Ctesiphon (Persian: تیسفون) was one of the great cities of the Persian Empire, located on the east bank of the Tigris. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern
Ctesiphon was an imperial capital of the Arsacids and of their successors, the Sassanids. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire For more than 800 years, Mesopotamia was known as the ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. Khvārvarān, also known as Iraq or Mesopotamia, was a province of the Iranian Persian Empire, which ruled the region since the time of Cyrus Today, the ruins of Ctesiphon lie in Iraq, approximately 35 km south of the city of Baghdad. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Ctesiphon is first mentioned in the Book of Ezra of the Old Testament as Kasfia/Casphia (a derivative of the ethnic name, Cas, and a cognate of Caspian and Qazvin). The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. "Caspians" (Greek kaspioi, Aramaic kspy,Persian کاسپین) is a Greek Ethnonym applied by Strabo to ancient people The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. Qazvin ( also spelled as Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran with an estimated population of 331409 in 2005 In the 6th century, Ctesiphon was the largest city in the world. 
The Latin name 'Ctesiphon' or 'Ctesifon' derives from Greek 'T(h)esifon' or 'Et(h)esifon', continuing in later Greek as 'Ktesiphon' (Κτησιφῶν). In Iranian sources of the Sassanid period it is attested in Manichean Parthian, in Sassanid Middle Persian and in Christian Sogdian as Pahlavi tyspwn, continuing in New Persian as 'Tisfun' (تيسفون). The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language/ethnolect of Southwestern Iran that during Sassanid times (224-654 CE became a Prestige dialect The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language that was spoken in Sogdiana ( Zarafshan River Valley located in modern day Uzbekistan In medieval Arabic texts the name is usually 'Taysafun' (طيسفون) or 'Qataysfun' (قطيسفون), in Modern Arabic 'Madain', 'Maden' or 'Al-Mada'in ' (المدائن). Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Al-Mada'in ( Arabic المدائن "The cities" also known under the Aramaic name "Mahoze" or as "Madayn" is the name of "According to Yaqut [. . . ], quoting Hamza, the original form was Tusfun or Tusfun, which was arabicized as Taysafun. "
Ctesiphon is located approximately at Al-Mada'in, 20 miles southeast of the modern city of Baghdad, Iraq, along the river Tigris. Al-Mada'in ( Arabic المدائن "The cities" also known under the Aramaic name "Mahoze" or as "Madayn" is the name of Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Ctesiphon measured 30 square kilometers (cf. the 13. 7 square kilometers of 4th century imperial Rome). The only visible remain is the great arch Taq-i Kisra located in what is now the Iraqi town of Salman Pak. The Taq-i Kisra ( Persian طاق كسرى, meaning Iwan of Khosrau) is a Persian monument in Al-Mada'in which is the only visible For the companion of Muhammad see Salman Pak (person Salman Pak ( سلمان باك) is a city approximately 15 miles south of
Ctesiphon rose to prominence during the Parthian Empire in the first century BC, and was the seat of government for most of its rulers. The city was located near Seleucia, the Hellenistic capital. For the Syrian seaport of the same name that figures in the travels of Saint Paul see Seleucia Pieria. Strabo abundantly describes its foundation:
"In ancient times Babylon was the metropolis of Assyria; but now Seleuceia is the metropolis, I mean the Seleuceia on the Tigris, as it is called. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture For the Syrian seaport of the same name that figures in the travels of Saint Paul see Seleucia Pieria. Near by is situated a village called Ctesiphon, a large village. This village the kings of the Parthians were wont to make their winter residence, thus sparing the Seleuceians, in order that the Seleuceians might not be oppressed by having the Scythian folk or soldiery quartered amongst them. Because of the Parthian power, therefore, Ctesiphon is a city rather than a village; its size is such that it lodges a great number of people, and it has been equipped with buildings by the Parthians themselves; and it has been provided by the Parthians with wares for sale and with the arts that are pleasing to the Parthians; for the Parthian kings are accustomed to spend the winter there because of the salubrity of the air, but they summer at Ecbatana and in Hyrcania because of the prevalence of their ancient renown. Ecbatana ( Old Persian: Haŋgmatana, written Agbatana in Aeschylus and Herodotus, Agámtanu by Nabonidos Hyrcania was the the name of a Satrapy located in the territories of present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and part of Turkmenistan "—Strabo XVI, 1, 16
Because of its importance, Ctesiphon was a major military objective for the leaders of the Roman Empire in its eastern wars. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The city was captured by Rome or by its successor state, the Byzantine Empire, five times in its history, three times in the second century alone. The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The emperor Trajan captured Ctesiphon in 116, whose actions may also be "interpreted to some extent in the light" of Han Chinese military excursions to the Caspian Sea during their campaigns against the Xiongnu/Huns who were harassing the trade routes we know today as the Silk Road. Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan ( September 18 53 &ndash August 9 117) was a Roman Emperor who The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The Xiongnu ( Turkish: Doğu Hun were a confederation of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with a ruling class of unknown origin and other subjugated tribes The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the Pacorus II of Parthia apparently made a pact with the Han Chinese under general Ban Chao that allowed them to establish forts within the Parthian Kingdom for period of a few years to police the trade routes. Pacorus II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 78 to 105 Control of the Tarim Basin Ban Chao like his predecessors Huo Qubing and Wei Qing from the earlier-half of the Han Dynasty before him is said to The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the After Trajan occupied Ctesiphon for a year, his successor Hadrian decided to willingly return Ctesiphon in 117 as part of a peace settlement. Publius Aelius Hadrianus (January 24 76 &ndash July 10 138 as emperor Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus, and Divus Hadrianus after The Roman general Avidius Cassius captured Ctesiphon during another Parthian war in 164, but abandoned it when peace was concluded. Gaius Avidius Cassius (ca 130&ndashJuly 175 was a Roman usurper who briefly ruled Egypt and Syria in 175 In 197, the emperor Septimius Severus sacked Ctesiphon and carried off thousands of its inhabitants, whom he sold into slavery. Events By Place Roman Empire 19 February — Battle of Lugdunum: Roman usurper Albinus is defeated by the Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) ( April 11 145 - February 4 211) was a Roman general and Roman Emperor
Late in the third century, after the Parthians had been supplanted by the Sassanids, the city again became a source of conflict with Rome. The 3rd century is the period from 201 to 300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire In 295, Galerius was defeated by the Persians outside the city. Events By Place Asia Tuoba Yi Tuo becomes a chieftain of the Chinese Tuoba tribe Galerius Maximianus ( ca. 260&ndashlate April or early May 311 formally Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311 Humiliated, he returned a year later and won a tremendous victory which ended in the fourth and final capture of the city by a Roman army. He returned it to the Persian king Narses in exchange for Armenia. Narseh (whose name is also sometimes written as Narses or Narseus) was the seventh Sassanid King of Persia (293&ndash302 and son of Shapur Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani About 325 and again in 410 the city, or the Greek colony directly across the river, was the site of church councils for the Church of the East. The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ‘Ittā Qaddishtā wa-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi
Emperor Julian was killed outside of the city walls in 363 during his war against Shapur II. Flavius Claudius Julianus, known also as Julian or Julian the Apostate (331 or 332 to 26 June 363) was Roman Emperor (Caesar The Battle of Ctesiphon took place on May 29, 363 between the armies of Roman Emperor Julian and the Sassanid King Shapur II Events By Place Roman Empire March 5 — Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 against the Shapur II was the ninth King of the Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379 Finally, in 627, the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius surrounded the city, the capital of the Sassanid Empire, leaving it after the Persians accepted his peace terms. Events By Place Byzantine Empire December 12 — Battle of Nineveh: Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians ending Heraclius, or Herakleios (Flavius Heraclius Augustus;) (c 575 - February 11, 641) was a Byzantine Emperor, who ruled the East
Ctesiphon fell to the Muslims during the Islamic conquest of Persia in 637 under the military command of Sa'ad Ibn Abi Waqqas during the caliphate of Umar. The Islamic conquest of Persia (633–656 led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual extirpation of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia Events By Place Europe Battle of Mag Rath Dál Riata influence in Ulster is greatly reduced or ended However, the general population was not harmed. Still, as political and economic fortune had passed elsewhere, the city went into a rapid decline, especially after the founding of the Abbasid capital at Baghdad in the 8th century and soon became a ghost town. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. A ghost town is a Town or City that has been abandoned usually because the economic activity that supported it has failed or due to natural or human-caused It is believed to be the basis for the city of Isbanir in the Thousand and One Nights. Isbanir Persian اسبانير or اسپانير is a city referred to in the 1001 Nights as the home of Fakir Taj.
The ruins of Ctesiphon were the site of a major battle of World War I in November of 1915. The Battle of Ctesiphon was fought in November 1915 by the British Empire and British India, against the Ottoman Empire, within the Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Ottoman Empire defeated troops of Britain attempting to capture Baghdad, and drove them back some 40 miles before trapping the British force and compelling it to surrender. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
The splendor of the imperial palace complex at Ctesiphon, to include Khosrau I of Persia's palace (Shâhigân-ǐ Sepid = the white palace, now almost totally ruined) and the great arch Taq-i Kisra, remain legendary. The Taq-i Kisra ( Persian طاق كسرى, meaning Iwan of Khosrau) is a Persian monument in Al-Mada'in which is the only visible Sassanid architecture refers to the Parthian style of architecture in Iranian architecture that reached a peak in its development during the Sassanid era Khosrau I or Khosrow I ( Chosroes I in classical sources most commonly known in Persian as Anushirvan, Persian انوشيروان meaning The Taq-i Kisra ( Persian طاق كسرى, meaning Iwan of Khosrau) is a Persian monument in Al-Mada'in which is the only visible The Throne room—presumably under or behind the arch—was more than 110 ft high. The massive barrel vault covered an area 80ft wide by 160 ft long, and was the largest vault ever constructed in Persia. A Vault (French voute Italian volta German Gewölbe Polish sklepienie, Spanish