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Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, whereby the condemned person is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross (of various shapes) and left to hang until dead. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. The debate about Capital punishment, colloquially known as the death penalty, is highly controversial Most major world religions take an ambiguous position on the morality of Capital punishment. Wrongful execution is a Miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by Capital punishment, the "death penalty Capital punishment was last used in Australia in 1967, when Ronald Ryan was hanged in Victoria, he was the last Capital punishment in Brazil was last used in 1861 and has not been officially used since the proclamation of the Republic in 1889. The only method used in Canada for Capital punishment was Hanging. The People's Republic of China currently uses Capital punishment for many crimes from Tax evasion and Political corruption to The death penalty has been totally abolished in almost all European countries (47 out of 50 Capital punishment in France existed officially from the Middle Ages and was abolished in 1981 Capital punishment in Germany has been abolished The current Constitution of Germany ("Grundgesetz" as adopted in 1949, does not allow Capital Capital punishment in India is legal but rareDuring the late 1900's, about 40 people were executed In Italy, the first pre-unitarian state to abolish the Death penalty was the Grand Duchy of Tuscany as of November 30, 1786, under the reign Capital punishment in Iraq was commonly used by the government of Saddam Hussein. Capital punishment is legal in Japan, with the only crimes for which this is the statutory punishment being Homicide and Treason. Capital punishment in Malaysia applies to Murder, Drug trafficking, Treason, and waging war against Yang di-Pertuan Agong Capital punishment in New Zealand first appeared in a codified form when New Zealand became a British territory in 1840 and was first employed in in 1842 Capital punishment was legal in Pakistan since its inception till 2008 Capital punishment in the Philippines has a varied history and on June 24 2006, was abolished Both the legal and moral status of Capital punishment in Russia are currently controversial Capital punishment is a legal form of Punishment in Singapore. Capital punishment is a legal form of Punishment in the Republic of China ( Taiwan) Capital punishment of a Felon in the United States, in modern times is employed and in practice only in cases involving murder Methods of capital punishment Methods of execution used to carry out Capital punishment have varied over time and include Burning, especially Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head or beheading, is the cutting off of the head of a person or animal Execution by electrocution (usually referred to after its method of implementation as the Electric Chair) is an execution method originating in the United States in which the Execution by firing squad is a method of Capital punishment, particularly common in times of war A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing consisting of a sealed chamber into which a Poisonous or Asphyxiant gas is introduced Hanging is the lethal suspension of a person by a ligature The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death Execution by shooting is a form of Capital punishment whereby an executed person is shot by one or more Firearms It is the most common method of execution Methods of capital punishment Methods of execution used to carry out Capital punishment have varied over time and include Burning, especially Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars perpendicular to each other dividing one or two of the lines in half
It was in use particularly among the Persians, Seleucids, Carthaginians, and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD, when in the year 337 Emperor Constantine I abolished it in his empire, out of veneration for Jesus Christ, the most famous victim of crucifixion. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE)  It has sometimes been used even in modern times.
A crucifix, an image of Christ crucified on a cross, is for Catholic Christians the main symbol of their religion, but most Protestant Christians prefer to use a cross without the figure (the "corpus" - Latin for "body") of Christ. A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one fixed to a cross" is a cross with a representation of Jesus ' body or corpus The crucifixion of Jesus is an event recorded in all four Gospels (;;) which takes place after his arrest and trial and includes his scourging Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Christian cross is the best-known Religious symbol of Christianity. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
Crucifixion was almost never performed for ritual or symbolic reasons outside of Christianity, but usually to provide a death that was particularly painful (hence the term excruciating, literally "out of crucifying"), gruesome (hence dissuading against the crimes punishable by it) and public (hence the metaphorical expression "to nail to the cross"), using whatever means were most expedient for that goal. Crucifixion methods varied considerably with location and time period.
The Greek and Latin words corresponding to "crucifixion" applied to many different forms of painful execution, from impaling on a stake to affixing to a tree, to an upright pole (what some call a crux simplex) or to a combination of an upright (in Latin, stipes) and a crossbeam (in Latin, patibulum). Impalement is a term that refers to situations in which objects are driven through the body causing deep stabbing wounds 
If a crossbeam was used, the condemned man was forced to carry it on his shoulders, which would have been torn open by flagellation, to the place of execution. Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, "whip" the human body A whole cross would weigh well over 300 pounds (135 kilograms), but the crossbeam would weigh only 75-125 pounds (35-60 kilograms).  The Roman historian Tacitus records that the city of Rome had a specific place for carrying out executions, situated outside the Esquiline Gate, and had a specific area reserved for the execution of slaves by crucifixion. Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire.  Upright posts would presumably be fixed permanently in that place, and the crossbeam, with the condemned man perhaps already nailed to it, would then be attached to the post.
The person executed may sometimes have been attached to the cross by ropes, but nails are mentioned in a passage of Josephus, where he states that, at the Siege of Jerusalem (70), "the soldiers out of rage and hatred, nailed those they caught, one after one way, and another after another, to the crosses, by way of jest", and in John 20:25. Josephus (AD 37 – c 100 also known as Yosef Ben Matityahu (Joseph son of Matthias and after he became a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 AD It was a decisive event in the First Jewish-Roman War, followed by the fall of Masada in 73 Objects, such as nails, used in the execution of criminals were sought as amulets. An amulet ( the Elder|Pliny]] meaning "an object that protects a person from trouble" a close cousin of the talisman (from Arabic 
The gibbet on which crucifixion was carried out could be of many shapes. Josephus describes multiple tortures and positions of crucifixion during the siege of Jerusalem (70) as Titus crucified the rebels; and Seneca the Younger recounts: "I see crosses there, not just of one kind but made in many different ways: some have their victims with head down to the ground; some impale their private parts; others stretch out their arms on the gibbet. Josephus (AD 37 – c 100 also known as Yosef Ben Matityahu (Joseph son of Matthias and after he became a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 AD It was a decisive event in the First Jewish-Roman War, followed by the fall of Masada in 73 Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Titus ( December 30 39 &ndash September 13 81) was a Roman Emperor who Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known simply as Seneca, or Seneca the Younger; Σένεκας in Ancient Greek literature (c "
At times the gibbet was only one vertical stake, called in Latin crux simplex or palus. This was the simplest available construction for torturing and killing the criminals. Frequently, however, there was a cross-piece attached either at the top to give the shape of a T (crux commissa) or just below the top, as in the form most familiar in Christian symbolism (crux immissa).  Other forms were in the shape of the letters X and Y.
The earliest writings that speak specifically of the shape of the cross on which Jesus died describe it as shaped like the letter T (the Greek letter tau), or composed of an upright and a transverse beam, together with a small peg in the upright. 
In popular depictions of crucifixion (possibly derived from a literal reading of the translated description in the Gospel of John, of Jesus' wounds being 'in the hands'), the condemned is shown with nails in their hands. The Gospel of John (literally According to John; Greek, Κατὰ Ἰωάννην Kata Iōannēn) is the fourth Gospel in the canon Although historical documents refer to the nails being in the "hands", the word usually translated as "hand", "χείρ" in Greek, referred to arm and hand together, so that, words are added to denote the hand as distinct from the arm, as "ἄκρην οὔτασε χεῖρα" (he wounded the end of the χείρ, i. e. he wounded her hand). 
A possibility that does not require tying is that the nails were inserted just above the wrist, between the two bones of the forearm (the radius and the ulna). The radius is the Bone of the Forearm that extends from the lateral side of the elbow to the Thumb side of the Wrist. The ulna ( elbow bone) is a long bone prismatic in form placed at the medial side of the Forearm, parallel with the radius.  The nails could also be driven through the wrist, in a space between four carpal bones. In Tetrapods the carpus is the sole cluster of the Bones in the Wrist between the radius and Ulna and the Metacarpus The Gospel word χείρ (cheir), translated as "hand", can include everything below the mid-forearm: Acts 12:7 uses this word to report chains falling off from Peter's 'hands', although the chains would be around what we would call wrists. This shows that the semantic range of χείρ is wider than the English hand, and can be used of nails through the wrist
An experiment that was the subject of a documentary on the National Geographic Channel's Quest For Truth: The Crucifixion, and of a brief news article, showed that a person can be suspended by the palm of their hand. National Geographic Channel, also called Nat Geo, is a subscription television network that features Documentaries produced by the National Geographic Society Nailing the feet to the side of the cross relieves strain on the wrists by placing most of the weight on the lower body.
Another possibility, suggested by Frederick Zugibe, is that the nails may have been driven in at an angle, entering in the palm in the crease that delineates the bulky region at the base of the thumb, and exiting in the wrist, passing through the carpal tunnel. Dr Frederick Zugibe is the former chief Medical examiner of Rockland County New York. In the Human Wrist there is a Sheath of tough Connective tissue (the flexor retinaculum) which envelops and protects several structures
A foot-rest attached to the cross, perhaps for the purpose of taking the man's weight off the wrists, is sometimes included in representations of the crucifixion of Jesus, but is not mentioned in ancient sources. These, however, do mention the sedile, a small seat attached to the front of the cross, about halfway down, which could have served that purpose.
The length of time required to reach death could range from a matter of hours to a number of days, depending on exact methods, the health of the crucified person and environmental circumstances.
A theory attributed to Pierre Barbet holds that the typical cause of death was asphyxiation. Pierre Barbet ( May 16, 1925 - July 20, 1995) was the main Pseudonym used by French science fiction Writer Claude He conjectured that when the whole body weight was supported by the stretched arms, the condemned would have severe difficulty inhaling, due to hyper-expansion of the lungs. The condemned would therefore have to draw himself up by his arms, or have his feet supported by tying or by a wood block. Indeed, Roman executioners could be asked to break the condemned's legs, after he had hung for some time, in order to hasten his death.  Once deprived of support and unable to lift himself, the condemned would die within a few minutes. If death did not come from asphyxiation, it could result from a number of other causes, including physical shock caused by the scourging that preceded the crucifixion, the nailing itself, dehydration, and exhaustion. Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, "whip" the human body Dehydration ( hypohydration) is the removal of Water ( hydro in ancient Greek) from an object
Experiments by Frederick Zugibe have revealed that, when suspended with arms at 60° to 70° from the vertical, test subjects had no difficulty breathing, only rapidly-increasing discomfort and pain. This would correspond to the Roman use of crucifixion as a prolonged, agonizing, humiliating death. Public humiliation was often used by local communities to punish minor and petty criminals before the age of large modern Prisons (imprisonment was long unusual as a punishment Zugibe claims that the breaking of the crucified condemned's legs to hasten death, as mentioned in John 19:31-32, was administered as a coup de grâce, causing severe traumatic shock or hastening death by fat embolism. A fat embolism is a type of Embolism that is often (but not always caused by Physical trauma. Crucifixion on a single pole with no transom, with hands affixed over one's head, would precipitate rapid asphyxiation if no block was provided to stand on, or once the legs were broken.
It was, however, possible to survive crucifixion, and there are records of people who did. The historian Josephus, a Judaean who defected to the Roman side during the Jewish uprising of AD66 - 72, describes finding two of his friends crucified. Josephus (AD 37 – c 100 also known as Yosef Ben Matityahu (Joseph son of Matthias and after he became a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus He begged for and was granted their reprieve; one died, the other recovered. Josephus gives no details of the method or duration of crucifixion before their reprieve.
Despite the fact that the ancient Jewish historian Josephus, as well as other sources, refer to the crucifixion of thousands of people by the Romans, there is only a single archaeological discovery of a crucified body dating back to the Roman Empire around the time of Jesus which was discovered in Jerusalem in 1968. It is not surprising that there is only one such discovery, because a crucified body was usually left to decay on the cross and therefore would not be preserved. The only reason these archaeological remains were preserved was because family members gave this particular individual a customary burial.
The remains were found accidentally in an ossuary with the crucified man’s name on it, 'Yehohanan, the son of Hagakol'. An ossuary is a chest building well or site made to serve as the final resting place of human skeletal remains Prof. Nicu Haas, an anthropologist at the Hebrew University Medical School in Jerusalem, examined the ossuary and discovered that it contained a heel bone with a nail driven through its side, indicating that the man had been crucified. The position of the nail relative to the bone indicates that the feet have been nailed to the cross from their side, not from their front; various opinions have been proposed as to whether they were both nailed together to the front of the cross or one on the left side, one on the right side. The point of the nail had olive wood fragments on it indicating that he was crucified on a cross made of olive wood or on an olive tree. Since olive trees are not very tall, this would suggest that the condemned was crucified at eye level. Additionally, a piece of acacia wood was located between the bones and the head of the nail, presumably to keep the condemned from freeing his foot by sliding it over the nail. His legs were found broken, perhaps as a means of hastening his death as described in John 19:31-32. It is thought that, since in Roman times iron was expensive, the nails were removed from the dead body to cut the costs, which would help to explain why only one has been found, as the tip of the nail in question was bent in such a way that it couldn't be removed.
Prof. Haas had also identified a scratch on the inner surface of the right radius bone of the forearm, close to the wrist. He deduced from the form of the scratch, as well as from the intact wrist bones, that a nail had been driven into the forearm at that position.
Important references for the ancient practice of crucifixion and an examination of archaeological evidence:
Probably originating with the Assyrians and Babylonians, it was used systematically by the Persians in the 6th century BC. Alexander the Great brought it from there to the eastern Mediterranean countries in the 4th century BC, and the Phoenicians introduced it to Rome in the 3rd century BC. It was virtually never used in pre-Hellenic Greece . Crucifixion, in one form or another, was also used by Achaemenid Persia, the Greeks, Carthaginians, Macedonians and from very early times Rome. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of There is evidence that captured pirates were crucified in the port of Athens around the 7th century BC.
Some Christian theologians, beginning with Paul of Tarsus writing in Galatians 3:13, have interpreted an allusion to crucifixion in Deuteronomy 21:22-23. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and Tarsus ( Greek Ταρσός is a City, and a large district in Mersin Province, Turkey, from the city of Mersin and near (40 The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. It is a letter from Paul of Tarsus to a number of early Christian communities in the Roman province of Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomion, Δευτερονόμιον "second law" is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible and of the Old Testament This reference is to being hanged from a tree, and may be associated with lynching or traditional hanging. Lynching is an Extrajudicial punishment meted out by a mob Lynching an enumerated Felony in some states in the United States, is defined by some However, ancient Jewish law allowed only 4 methods of execution: stoning, burning, strangulation, and decapitation. Crucifixion was thus forbidden by ancient Jewish law. 
Alexander the Great is reputed to have executed 2000 survivors from his siege of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as well as the doctor who unsuccessfully treated Alexander's friend Hephaestion. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun Tyre ( Arabic صور Ṣūr, Phoenician Phoenician wawsvg|12px|ו]] Ṣur, Hebrew Hephaestion ( Greek:, alternative spelling "Hephaistion" c Some historians have also conjectured that Alexander crucified Callisthenes, his official historian and biographer, for objecting to Alexander's adoption of the Persian ceremony of royal adoration. Callisthenes of Olynthus (in Greek; ca 360-328 BC was a Greek Historian. Adoration ( Latin) is to give Homage or Worship to someone or something
In Carthage, crucifixion was an established mode of execution, which could even be imposed on a general for suffering a major defeat. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers
According to some, the custom of crucifixion in Ancient Rome may have developed out of a primitive custom of arbori suspendere, hanging on an arbor infelix (unfortunate tree) dedicated to the gods of the nether world, but Professor William A. Dame Barbara Hepworth DBE (January 10 1903 &ndash May 20 1975 christened Jocelyn Barbara Hepworth) was a major British Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest Cathedrals in England, with the longest nave and overall length of Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Oldfather wrote a detailed study refuting the idea that this punishment involved any form of hanging or was anything other than flogging to death, and the claim that the "arbor infelix" was dedicated to particular gods. Tertullian mentions a first-century A. Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, Anglicised as Tertullian, (ca D. case in which trees were used for crucifixion, but Seneca the Younger earlier used the phrase infelix lignum (unfortunate wood) for the transom ("patibulum") or the whole cross. Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known simply as Seneca, or Seneca the Younger; Σένεκας in Ancient Greek literature (c  According to others, the Romans appear to have learned of crucifixion from the Carthaginians. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers 
Crucifixion was used for slaves, rebels, pirates and especially-despised enemies and criminals. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering Therefore crucifixion was considered a most shameful and disgraceful way to die. Condemned Roman citizens were usually exempt from crucifixion (like feudal nobles from hanging, dying more honorably by decapitation) except for major crimes against the state, such as high treason. In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation.
Notorious mass crucifixions followed the Third Servile War in 73-71 BC (the slave rebellion under Spartacus), other Roman civil wars in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, and the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. The Third Servile War, also called the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus by Plutarch, was the last of a series of unrelated and unsuccessful slave Spartacus (c 109 BC-71 BC according to Roman historians was a Slave who became the leader (or possibly one of several leaders in the unsuccessful slave List of Civil wars involving Rome. There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 AD It was a decisive event in the First Jewish-Roman War, followed by the fall of Masada in 73 Josephus tells a story of the Romans crucifying people along the walls of Jerusalem. He also says that the Roman soldiers would amuse themselves by crucifying criminals in different positions. In Roman-style crucifixion, the condemned took days to die slowly from suffocation — caused by the condemned's blood-supply slowly draining away to a quantity insufficient to supply the required oxygen to vital organs. The dead body was left up for vultures and other birds to consume. Vultures are scavenging Birds feeding mostly on the carcasses of dead Animals Vultures are found on every continent except Antarctica and
The goal of Roman crucifixion was not just to kill the criminal, but also to mutilate and dishonour the body of the condemned. In ancient tradition, an honourable death required burial; leaving a body on the cross, so as to mutilate it and prevent its burial, was a grave dishonour.
Under ancient Roman penal practice, crucifixion was also a means of exhibiting the criminal’s low social status. It was the most dishonourable death imaginable, originally reserved for slaves, hence still called "supplicium servile" by Seneca, later extended to provincial freedmen of obscure station ('humiles'). The citizen class of Roman society were almost never subject to capital punishments; instead, they were fined or exiled. Josephus mentions Jews of high rank who were crucified, but this was to point out that their status had been taken away from them. Control of one’s own body was vital in the ancient world. Capital punishment took away control over one’s own body, thereby implying a loss of status and honour. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. The Romans often broke the prisoner's legs to hasten death and usually forbade burial.
A cruel prelude was scourging, which would cause the condemned to lose a large amount of blood, and approach a state of shock. Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, "whip" the human body The convict then usually had to carry the horizontal beam (patibulum in Latin) to the place of execution, but not necessarily the whole cross. Crucifixion (from Latin crucifixio, noun of process crucifixio, from perfect passive participle crucifixus, fixed to a cross from Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Crucifixion was typically carried out by specialized teams, consisting of a commanding centurion and four soldiers. Centurion redirects here This article is about the Roman soldier When it was done in an established place of execution, the vertical beam (stipes) could even be permanently embedded in the ground. The condemned was usually stripped naked - all the New Testament gospels, dated to around the same time as Josephus, describe soldiers gambling for the robes of Jesus. This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament (Matthew 27:35, Mark 15:24, Luke 23:34, John 19:23-25)
The 'nails' were tapered iron spikes approximately 5 to 7 inch (13 to 18 cm) long, with a square shaft 3/8 inch (1 cm) across. In some cases, the nails were gathered afterwards and used as healing amulets.
Emperor Constantine, the first Emperor thought to receive a Christian baptism, abolished crucifixion in the Roman Empire at the end of his reign. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted
The Qur'an mentions crucifixion several times. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran In Surah 7:124, Firaun (Arabic for Pharoah) says that he will crucify his chief wizards. Sura (sometimes spelt "Surah" ar سورة, plural "Suwar" ar سور is an Arabic term literally meaning "something enclosed or surrounded Fir'aun (فرعون is Arabic for " Pharaoh " The Quran tells the Biblical story of Moses and the Pharaoh, without Also, Surah 12:41 mentions Prophet Yusuf (Joseph) saying that the king (the current ruler of the land he was stranded in) would crucify one of his prisoners. This is a sub-article to Joseph (Hebrew Bible. For the singer see Yusuf Islam.
Crucifixion was used in Japan before and during the Tokugawa Shogunate. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the, and the, was a feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the Shoguns of It was called Haritsuke in Japanese. The condemned—usually a sentenced criminal—was hoisted upon a T-shaped cross. Then, executioners finished him off with spear thrusts. For other meanings of the term see Executioner (disambiguation. The body was left to hang for a time before burial.
In 1597, twenty-six Christians were nailed to crosses at Nagasaki, Japan. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth ( is the Capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. Among those executed were Paul Miki and Pedro Bautista, a Spanish Franciscan who had worked about ten years in the Philippines. Paul Miki (1562 – 1597 was a Japanese Roman Catholic martyr and saint one of the Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan. The refers to a group of Christians who were executed by Crucifixion on February 5, 1597 at Nagasaki. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The executions marked the beginning of a long history of persecution of Christianity in Japan, which continued until the United States of America and other Allies defeated Japan at war in 1945, ending World War II. The refers to a group of Christians who were executed by Crucifixion on February 5, 1597 at Nagasaki. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In general allies are people groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including 
The acclaimed historical novel "Silence" by Japanese author Shusaku Endo gives an account of the 17th century Christian persecutions based upon the oral histories of contemporary Kakure Kirishitan communities. is a 1966 novel of historical fiction by Japanese author Shusaku Endo drawn from the oral histories of Kakure Kirishitan and Hanare Kirishitan communities Shūsaku Endō (遠藤 周作 Endō Shūsaku, March 27[[ 923]]&ndash September 29[[ 996]] was a renowned 20th century Japanese author who wrote is a modern term for a member of the Japanese Roman Catholic Church that went underground after the Shimabara Rebellion in the 1630s
In the Fiftieth Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights (1994), local bishops reported several cases of crucifixion of Christian priests. Sudan's Penal Code, based upon the government's interpretation of Shari'a, provides for execution by crucifixion. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. The sentence has been passed as recently as 2002, when 88 people were condemned. 
As of 2000, Yemen provides for non-lethal crucifixion of criminals, though this punishment is apparently reserved for those also condemned to death. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya 
During World War I, there were persistent rumors that German soldiers had crucified a Canadian soldier on a tree or barn door with bayonets or combat knives. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a Knife - Dagger - or spike-shaped Weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle The event was initially reported in 1915 by Private George Barrie of the 1st Canadian Division. This article refers to the division raised in the First World War. It is generally believed to be an Allied propaganda invention; however, a 2002 programme for Channel 4's Secret History identified the soldier as a Harry Band, which has given arguable credibility to the story. Secret History was a long running British Television documentary series Harry Band, born on the 12 August, 1885 in Montrose, (although other sources suggest that his name was Harry Banks and that he was born 16 March 
In 2002, an alleged joyrider was found crucified to a fence in Northern Ireland. To joyride is to drive around in a stolen Car, Boat, or other Vehicle with no particular goal a ride taken solely for pleasure Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Despite the severity of his wounds he survived the attack. The incident was reported by the Guardian.
Since at least the mid-1800s, a group of Catholic flagellants in New Mexico called Hermanos de Luz ('Brothers of Light') have annually conducted reenactments of Jesus Christ's crucifixion during Holy Week, in which a penitent is tied—but not nailed—to a cross. Flagellants are practitioners of an extreme form of mortification of their own flesh by Whipping it with various instruments New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. Holy Week ( Latin: Hebdomada Sancta or Maior Hebdomada, "Greater Week" in Christianity is the last week before Easter.
Some very devout Catholics are voluntarily, non-lethally crucified for a limited time on Good Friday, to imitate the suffering of Jesus Christ. Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday ("Pascha" A notable example is the ceremonial re-enactment that has been performed yearly in the town of Iztapalapa, on the outskirts of Mexico City, since 1833. Iztapalapa is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs into which Mexico 's Federal District is divided Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico 
Devotional crucifixions are also common in the Philippines, even driving nails through the hands. One man named Rolando del Campo vowed to be crucified every Good Friday for 15 years if God would carry his wife through a difficult childbirth. (There is a video of the crucifixion here. ) In San Pedro Cutud, devotee Ruben Enaje has been crucified 21 times, as of 2007, during Passion Week celebrations. San Pedro Cutud is a Barangay in City of San Fernando Pampanga province in the Philippines, approximately 70 kilometers north of Manila. Passion Week is a name given to the week beginning at the Fifth Sunday in Lent where this Sunday is or was known as Passion Sunday.  
In many cases the person portraying Jesus is first subjected to flagellation and wears a crown of thorns. Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, "whip" the human body In Christianity the Crown of Thorns, one of the instruments of the Passion, was the woven chaplet of thorn branches worn by Jesus before his Crucifixion Sometimes there is a whole passion play, sometimes only the mortification of the flesh. A Passion play is a Dramatic presentation depicting the Passion of Christ: the trial, suffering and Death
For pictures of San Pedro Crucifixions see http://www.pbase.com/cmanaginged/crucifixion.
The Crucifixion of Christ is one of the most important parts of any Passion Play, or Mystery Play, production. The story critically leads the audience through death to resurrection, the dividing of the resurrected into 'sheep' (the good, destined for heaven) and 'goats' (sinners, destined for hell), and to God and Christ in Glory. A typical account is in the York Waggon Plays performed by the Guilds of York, currently every four years. (next production summer 2010). This mediaeval set of plays includes two that depict Christ's Death (1) The Crucifixion (Christ is put on the cross) and (2) the Death of Christ. The second of these was traditionally played by the Butchers' Gild as the butchers took on a supplementary role in civic life as the city's executioners. For pictures of the 2006 production, see http://www.yorkbutchersgild.co.uk
The cover art of Tupac Shakur's album The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory features an image of Tupac being crucified on a cross. Tupac Amaru Shakur (June 16 1971 &mdash September 13 1996 also known by his Stage names 2Pac and Makaveli, was an American rapper The Don Killuminati The 7 Day Theory is the final album finished before Tupac Shakur's death and the first to be released after his death However, he states that the image is not a mockery of Christ, but how he's being "crucified" by the media.
In the music video for "Hate Me Now" by Nas featuring Puff Daddy, Nas is seen being crucified. " Hate Me Now " is a 1999 hit hip hop single by rapper Nas featuring Puff Daddy. Nasir Jones, nɑːˈsiər (born September 14 1973 better known by his Stage name Nas, nɑːz formerly Nasty Nas, is an American rapper Sean John Combs (born November 4 1969 known by his Stage names Puff Daddy, P Nasir Jones, nɑːˈsiər (born September 14 1973 better known by his Stage name Nas, nɑːz formerly Nasty Nas, is an American rapper
One of Sevendust's songs in their album Seasons is called Crucified. Sevendust is an American Alternative metal band from Atlanta Georgia. A season is one of the major divisions of the Year, generally based on yearly periodic changes in Weather. The only reference to crucifixion in the song is the lyrics "I've been crucified, and no one seems to care" and "The first time I knew you lied, I ended up crucified" It is possible that the latter lyric could refer to Judas "selling out" Christ.
In the music video for "Until It Sleeps" by Metallica, Kirk Hammett was briefly shown crucified in the video. "Until It Sleeps" is the 4th song from Metallica 's 1996 album Load. Metallica is an American heavy metal band that formed in 1981 in. Kirk Lee Hammett (born November 18, 1962) is the Lead guitarist and a songwriter in the band Metallica and has been a member of the band
Carnehan in The Man Who Would Be King and Joe Harmon in A Town Like Alice both survive crucifixion. The Man Who Would Be King ( 1888) is a Short story by Rudyard Kipling. A Town Like Alice ( US title The Legacy) is a novel by the English author Nevil Shute.
"Big Bill Shelley" (played by David Carradine) in the movie Boxcar Bertha, was crucified on the side of a train freight car near the end of the movie. David Carradine (born December 8 1936 is an American actor Biography Early life Carradine was born John Arthur Carradine in Hollywood Boxcar Bertha ( 1972) one of acclaimed director Martin Scorsese 's earliest films is an extremely loose adaptation of Sister of the Road
Crucifixion was featured in the comedy film Monty Python's Life of Brian (1979). Monty Python's Life of Brian, also known as The Life of Brian, is a 1979 Comedy film written directed and largely performed by the In one of the more memorable scenes at the end of the film, the viewer is reminded to "always look on the bright side of life" by singers hanging from crosses. " Always Look on the Bright Side of Life " is a popular song written by Eric Idle that originally featured in the 1979 film Monty Python's Life of Brian
Conan the Barbarian is nailed on a tree in a desert in the Robert Howard story "A Witch Shall be Born". Conan the Barbarian (also known as Conan the Cimmerian, from the name of his homeland Cimmeria) is a Fictional character often associated with People from England or Ireland named Robert Howard include Sir Robert Howard (died 1436 father of John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk Robert Howard " A Witch Shall be Born " is one of the original stories by Robert E
Characters played by Arnold Schwarzenegger are crucified both in Conan the Barbarian (1982) and in End of Days (1999). Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor Conan the Barbarian is a 1982 film by director John Milius and is recognized as the acting Breakthrough of bodybuilder End of Days is a 1999 action / horror / fantasy Film starring Arnold Schwarzenegger and directed by Peter Hyams. Also, in the latter movie a priest is crucified to the ceiling of a hospital room.
The movie Cyborg has multiple scenes of crucifixion. Cyborg is a 1989 action / sci-fi film directed by Albert Pyun.
The movie Men Behind the Sun features mass crucifixion in a scene in which innocent victims are used for various cruel experiments. Men Behind the Sun ( is a 1987 Hong Kong film directed by Mou Tun Fei.
The opening scene of the movie Exorcist: The Beginning features a crowd of upside down-crucifixions, mirroring the crucifixion of Saint Peter. Exorcist The Beginning produced by Morgan Creek Productions is a 2004 Prequel to the 1973 Film The Exorcist
In 1991, Army of Lovers released a single describing voluntary crucifixions as expressions of religious devotion in the Philippines. Army Of Lovers was a Swedish Dance music group founded in 1987 by 3 members of a band called Barbie, namely Alexander Bard, "Crucified" performed well on the DMR club charts, but controversial lyrics ("I'm crucified, crucified like my Savior; saint-like behavior, a lifetime I pray") precluded widespread radio play.
According to urban legends, a Japanese department store confused Western imagery and displayed a crucified Santa Claus as part of its Christmas decorations. Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Father Christmas, Kris Kringle, or simply " Santa " is the
Robert Cenedella actually painted a crucified Santa Claus as a protest against Christmas commercialization, displayed in the window of New York's Art Students League in December 1997.
The song "The Ballad of John and Yoko" was banned by several US radio stations, due to Lennon's use of the word "Christ" and the phrase "They're gonna crucify me" in the lyric. " Ballad of John and Yoko " is a song released by The Beatles as a single in May 1969 In fact, the song's working title was "The Ballad of John and Yoko (They're Going to Crucify Me)". Tori Amos's early hit single "Crucify" was also dropped in numerous locations because of its imagery. Tori Amos (born Myra Ellen Amos on August 22, 1963) is a Pianist and Singer-songwriter of dual British and American " Crucify " is a song written and performed by American singer-songwriter Tori Amos that appears on her album Little Earthquakes
Multiple Marilyn Manson videos such as "I Don't Like The Drugs But The Drugs Like Me" and "Coma White" feature crucifixion imagery, often oddly staged in surreal modern or near modern day settings. Marilyn Manson is an American Alternative metal band based in Los Angeles California. Often questioning the truthfulness of the crucifixion of Jesus in such songs as Cruci-Fiction in Space.
The song "Auf Achse" by Scottish band Franz Ferdinand describes the crucifixion. Auf Achse is a song about Unrequited love by the band Franz Ferdinand, from the album Franz Ferdinand. Franz Ferdinand is a rock band that formed in Glasgow, Scotland in 2001
Singer Madonna opened her concerts during her 2006 tour with a mock crucifixion, complete with a Crown of Thorns. Madonna Louise Ciccone Ritchie (born August 16 1958 known as Madonna, is an American In Christianity the Crown of Thorns, one of the instruments of the Passion, was the woven chaplet of thorn branches worn by Jesus before his Crucifixion This caused considerable controversy, especially when she did so at a concert near Vatican City in 2006. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory 
Norwegian black metal band Gorgoroth had several people on stage affixed to crosses to give the appearance of crucifixion at a now infamous concert in Krakow, and repeated this act in the music video for 'Carving a Giant'. Gorgoroth is a Black metal band from Bergen, Norway that was founded by Infernus in 1992 Kraków, in English also spelled Krakow or Cracow (ˈkrækaʊ M-W: krăk'ou krāk'ō is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland
In the 2006 movie, The Nativity Story, there is a brief scene in which several men are crucified. Filming began on May 1, 2006 in Matera Italy and in Morocco. New Line Cinema released it on December 1, 2006 in the
The FPS game Unreal features crucified Nalis multiple times. Unreal is a First-person shooter Computer game developed by Epic Games and Digital Extremes and published by GT Interactive However, there is a twist, as Nalis have four arms, so the crosses have two crosspieces in an X-shape.
Wolverine of the X-Men was crucified on an fittingly X-shaped cross in Uncanny X-Men #251. The X-Men is a team of fictional Superhero characters in Comic books published by Marvel Comics. Due to his healing factor, he survived.
In the video for R. E. M. 's "Losing My Religion," they feature a scene depicting Thomas fingering the wounds of the crucified Christ.
A mock crucifixion was staged by Extreme Championship Wrestling wrestlers Raven and The Sandman in 1996. Extreme Championship Wrestling ( ECW) was a Professional wrestling promotion that was founded in Philadelphia Pennsylvania in 1992 by Professional wrestling, or pro wrestling, is a non-competitive professional Sport, where all matches are scripted by the promotion's booking staff Scott Anthony Levy (born September 8 1964 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) better known by his Ring name Raven, is an American Professional James (" Jim " Fullington Following the highly-publicised caning of Michael P In a 1998 edition of WWF Monday Night RAW, The Undertaker handcuffed Stone Cold Steve Austin, crucifix-style, to a large version of the Undertaker's symbol, a combination of a shovel, pick, and sickle which resembled a cross. This article is about the television program You may be looking for the 1994 video game or the 2002 video game WWE Raw is Mark William Calaway (born March 24 1965 is an American professional wrestler, better known by his Ring name The Undertaker. Steven Williams (born Steven Anderson on December 18 1964 This defiance was often shown by Austin flipping McMahon off and incapacitating him with the
In the anime Bleach on episode 54, when the Shinigami Rukia Kuchiki is about to be executed at the Sogyoku Hill, she's restrained in a position that is very similar to crucifixion. is a Fictional character and protagonist in the Anime and Manga series Bleach created by Tite Kubo.
In episode 74 of the Sailor Moon R series, the Inner Senshi are captured by Rubeus and crucified on rock crystal crosses inside of his space ship. And also in episode 123 of Sailor Moon S, during Chibiusa's nightmare, Hotaru Tomoe is bound on a cross with skeletal arms and hands. is one of the central characters in the Sailor Moon Metaseries. is one of the central characters in the Sailor Moon Metaseries.
In the short clips Mazin saga, Sayaka Yumi's robot Aphrodite is tied up to a crucifix and is finally rescued by other Go Nagai robots. was the heroine of the manga and anime Mazinger Z. She was a bit hot-tempered and tomboyish and had a habit of clashing with the story's hero Kouji Kabuto even though
In the Pokemon movie Mewtwo Returns, when Mewtwo was forced to be detained by Giovanni's most powerful machine, he was set in a crucified position with a mirror similarity to Jesus's. If you came here to express your personal opinion about Pokémon please go somewhere else Pokémon Mewtwo Returns is an animated film based on the Pokémon anime, and is the direct follow-up to Pokémon The First Movie. At the core of the multi-billion dollar Pokémon Media franchise of various electronic games, ongoing anime, several manga series,
In Naruto, Kakashi is on a capital T cross in Itachi's illusion and is stabbed with a sword instead of a spear. is an ongoing Japanese Manga series written and illustrated by Masashi Kishimoto with an Anime adaptation This is a list of antagonists in the Naruto Anime and Manga series Also in Naruto, a young boy's father is murdered on a wooden cross.
At the end of the cultural festival arc of School Rumble S2, Kenji Harima was tied up on a cross and nailed on the ceiling while everyone was celebrating the end of the festival as punishment for sleeping in the bed used for his class play. is a Manga serialized in the Weekly Shōnen Magazine, created by Jin Kobayashi. is a fictional character in the anime/manga series School Rumble and its male protagonist
In one episode of Samurai Champloo, two of the main characters narrowly escape crucifixion for unknowingly using fake passports at a checkpoint. Lilith (Hebrew he לילית is a mythological female Mesopotamian Storm Demon associated with Wind and was thought to be a bearer is a Japanese animated television series consisting of twenty-six episodes
In episode 3 of Macross Plus, as Myung Fang Lone attempts to deactivate the Virturoid Idol Sharon Apple, she is caught in coils of audio/video cables before being suspended in mid-air in a crucifix-like stance. is a four-episode Anime OVA and theatrical movie in the Macross series Myung Fang Lone is a fictional character in the Macross universe Sharon Apple is a fictional character in the Macross universe
Crucifixion-type imagery is employed in several of the popular Final Fantasy games, including the 7th, 8th, and 10th installments of the series.
In one scene of the Square-Enix videogame, Xenogears, there is a scene involving the crucifixion of mech-robots.
In Higurashi no Naku Koro ni Satoko is stabbed with a knife by Shion while chained to a cross. is a Japanese Murder mystery Dōjin soft Sound novel series based on the NScripter engine produced by 07th Expansion.
In One Piece, Luffy finds Roronoa Zoro tied to a wooden cross while being held prisoner by the Navy. is a Japanese Shōnen Manga written and illustrated by Eiichiro Oda, that has been serialized in Weekly Shōnen Jump magazine is a Fictional character and the main Protagonist in the Anime and Manga series One Piece created by Eiichiro Oda (Written as Roronoa Zolo in the 4Kids dub and FUNimation edited dub as well as the European English translation and English manga is a fictional character in the Manga
Movies dating back to the days of the silent films have depicted the crucifixion of Jesus. Most of these follow the traditional (and often inaccurate) pattern established by medieval and Renaissance artists, though there have been several notable exceptions. In The Passover Plot (1976) the two thieves aren't shown to either side of Jesus but instead one is on a cross behind and facing him while the other is on a cross in front of and facing away from him. The Passover Plot (ISBN 1-85230-836-2 is the name of a controversial best-selling 1965 book by British Biblical scholar Hugh J Ben-Hur (1959) may be the first Biblical movie to show the nails being driven through the wrists rather than the palms. Ben-Hur (or Benhur is a 1959 Movie directed by William Wyler, and is the third film version of Lew Wallace 's novel Ben-Hur Jesus of Nazareth is one of the first movies to show Jesus carrying just the crossbeam to Calvary rather than the entire cross. Jesus of Nazareth is a six-hour long Anglo - Italian Television Miniseries of the birth life death and resurrection of Jesus The Last Temptation of Christ is the first movie to show Jesus naked on the cross. The Last Temptation of Christ is a 1988 film directed by Martin Scorsese. Image1Image2 In The Gospel of John (2003), Jesus' feet are shown being nailed through the ankle to each side of the upright portion of the cross. The Gospel of John is a 2003 movie that is the story of Jesus ' life as recounted by the Gospel of John. In The Passion of the Christ (2004), the crucifixion scene depicts Jesus's hands being impaled, and the centurions dislocating his shoulder in order to impale his right hand, and impaling his feet, and then turning the cross over to block the nails from coming out. The Passion of the Christ is a 2004 film co-written co-produced and directed by Mel Gibson.
In 2000, British artist Sebastian Horsley had himself nailed to a cross in the Philippines in order to gain inspiration for an art project of his. Sebastian Horsley (born 1962 is a London writer and artist best known for having undergone a voluntary Crucifixion.