well before either of their independence movements. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Plans for purchase of the nearby island have been put forward at various times by the United States. As the Spanish influence waned in the Caribbean, the United States gradually gained a position of economic and political dominance over the island, with the vast majority of foreign investment holdings, the bulk of imports and exports in its hands, and a major stake in Cuban political affairs to uphold. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la
Following the Cuban Revolution of 1959 relations deteriorated substantially, and have since been marked by tension and confrontation. The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of the United States proxy ruler General Fulgencio Batista 's regime on January 1, The United States does not have formal diplomatic relations with Cuba and has maintained an embargo which makes it illegal for U. Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states The United States Embargo Against Cuba (described in Cuba as el bloqueo, Spanish for "the Blockade " is an economic commercial and S. corporations to do business with Cuba. U. S. diplomatic representation in Cuba is handled by the United States Interests Section in Havana and a similar Cuban Interests Section remains in Washington, D.C.; both are officially part of the respective embassies of Switzerland. The United States Interests Section of the Embassy of Switzerland in Havana Cuba or USINT Havana (the State Department telegraphic address represents US Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The United States continues to operate a naval base at Guantánamo Bay in Guantánamo Province, a point of contention between the two countries since Cuban independence in 1902. Guantánamo Bay ( Spanish Bahía de Guantánamo) is a bay located in Guantánamo Province at the south-eastern end of Cuba Guantánamo is the easternmost province of Cuba. Its capital is also called Guantánamo.
Relations between the North American mainland and the Spanish colony of Cuba began in the early 18th century through illicit commercial contracts between the European colonies of the New World, trading to elude colonial taxes. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. As both legal and illegal trade increased, Cuba became a comparatively prosperous trading partner in the region, and a center of tobacco and sugar production. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. During this period Cuban merchants increasingly traveled to North American ports, establishing trade contracts that endured for many years.
The rebellion of the thirteen colonies in 1776 provided additional trade opportunities between Cuba and North America. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Spain opened Cuban ports to North American commerce officially in November 1776 and the island became increasingly dependent on that trade.
After the opening of the island to world trade in 1818, Cuban-United States trade agreements began to replace Spanish commercial connections. In 1820 Thomas Jefferson thought Cuba "the most interesting addition which could ever be made to our system of States" and told Secretary of War John C. Calhoun that the United States "ought, at the first possible opportunity, to take Cuba. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18 1782 &ndash March 31 1850 was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during "
In a letter to U. S. Minister to Spain Hugh Nelson, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams described the likelihood of U. John Quincy Adams (July 11 1767 &ndash February 23 1848 was an American diplomat and politician who served as the sixth President of the United States S. "annexation of Cuba" within half a century despite obstacles: "But there are laws of political as well as of physical gravitation; and if an apple severed by the tempest from its native tree cannot choose but fall to the ground, Cuba, forcibly disjoined from its own unnatural connection with Spain, and incapable of self support, can gravitate only towards the North American Union, which by the same law of nature cannot cast her off from its bosom. " In 1854 a secret proposal known as the Ostend Manifesto was devised by U. The Ostend Manifesto was a secret document written in 1854 by U S. diplomats to acquire Cuba from Spain for $130 million. The manifesto was rejected due to objections from anti-slavery campaigners when the plans became public. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies 
By 1877, the United States accounted for 82 percent of Cuba's total exports, and as a monopsonist, was able to control price and hence production levels closely. In Economics, a monopsony (from Ancient Greek μόνος (monos "single" + ὀψωνία (opsōnia "purchase" is a Market form  It was during this period that English Traveller Anthony Trollope observed that "The trade of the country is falling into the hands of foreigners, Havana will soon be as American as New Orleans". Anthony Trollope (April 24 1815 – December 6 1882 became one of the most successful prolific and respected English Novelists of the Victorian era.  North Americans were also increasingly taking up residence on the island, and some districts on the northern shore were said to have more the character of America than Spanish settlements. Between 1878 and 1898 American investors took advantage of deteriorating economic conditions of the Ten Years' War to take over estates they had tried unsuccessfully to buy before while others acquired properties at very low prices. The Ten Years' War ( Guerra de los Diez Años, (1868-1878 also known as the Great War, began on October 10 1868 when sugar mill owner Carlos Manuel de Céspedes  Above all this presence facilitated the integration of the Cuban economy into the North American system and weakened Cuba's ties with Spain.
As Cuban resistance to Spanish rule grew, rebels fighting for independence attempted to get support from U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant. Ulysses S Grant, born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27 1822 &ndash July 23 1885 was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States Grant declined and the resistance was curtailed; though American interests in the region continued. US Secretary of State James G. Blaine wrote in 1881 of Cuba, "that rich island, the key to the Gulf of Mexico, and the field for our most extended trade in the Western Hemisphere, is, though in the hands of Spain, a part of the American commercial system… If ever ceasing to be Spanish, Cuba must necessarily become American and not fall under any other European domination. James Gillespie Blaine ( January 31, 1830 &ndash January 27, 1893) was a U "
After some rebel successes in Cuba's second war of independence in 1897, U. S. President William McKinley offered to buy Cuba for $320 million. William McKinley Jr ( January 29, 1843 September 14, 1901) was the twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last  Rejection of the offer, and an explosion which sunk the American battleship USS Maine in Havana harbor, led to the Spanish-American war. "The Maine" redirects here For the pop punk band see The Maine (band. In Cuba the war became known as "the U. S. intervention in Cuba's War of Independence".  On 10 December 1898 Spain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris and in accordance with the treaty Spain renounced all rights to Cuba. Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed on December 10, 1898, ended the Spanish-American War. The treaty put an end to the Spanish Empire in the Americas marking the beginning of United States expansion and long term political dominance over the region. United States overseas expansion follows the expansion of US frontiers on the North American continent (see Mexican-American War, War of 1812, and Territorial Immediately after the signing of the treaty, the US-owned "Island of Cuba Real Estate Company" opened for business to sell Cuban land to Americans.  U. S. military rule of the island lasted until 1902 when Cuba was finally granted formal independence.
An agreed condition between Cuba and the United States to secure the withdrawal of United States troops from the island was Cuba's adoption of the Platt Amendment. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. The Platt Amendment was a rider appended to the Army Appropriations Act, a United States federal law passed on March 2, 1901, which The amendment was a rider appended to the Army Appropriations Act, a United States federal law passed in March 1901 which was presented to the U.S. Senate by Connecticut Republican Senator Orville H. Platt. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Orville Hitchcock Platt ( July 19, 1827 - April 21, 1905) was a United States Senator from Connecticut. The Platt amendment stipulated that the United States could exercise the right to intervene in Cuban political, economic and military affairs if necessary, and replaced the less specific Teller Amendment. The Teller Amendment was an amendment to a Joint resolution of the United States Congress, enacted on April 20, 1898, in reply to President It was to define the terms of Cuban-U. S. relations for the following 33 years and was bitterly resented by the majority of Cubans. Another consequence of the amendment gave the United States continued use of the southern portion of Guantánamo Bay, where a United States Naval Station had been established in 1898. The lease of the bay was confirmed by the Cuban-American treaty which was signed by the presidents of both nations in February 1903. The Cuban-American Treaty was signed on February 16, 1903 by the first President of Cuba Tomás Estrada Palma, and on February 23, 1903
Despite recognizing Cuba's transition into an independent republic, United States Governor Charles Magoon assumed temporary military rule for three more years between following a rebellion led by Jose Miguel Gomez. Charles Edward Magoon (December 5 1861 – January 14 1920 was an American Lawyer, Judge, Diplomat, and administrator who is best remembered as a José Miguel Gómez ( July 6, 1858 - June 13, 1921) was a Cuban General in the Cuban War of Independence In 1912 U. S. forces returned again to Cuba to quell protests by Afro-Cubans against perceived discrimination. The term Afro-Cuban refers to Cubans of African ancestry and to historical or cultural elements in Cuba thought to emanate from this community By 1926 U. S companies owned 60% of the Cuban sugar industry and imported 95% of the total Cuban crop, and Washington was generally supportive of successive Cuban Governments. However, internal confrontations between the government of Gerardo Machado and political opposition led to a military overthrow by Cuban rebels in 1933. Gerardo Machado y Morales ( September 28, 1871, Camajuani &ndash March 29, 1939, Miami Beach, Florida) U.S. Ambassador Sumner Welles requested U.S. military intervention. Cuba was the last major Spanish colony to gain independence following a lengthy struggle that began in 1868 Benjamin Sumner Welles ( October 14, 1892 &ndash September 24, 1961) was an American government official and diplomat From 1776 to 2008 there have been hundreds of instances of the deployment of United States military forces abroad and domestically President Franklin D. Roosevelt, despite his promotion of the Good Neighbor Policy toward Latin America, ordered 29 warships to Cuba and Key West, alerting U.S. Marines, and bombers for use if necessary. The "Good Neighbor" policy was the Foreign policy of the administration of United States president Franklin D A warship is a Ship that is built and primarily intended for Combat. Key West is a city in Monroe County Florida, United States. The city encompasses Key West, the namesake island the part of Stock Island Machado's replacement, Ramón Grau assumed the Presidency and immediately nullified the Platt amendment. Dr Ramón Grau San Martin ( September 13, 1887 in La Palma, Pinar del Rio, Cuba - July 28, 1969 in This page contains a list of Presidents of Cuba. This page also contains a list of Prime Ministers of Cuba from the creation of that office in 1940 until 1976 when it was abolished In protest, the United States denied recognition to Grau's government, Ambassador Welles describing the new regime as "communistic" and "irresponsible". 
The rise of General Fulgencio Batista in the 1930s to de facto leader and President of Cuba for two terms (1940-44 and 1952-59) led to an era of close co-operation between the governments of Cuba and the United States. General Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (fulˈxensjo βaˈtista i salˈdiβar January 16, 1901 &ndash August 6, 1973) was a Cuban Batista's second spell as President was initiated by a military coup planned in Florida, and U. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the S. President Harry S. Truman quickly recognized Batista's return to rule providing military and economic aid.  The Batista era witnessed the almost complete domination of Cuba's economy by the United States as the number of American corporations continued to swell, though corruption was rife and Havana also became a popular sanctuary for American organized crime figures, notably hosting the infamous Havana Conference in 1946. "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. The Havana Conference of 1946 was a historic of meeting of American mafia and Cosa Nostra leaders in Havana, Cuba. U.S. Ambassador to Cuba Arthur Gardner later described the relationship between the U. Cuba was the last major Spanish colony to gain independence following a lengthy struggle that began in 1868 Arthur Gardner (1889-1967 was a United States foreign Diplomat and American ambassador to Cuba 1953-1957 S. and Batista during his second spell as President:
|“||Batista had always leaned toward the United States. I don't think we ever had a better friend. It was regrettable, like all South Americans, that he was known-although I had no absolute knowledge of it-to be getting a cut, I think is the word for it, in almost all the, things that were done. But, on the other hand, he was doing an amazing job. ||”|
As armed conflict broke out in Cuba between rebels led by Fidel Castro and the Batista government, the U. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until S. was urged to end arms sales to Batista by Cuban president-in-waiting Manuel Urrutia. Manuel Urrutia Lleó ( 8 December 1901 Yaguajay, Las Villas Province &ndash 5 July 1981 New York, Washington made the critical move in March 1958 to prevent sales of rifles to Batista's forces, thus changing the course of the revolution irreversibly towards the rebels. The move was vehemently opposed by U. S. ambassador Earl T. Smith, and led U. Earl Edward Tailer Smith (1903-1991 was a United States foreign Diplomat, Ambassador to Cuba (1957-1959 and mayor of Palm Beach S. state department advisor William Wieland to lament that "I know Batista is considered by many as a son of a bitch. . . but American interests come first. . . at least he was our son of a bitch. "
See also: Cuban Missile Crisis
U. The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba during the Cold War. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower officially recognized the new Cuban government after the 1959 Cuban Revolution which had overthrown the Batista government, but relations between the two governments deteriorated rapidly. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of the United States proxy ruler General Fulgencio Batista 's regime on January 1, Within days Earl T. Smith, U. Earl Edward Tailer Smith (1903-1991 was a United States foreign Diplomat, Ambassador to Cuba (1957-1959 and mayor of Palm Beach S. Ambassador to Cuba, resigned his post to be replaced by Philip Bonsal. Philip Bonsal (1903-1995 was a United States foreign Diplomat and the last United States Ambassador to Cuba. The US government became increasingly concerned by Cuba's agrarian reforms and the nationalization of US owned industries. The agrarian reform laws of Cuba have sought to break up large landholdings and redistribute them to those who worked them to cooperatives and the state Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government Between April 15 and 26th, 1959, Castro and a delegation of representatives visited the U. S. as guests of the Press Club. This visit was perceived by many as a charm offensive on the part of Castro and his recently initiated government, and his visit included laying a wreath at the Lincoln memorial. After a meeting between Fidel Castro and Vice-President Richard Nixon, where Castro outlined his reform plans for Cuba, the US began to impose gradual trade restrictions on the island. On September 4 1959, Ambassador Bonsal met with Cuban Premier Fidel Castro to express “serious concern at the treatment being given to American private interests in Cuba both agriculture and utilities. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until ”
As the reforms continued, trade restrictions on Cuba increased. The U. S. stopped buying Cuban sugar and refused to supply its former trading partner with much needed oil, with a devastating effect on the island's economy. In March 1960, tensions increased when the freighter La Coubre exploded in Havana harbor, killing over 75 people. freighter La Coubre (sometimes erroneously called "Le Coubre" exploded at 310 p Fidel Castro blamed the United States and compared the incident to the sinking of the Maine, though admitting he could provide no evidence for his accusation. "The Maine" redirects here For the pop punk band see The Maine (band.  That same month, President Eisenhower quietly authorized the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to organize, train, and equip Cuban refugees as a guerrilla force to overthrow Castro. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all 
Each time the Cuban government nationalized American properties, the American government took countermeasures, resulting in the prohibition of all exports to Cuba on October 19, 1960. Consequently, Cuba began to consolidate trade relations with the Soviet Union, leading the US to break off all remaining official diplomatic relations. Later that year, U. S. diplomats Edwin L. Sweet and William G. Friedman were arrested and expelled from the island having been charged with "encouraging terrorist acts, granting asylum, financing subversive publications and smuggling weapons”.
In 1961 Cuba resisted an armed invasion by about 1,500 CIA trained Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs. The term " Cuban exile " refers to the many Cubans who have sought alternative political or economic conditions outside the island dating back to the Ten Years' War The Bay of Pigs Invasion (aka Playa Girón) was an unsuccessful attempt by a U  President John F Kennedy's complete assumption of responsibility for the venture, which provoked a popular reaction against the invaders, proved to be a further propaganda boost for the Cuban government. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of  The U. S. began the formulation of new plans aimed at destabilizing the Cuban government. These activities were collectively known as the “The Cuban Project” (also known as Operation Mongoose). The Cuban Project (also known as Operation Mongoose) is the general name for CIA Covert operations and plans developed during the early administration This was to be a co-ordinated program of political, psychological, and military sabotage, involving intelligence operations as well as assassination attempts on key political leaders. The Cuban project also proposed attacks on mainland US targets, hijackings and assaults on Cuban refugee boats to generate U. S. public support for military action against the Cuban government, these proposals were known collectively as Operation Northwoods. Operation Northwoods, or Northwoods, was a False flag Conspiracy plan proposed within the United States government in 1962
A U.S. Senate Select Intelligence Committee report later confirmed over eight attempted plots to kill Castro between 1960 and 1965, as well as additional plans against other Cuban leaders. The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (sometimes referred to as SSCI) is  After weathering the failed Bay of Pigs invasion, Cuba observed as U. S. armed forces staged a mock invasion of a Caribbean island in 1962 named Operation Ortsac. Operation Ortsac was the project name of a possible invasion of Cuba planned by the United States military in 1962 The purpose of the invasion was to overthrow a leader whose name, Ortsac, was Castro spelled backwards.  Castro soon became convinced that the U. S. was serious about invading Cuba leading to a huge military build up on the island. Tensions between the two nations reached their peak in 1962, after U. S. reconnaissance aircraft photographed the Soviet construction of intermediate-range missile sites. The discovery led to the Cuban missile crisis. The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba during the Cold War.
Trade relations also deteriorated in equal measure. In 1962, President John F. Kennedy broadened the partial trade restrictions imposed after the revolution by Eisenhower to a ban on all trade with Cuba, except for non-subsidized sale of foods and medicines. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of A year later travel and financial transactions by U. S. citizens with Cuba was prohibited. The United States embargo against Cuba was to continue in varying forms and is still in operation today. The United States Embargo Against Cuba (described in Cuba as el bloqueo, Spanish for "the Blockade " is an economic commercial and Relations began to thaw during President Lyndon B. Johnson’s tenure continuing through the next decade and a half. In 1964 Fidel Castro sent a message to Johnson encouraging dialogue, he wrote
|“||I seriously hope that Cuba and the United States can eventually respect and negotiate our differences. I believe that there are no areas of contention between us that cannot be discussed and settled within a climate of mutual understanding. But first, of course, it is necessary to discuss our differences. I now believe that this hostility between Cuba and the United States is both unnatural and unnecessary - and it can be eliminated. ||”|
Through the late 1960s and early 1970s a sustained period of aircraft hijackings between Cuba and the US by citizens of both nations led to a need for cooperation. Aircraft hijacking incidents between the United States and Cuba reached their peak in 1969 By 1974, U. S. elected officials had begun to visit the island. Three years later, during the Carter administration, the U. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 S. and Cuba simultaneously opened interests sections in each other’s capitals.
In 1981 President Ronald Reagan’s new administration re-instituted the most hostile policy against Cuba since the invasion at Bay of Pigs. Despite conciliatory signals from Cuba, the administration announced a tightening of the embargo. The U. S. also re-established the travel ban, prohibiting U. S. citizens from spending money in Cuba. The ban was later supplemented to include Cuban government officials or their representatives visiting the U. S. In 1985 Radio Martí, backed by Ronald Reagan’s administration began to broadcast news and information from the U. Radio Martí is a radio and television broadcaster based in Miami Florida, financed by the United States government ( Broadcasting Board of Governors) S. to Cuba.
Veterans of CIA's 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion, while no longer being sponsored by the CIA, are still in the news 32 years later. This article deals with activities of the United States Central Intelligence Agency in North and South America. Members of Alpha 66, an anti-Castro paramilitary organization, continue to practice their AK-47 skills in a camp in South Florida. Alpha 66 is a Paramilitary group formed by Cuban exiles in Puerto Rico opposed to the Cuban government led by Fidel Castro in 1961 The AK-47 (contraction of Russian Автомат Калашникова образца 1947 года; Avtomat Kalashnikova obraztsa 1947 goda; "Kalashnikov's 
The long standing U.S. embargo was reinforced in October 1992 by the Cuban Democracy Act (the "Torricelli Law") and in 1996 by the Cuban Liberty and Democracy Solidarity Act (known as the Helms-Burton Act). The United States Embargo Against Cuba (described in Cuba as el bloqueo, Spanish for "the Blockade " is an economic commercial and The United States Embargo Against Cuba (described in Cuba as el bloqueo, Spanish for "the Blockade " is an economic commercial and The Cuban Democracy Act was a bill presented by US Congressman Robert Torricelli and passed in 1992 which prohibited foreign-based subsidiaries of U The Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (Libertad Act of 1996 ( Helms-Burton Act,,,) is a United States federal law which strengthens and continues the The 1992 act prohibited foreign-based subsidiaries of U. S. companies from trading with Cuba, travel to Cuba by U. S. citizens, and family remittances to Cuba. The Helms Burton Act states, among other things, that any non-U. S. company that "knowingly traffics in property in Cuba confiscated without compensation from a U. S. person" can be subjected to litigation and that company's leadership can be barred from entry into the United States.  Sanctions may also be applied to non-U. Economic sanctions are domestic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries on another for a variety of reasons S. companies trading with Cuba. As a result, multinational companies have to choose between Cuba and the U. S. , the latter being a much larger market. One important exception is the German-owned delivery company DHL. DHL (originally standing for Dalsey Hillblom and Lynn) is a Deutsche Post World Net company of Germany that provides international mail This restriction also applies to maritime shipping, as ships docking at Cuban ports are not allowed to dock at U. S. ports for six months. On October 10, 2006, the United States announced the creation of a task force made up of officials from several US agencies that will pursue more aggressively violators of the US trade embargo against Cuba, with penalties as severe as 10 years of prison and hundreds of dollars in fines for violators of the embargo. Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 
In the new millennium, hopes were raised in both countries for a new period of greater understanding. At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, Fidel Castro and US President Bill Clinton spoke briefly at a group photo session and shook hands. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States U. N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan commented afterwards, “For a U. Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations S. president and a Cuban president to shake hands for the first time in over 40 years—I think it is a major symbolic achievement". While Castro said it was a gesture of “dignity and courtesy,” the White House denied the encounter was of any significance. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence  In November 2001 US companies began selling food to the country for the first time since Washington imposed the trade embargo after the revolution, and in the following year, former US President Jimmy Carter became the highest profile US politician invited to Cuba since the Cuban revolution. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002
Relations deteriorated again following the election of George W. Bush. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Bush declared Cuba to be one of the few "outposts of tyranny" remaining in the world, and his appointed undersecretary to the U. Outposts of tyranny was a term used in 2005 by United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and subsequently by others in the U S. State Department, John R. Bolton, accused Cuba of maintaining a bioweapons program. John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948) is an American public servant who has served in several Republican presidential administrations  Many in the US, including ex-president Carter, expressed doubts about the claim. Later, Bolton was criticised for pressuring subordinates who questioned the quality of the intelligence John Bolton had used as the basis for the assertion.  Bolton identified the Castro government as part of America's 'axis of evil', highlighting the fact that the Cuban leader visited several US foes, including Libya, Iran and Syria. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية  Cuba was also identified as a State Sponsor of Terror by the United States Department of State. "State Sponsors of Terrorism" is a designation applied by the United States Department of State to nations who are designated by the Secretary of State "to  The Cuban government denies the claim, and in turn has accused the U. S. of engaging in state sponsored terrorism against Cuba. The United States government has been accused of having directly committed acts of State terrorism, as well as funding training and harboring individuals  Historian of Cuba, Wayne Smith and Anya K. Landau, write that "none of the reasons given by the Bush administration for maintaining Cuba on the terrorist list withstand the most superficial examination", and that domestic political calculations at the root of the U. S. government's position. 
In January 2006, United States Interests Section in Havana began displaying messages on a scrolling "electronic billboard" in the windows of their top floor. The United States Interests Section of the Embassy of Switzerland in Havana Cuba or USINT Havana (the State Department telegraphic address represents US Following a protest march, the Cuban government erected a large number of poles, carrying black flags with single white stars, obscuring the messages. 
On September 8, 2006, it was revealed that at least ten South Florida journalists received regular payments from the U. S. government for programs on Radio Martí and TV Martí, two broadcasters aimed at undermining the Cuban government. Radio Martí is a radio and television broadcaster based in Miami Florida, financed by the United States government ( Broadcasting Board of Governors) TV Martí was created by the US government to provide news and current affairs programming to Cuba. The payments totaled thousands of dollars over several years. Those who were paid the most were veteran reporters and a freelance contributor for El Nuevo Herald, the Spanish-language newspaper published by the corporate parent of The Miami Herald. El Nuevo Herald is a McClatchy Newspaper published daily in Spanish in Miami Florida, in the United States. The Miami Herald is a daily Newspaper owned by The McClatchy Company headquartered in Downtown Miami Florida. The Cuban government has long contended that some South Florida Spanish-language journalists were on the federal payroll. 
On September 12, 2006, the United States announced that it had created five inter agency working groups to monitor Cuba and carry out U. S. policies. The groups, some of which operate in a war-room-like setting, were quietly set up after the July 32 announcement that the ailing Cuban leader had temporarily ceded power to a collective leadership headed by his brother Raúl. U. S. officials say three of the newly created groups are headed by the State Department: diplomatic actions; strategic communications and democratic promotion. Another that coordinated humanitarian aid to Cuba is run by the Commerce Department, and a fifth, on migration issues, is run jointly by the National Security Council and the Department of Homeland Security. 
Recently, US Congressional auditors have accused the development agency USAID of failing properly to administer its program to allegedly promote democracy in Cuba. The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the United States federal government organization responsible for most non- military They said USAID had channelled tens of millions of dollars through exile groups in Miami, which were sometimes wasteful or kept questionable accounts. The report said the organizations had sent items such as chocolate and cashmere jerseys to Cuba. Their report concludes that 30% of the exile groups who received USAID grants showed questionable expenditures. 
Fabio Leite, director of the Radio communications Office of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), has condemned radio and television transmissions to Cuba from the United States as illegal and inadmissible and more so when they are designed to foment internal subversion on the island. The director emphasized that this constant U. S. attack is in violation of ITU regulations, which stipulate that radio transmissions within commercial broadcasting on medium wave, modulated frequency or television must be conceived of as a good quality national service within the limits of the country concerned. 
Under the Trade Sanctions Reform and Enhancement Act of 2000, exports from the United States to Cuba in the industries of food and medical products is permitted with the proper licensing and permissions from the U. S. Department of Commerce and the United States Department of the Treasury. Companies such as the Navarretta Group assist U. S. firms in legally exporting and marketing products in Cuba. The U. S. embargo on Cuba will remain in place despite Fidel Castro's announcement that he's resigning as Cuba's leader, Deputy Secretary of State John Negroponte said February 19, 2008. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Hon John Dimitri Negroponte (born July 21, 1939 in London, England, United Kingdom) (ˌnɛgroʊˈpɒnti is an American Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
In 2003 the United States Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba was formed to "explore ways the U. The 2006–2008 Cuban transfer of presidential duties was a transfer of duties of the Cuban Presidency from Fidel Castro to the first vice president his The United States Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba (CAFC was created by United States President George W The United States Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba (CAFC was created by United States President George W S. can help hasten and ease a democratic transition in Cuba". The commission immediately announced a series of measures which included a tightening of the travel embargo to the island, a crackdown on illegal cash transfers, and a more robust information campaign aimed at Cuba.  Since 2005 the commission has been chaired by Condoleezza Rice and seeks to integrate the administration's Cuba policies with all the agencies of the federal government. Condoleezza Rice (born November 14 1954 is the 66th United States  Castro has insisted that, in spite of the formation of the Commission, Cuba is itself "in transition: to socialism [and] to communism" and that it is "ridiculous for the U. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based S. to threaten Cuba now". 
In April 2006, the Bush administration appointed Caleb McCarry "transition coordinator" for Cuba, providing a budget of $59 million, with the task of promoting the governmental shift to democracy after Castro's death. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Caleb McCarry is the Bush administration 's Cuba Transition Coordinator tasked with coordinating the U Official Cuban news service Granma alleges that these transition plans were created at the behest of Cuban exile groups in Miami, and that McCarry was responsible for engineering the overthrow of the Aristide government in Haiti. The term " Cuban exile " refers to the many Cubans who have sought alternative political or economic conditions outside the island dating back to the Ten Years' War Jean-Bertrand Aristide (born July 15 1953 is a former Roman Catholic Priest who was President of Haiti in 1991 again from 1994 to 1996 and then Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole:  On the establishment of McCarry as post-Castro transition coordinator, Organization of American States Secretary General José Miguel Insulza said, "There's no transition and it's not your country. The Organization of American States ( OAS, or as it is known in the three other official languages OEA) is an International organization, headquartered José Miguel Insulza Salinas (born June 2, 1943) is a Chilean politician and statesman and a member of the Socialist Party of Chile. "
In 2006, The Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba released a 93-page report. The report included a plan that suggested the United States spend $80 million to overthrow the Cuban Government and ensure that Cuba's Communist system does not continue after the death of President Fidel Castro. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until The plan also includes a classified annex which Cuban officials claim could be a plot to assassinate Fidel Castro or a United States military invasion of Cuba.  Shortly after, The United States named a special "manager" for its intelligence operations against Cuba and Venezuela. Iran and North Korea are the only other countries that have been assigned so-called "mission managers", who supervise intelligence operations against them. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia,
Following the temporary transfer of presidential duties in July 2006 to Raúl Castro, brother of Fidel, U. The 2006–2008 Cuban transfer of presidential duties was a transfer of duties of the Cuban Presidency from Fidel Castro to the first vice president his Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born June 3 1931 is the President of the Cuban Council of State and the Head of state of Cuba. S. government figures have made a series of statements reiterating the desire for political change in Cuba. Raúl Castro responded to these statements saying: "They should be very clear that it is not possible to achieve anything in Cuba with impositions and threats. On the contrary, we have always been disposed to normalize relations on an equal plane. What we do not accept is the arrogant and interventionist policy frequently assumed by the current administration of that country. "
During a military parade on December 31, 2006, Raúl Castro stated; "We take this opportunity to once again state that we are willing to resolve at the negotiating table the long-standing dispute between the United States and Cuba. " He said talks were only possible if the U. S. government respected Cuba's independence and did not interfere in its internal affairs. The United States, however, rejected the offer of talks, stating that "it saw no point in a dialogue with what it called the Caribbean island's "dictator-in-waiting. "  
The US continues to operate a naval base at Guantánamo Bay. It is leased to the US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease. The US pays Cuba annually for its lease, but Cuba does not accept the nominal fee. The Cuban government strongly denounces the treaty on grounds that it violates article 52, titled "Coercion of a State by the threat or use of force", of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. The 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (or VCLT) codified the pre-existing Customary international law on treaties, with some necessary However, Article 4, titled "Non-retroactivity of the present Convention" of the same document states that Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties shall not be retroactively applied to any treaties in which the new world order made before itself. The 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (or VCLT) codified the pre-existing Customary international law on treaties, with some necessary 
The acquisition of Guantánamo Bay was part of the Platt Amendment, conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba since the Spanish-American War. The Platt Amendment was a rider appended to the Army Appropriations Act, a United States federal law passed on March 2, 1901, which