Common Raven (Corvus corax)
See text. Chordates ( Phylum Chordata) are a group of Animals that includes the Vertebrates together with several closely related Invertebrates Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of Oscine Passerine Birds that contains the Crows Ravens rooks The Genus Corvus consists of large Passerine birds They are either black all over or mainly black with white or grey patches Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for Year 1758 ( MDCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The true crows are large passerine birds that comprise the genus Corvus in the family Corvidae. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of Oscine Passerine Birds that contains the Crows Ravens rooks Ranging in size from the relatively small pigeon-sized jackdaws (Eurasian and Daurian) to the Common Raven of the Holarctic region and Thick-billed Raven of the highlands of Ethiopia, the 40 or so members of this genus occur on all temperate continents (except South America) and several offshore and oceanic islands (including Hawaii). The Jackdaw ( Corvus monedula) sometimes known as the Eurasian Jackdaw, European Jackdaw or caddow, is one of the smallest species (34–39  The Jackdaw ( Corvus monedula) sometimes known as the Eurasian Jackdaw, European Jackdaw or caddow, is one of the smallest species (34–39  The Daurian Jackdaw ( Corvus dauricus) is a member of the Corvidae or Crow family of Birds It is closely related to the Eurasian Jackdaw The Holarctic Ecozone refers to the habitats found throughout the northern continents of the world as a whole The Thick-billed Raven ( Corvus crassirostris) a Corvid from the Horn of Africa, shares with the Common Raven the distinction of being the NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page A continent is one of several large Landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by Convention rather than any strict criteria with seven regions South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the
The crow genus makes up a third of the species in the corvid family. Other corvids include rooks and jays. Crows appear to have evolved in Asia from the corvid stock, which had evolved in Australasia.
The genus was originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for The book Systema Naturae was one of the major works of the Swedish doctor of medicine Carolus Linnaeus.  The name is derived from the Latin corvus meaning "raven". Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.  The type species is the Common Raven (Corvus corax); others named in the same work include the Carrion Crow (C. In Taxonomy, a type species is the species that originally defined a genus. The Carrion Crow ( Corvus corone) is a member of the Passerine order of Birds and the Crow family which is native to western Europe corone), the Hooded Crow (C. The Hooded Crow ( Corvus cornix) (sometimes called Hoodiecrow) is a Eurasian bird species in the Crow Genus. cornix), the Rook (C. The Rook ( Corvus frugilegus) is a member of the Passerine order of birds and the crow family frugilegus), and the Jackdaw (C. The Jackdaw ( Corvus monedula) sometimes known as the Eurasian Jackdaw, European Jackdaw or caddow, is one of the smallest species (34–39  monedula).
There is no good systematic approach to the genus at present. Generally, it is assumed that the species from a geographical area are more closely related to each other than to other lineages, but this is not necessarily correct. For example, while the Carrion/Collared/House Crow complex is certainly closely related to each other, the situation is not at all clear regarding the Australian/Melanesian species. Furthermore, as many species are similar in appearance, determining actual range and characteristics can be very difficult, such as in Australia where the five (possibly six) species are almost identical in appearance.
The fossil record of crows is rather dense in Europe, but the relationships among most prehistoric species is not clear. FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. Jackdaw-, crow- and raven-sized forms seem to have existed since long ago and crows were regularly hunted by humans up to the Iron Age, documenting the evolution of the modern taxa. This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. American crows are not as well-documented.
A surprisingly high number of species have become extinct after human colonization; the loss of one prehistoric Caribbean crow could also have been related to the last ice age's climate changes. In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. "Last glacial" redirects here For the period of maximum glacier extent during this time see Last Glacial Maximum The last glacial period
Australian and Melanesian species
New Zealand species
Pacific island species
Tropical Asian species
Eurasian and North African species
North and Central American species
Tropical African species
In addition to the prehistoric forms listed above, some extinct chronosubspecies have been described. A chronospecies is a Species which changes physically morphologically, genetically, and/or behaviorally over time on an evolutionary scale such These are featured under the respective species accounts.
Certain species have been considered pests; the Common Raven, Australian Raven and Carrion Crow have all been known to kill weak lambs as well as eating freshly dead corpses probably killed by other means. The Australian Raven ( Corvus coronoides) is the largest Australian member of the Genus Corvus and one of three Australian species commonly The Carrion Crow ( Corvus corone) is a member of the Passerine order of Birds and the Crow family which is native to western Europe Rooks have been blamed for eating grain in the UK and Brown-necked Raven for raiding date crops in desert countries. The Rook ( Corvus frugilegus) is a member of the Passerine order of birds and the crow family The Brown-necked Raven ( Corvus ruficollis) is a larger bird (52-56 cm in length than the Carrion Crow though not as large as the Common Raven. 
In the United States it is legal to hunt crows in all states usually from around August to the end of March and anytime if they are causing a nuisance or health hazard. There is no bag limit when taken during the "crow hunting season. " According to the US Code of Federal Regulations, crows may be taken (i. e. , shot) without a permit in certain circumstances. USFWS 50 CFR 21. 43 (Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows and magpies) states that a Federal permit is not required to control these birds "when found committing or about to commit depredations upon ornamental or shade trees, agricultural crops, livestock, or wildlife, or when concentrated in such numbers and manner as to constitute a health hazard or other nuisance," provided
In the UK, the crow is considered a pest and under certain conditions can be shot under a number of general licenses issued by DEFRA. The Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs ( Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection
In Australia it is illegal to kill native birds. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
They appear to have evolved in central Asia and radiated out into North America, Africa, Europe, and Australia. Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of Oscine Passerine Birds that contains the Crows Ravens rooks For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
The latest evidence appears to point towards an Australasian origin for the early family (Corvidae) though the branch that would produce the modern groups such as jays, magpies and large predominantly black Corvus. The jays are several Species of medium-sized usually colorful and noisy Passerine Birds in the Crow family Corvidae Magpies are Passerine Birds of the Crow family, Corvidae. The names ' Jay ' and 'magpie' are to a certain extent interchangeable Crows had left Australasia and were now developing in Asia. Corvus has since re-entered Australia (relatively recently) and produced five species with one recognized sub-species.
Corvus brachyrhynchos call
Crows make a wide variety of calls or vocalizations. Whether the crows' system of communication constitutes a language is a topic of debate and study. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them Crows have also been observed to respond to calls of other species; this behavior is presumably learned because it varies regionally. Crows' vocalizations are complex and poorly understood. Some of the many vocalizations that crows make are a "caw", usually echoed back and forth between birds, a series of "caws" in discrete units, counting out numbers, a long caw followed by a series of short caws (usually made when a bird takes off from a perch), an echo-like "eh-aw" sound, and more. These vocalizations vary by species, and within each species vary regionally. In many species, the pattern and number of the numerical vocalizations have been observed to change in response to events in the surroundings (i. e. arrival or departure of crows). Crows can hear sound frequencies lower than those that humans can hear, which complicates the study of their vocalizations.
As a group, the crows show remarkable examples of intelligence, and Aesop's fable of The Crow and the Pitcher shows that humans have long viewed the crow as an intelligent animal. Aesop (also spelled Æsop, from the Greek Αἴσωπος — Aisōpos) (620-560 BC) known only for the genre of Fables The Crow and the Pitcher is a fable ascribed to Aesop, number 390 in the classification established by Perry Crows and ravens often score very highly on intelligence tests. Certain species top the avian IQ scale. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. Bird intelligence deals with the definition of Intelligence and its measurement as it applies to Birds Traditionally birds have been considered inferior in intelligence Crows in the northwestern U. S. (a blend of Corvus brachyrhynchos and Corvus caurinus) show modest linguistic capabilities and the ability to relay information over great distances, live in complex, hierarchic societies involving hundreds of individuals with various "occupations", and have an intense rivalry with the area's less socially advanced ravens. Wild hooded crows in Israel have learned to use bread crumbs for bait-fishing. Crows will engage in a kind of mid-air jousting, or air-"chicken" to establish pecking order. The game of Chicken, also known as the Hawk-Dove or Snowdrift game is an influential model of conflict for two players in Game theory. One species, the New Caledonian Crow, has recently been intensively studied because of its ability to manufacture and use its own tools in the day-to-day search for food, including dropping seeds into a heavy trafficked street and waiting for a car to crush them open. The New Caledonian Crow ( Corvus moneduloides) is a species of Crow endemic to New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands. A broader definition of a tool is an entity used to interface between two or more domains that facilitates more effective action of one domain upon the other On October 5, 2007, researchers from the University of Oxford, England presented data acquired by mounting tiny video cameras on the tails of New Caledonian Crows. Events 869 - The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland It turned out that they use a larger variety of tools than previously known, plucking, smoothing and bending twigs and grass stems to procure a variety of foodstuffs. Crows in Queensland Australia have learned how to eat the toxic cane toad. Crows there have learned that by flipping the cane toad on its back and by violently stabbing the throat where the skin is thinner, the crow can access the non-toxic innards. Their long beaks ensure that all of the innards can be removed.
Many crow species are all black. Most of their natural enemies, the raptors or "falconiformes", soar high above the trees, and hunt primarily on bright, sunny days when contrast between light and shadow is greatest. Birds of prey are Birds that hunt for food primarily on the wing using their keen senses especially vision The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 Species of Birds that include the diurnal birds of prey. Crows usually hunt in groups of other crows, called murders. Crows take advantage of this by maneuvering themselves through the dappled shades of the trees, where their black color renders them effectively invisible to their enemies above, in order to set up complex ambush attacks. Fledglings are much duller than adults in appearances of great strategic importance to their societies. It is perhaps here where we find the greatest difference between ravens and crows; ravens tend to soar high in the air as raptors do, and like raptors. Raven is the common name given to the largest species of Passerine Birds in the Genus Corvus.
While hawks tend to be the primary daytime predators of crows, their most deadly predators, in many areas, are the owls that hunt by night. Crows also will often mob owls much more fiercely when they find them in daylight than the hawks and other raptors. Frequently crows appear to "play" with hawks, taking turns "counting coup" while escorting the raptor out of their territory. Counting coup refers to prestige won in battle by Native Americans of the Great Plains. Their attacks on owls, on the other hand, possess a definite serious quality.
Even in species characterized by being all black, one will still occasionally find variations, most of which appear to result from varying degrees of albinism, such as:
The treatment of these rare individuals may vary from group to group, even within the same species. For example, one such individual may receive special treatment, attention, or care from the others in its group, while another group of the same species might exile such individuals, forcing them to fend for themselves. The reason for such behaviors, and why these behaviors vary as they do, is unknown.
Crows, and especially ravens, often feature in European legends or mythology as portents or harbingers of doom or death, because of their dark plumage, unnerving calls, and tendency to eat carrion. Arthur Rackham ( 19 September 1867 &ndash 6 September 1939) was a prolific English book illustrator Raven is the common name given to the largest species of Passerine Birds in the Genus Corvus. A legend ( Latin, legenda, "things to be read" is a Narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" An omen (also called portent or presage) is a phenomenon that is believed to foretell the Future, often signifying the advent of change Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific Carrion (from the Latin caro, meaning meat refers to the carcass of a dead animal They are commonly thought to circle above scenes of death such as battles. The Child ballad The Three Ravens depicts three ravens discussing whether they can eat a dead knight, but finds that his hawk, his hound, and his true love prevent them; in the parody version The Twa Corbies, these guards have already forgotten the dead man, and the ravens can eat their fill. The Child Ballads are a collection of 305 Ballads from England and Scotland, and their American variants collected by Francis James Child “The Three Ravens” ( Roud 5 is a folk Ballad, printed in the song book Melismata compiled by Thomas Ravenscroft and published in Their depiction of evil has also led to some exaggeration of their appetite. In modern films such as Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest, Damien: Omen II and Exorcist: The Beginning, crows are shown tearing out people's eyes while they are still alive. Pirates of the Caribbean Dead Man's Chest is a 2006 Adventure film of the ''Pirates of the Caribbean'' series, the sequel to the 2003 Damien Omen II, is a 1978 sequel to the Iconic horror film The Omen and the second film in The Omen series. Exorcist The Beginning produced by Morgan Creek Productions is a 2004 Prequel to the 1973 Film The Exorcist Crows have never been known for this behavior due to their high preference for carrion.
In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Chaldean myth, the character Utnapishtim releases a dove and a raven to find land, however, the dove merely circles and returns. The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction. Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian Akkadian Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction. Only then does Utnapishtim send forth the raven, who does not return. Utnapishtim extrapolates from this that the raven has found land, which is why it hasn't returned. This would seem to indicate some acknowledgement of crow intelligence, which may have been apparent even in ancient times, and to some might imply that the higher intelligence of crows, when compared to other birds, is striking enough that it was known even then.
In occult circles, distinctions are sometimes made between crows and ravens. The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine hidden secret referring to "knowledge of the hidden" In mythology and folklore as a whole, crows tend to be symbolic more of the spiritual aspect of death, or the transition of the spirit into the afterlife, whereas ravens tend more often to be associated with the negative (physical) aspect of death. "Symbolic" redirects here For other uses see Symbolism (disambiguation and Symbolic (disambiguation. AfterLife is a film drama set in Scotland directed by Alison Peebles made in 2003 about an ambitious Scottish journalist forced to choose between However, few if any individual mythologies or folklores make such a distinction, and there are ample exceptions. Another reason for this distinction is that while crows are typically highly social animals, ravens don't seem to congregate in large numbers anywhere but:
Amongst Neopagans, crows are often thought to be highly psychic and are associated with the element of ether or spirit, rather than the element of air as with most other birds. Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is an Umbrella term used to identify a wide variety of modern religious movements particularly those influenced by historical The word psychic (ˈsaɪkɨk from the Greek psychikos—"of the soul mental" refers to the claimed ability to perceive things hidden from the normal senses According to ancient and medieval science, aether (Greek grc αἰθήρ aithēr) also spelled æther or ether, is the material that fills This may in part be due to the long-standing occult tradition of associating the color black with "the abyss" of infinite knowledge (see akasha), or perhaps also to the more modern occult belief that wearing the "color" black aids in psychic ability, as it absorbs more electromagnetic energy, since surfaces appear black by absorbing all frequencies in the visible spectrum, reflecting no color. Vedic Meaning Akasha (or Akash, Ākāśa, sa आकाश is the Sanskrit word meaning " aether " in both Parapsychology is a discipline that seeks to demonstrate the existence and causes of Psychic abilities and life after death using the Scientific method Electromagnetism is the Physics of the Electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a Force on particles that possess the property of
Compendium of Materia Medica states that crows are kind birds that feed their old and weakened parents; this is often cited as a fine example of filial piety. Bencao Gangmu ( also known as Compendium of Materia Medica, is a Chinese materia medica work written by Li Shizhen in Ming In Confucian thought filial piety ( is one of the Virtues to be cultivated a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
In Chinese mythology, they believed that the world at one time had ten suns that were caused by 10 crows. Chinese mythology is a collection of Cultural history, Folktales, and Religions that have been passed down in oral or written form The effect was devastating to the crops and nature, so they sent in their greatest archer Houyi to shoot down 9 crows and spare only one. Houyi (后羿 also simply called Yi was a mythological Chinese Archer and the leader of Dongyi. Also Chinese people believe that crows mean bad luck, probably due to the colour black. Having a "crow beak" is a symbolic expression that one is being a jinx. A jinx, in popular Superstition and Folklore, is A sort of Curse placed on a person that makes them prey to large numbers of minor misfortunes
A very incomplete list includes the eponymous Pacific Northwest Native figures Raven and Crow, the ravens Hugin and Munin, who accompany the Norse god Odin, the Celtic goddesses the Mórrígan and/or the Badb (sometimes considered separate from Mórrígan), and Shani, a Hindu god who travels astride a crow. The Pacific Northwest is a region in the northwest of North America (the term refers to the land not the ocean For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Ravens are common characters in the traditional narratives and Mythology around the world notably a part of North American, Siberian, and Huginn and Muninn, sometimes anglicised Hugin and Munin, are a pair of Ravens associated with the Norse god Odin. Norse mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and Legends of the Scandinavian peoples including those who settled on Iceland Odin (ˈoʊdɪn from Old Norse Óðinn) is considered the chief god in Norse paganism. Celtic mythology is the Mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the Religion of the Iron Age Celts Like other Iron Age The Morrígan ("terror" or "phantom queen" or Mórrígan ("great queen" (also known as Morrígu, Morríghan, Mor-Ríoghain In Irish mythology, the Badb (/baðβ/ " Crow " in Old Irish; modern Irish Badhbh /bəiv/ means " Vulture " Shani ( Sanskrit Śani शनि is one of the Navagraha which are the nine primary celestial beings in Hindu astrology or A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical In Buddhism, the Dharmapala (protector of the Dharma) Mahakala is represented by a crow in one of his physical/earthly forms. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Mahakala is a Dharmapala ("protector of Dharma " in Vajrayana Buddhism ( Tibetan Buddhism and Japanese Shingon Buddhism Avalokiteśvara/Chenrezig, who is reincarnated on Earth as the Dalai Lama, is often closely associated with the crow because it is said that when the first Dalai Lama was born, robbers attacked the family home. Avalokiteśvara ( Nepali: अवलोकितेश्वर, lit Avalokiteśvara ( Nepali: अवलोकितेश्वर, lit The Dalai Lama is the spiritual and political leader of the Tibetan people according to Tibetan Buddhism. The parents fled and were unable to get to the infant Lama in time. When they returned the next morning expecting the worst, they found their home untouched, and a pair of crows were caring for the Dalai Lama. It is believed that crows heralded the birth of the First, Seventh, Eighth, Twelfth and Fourteenth Lamas, the latter being the current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso. Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso (born Lhamo Döndrub ( 6 July 1935 in Qinghai) He is the head of the Tibetan government-in-exile Crows are mentioned often in Buddhism, especially Tibetan disciplines. In Greek mythology, it was believed that when the crows gave bad news to the goddess Athena, she flew into a rage, and cursed their feathers to be black. Myths in India: In Hinduism, it is believed that people who died will take food and offerings through a variety of crows called "Bali kākka". Every year people whose parents or relatives died will offer food to crows as well as cows on the Shradha day. A battle between crows and owls is said to have inspired the final bloody night of the Mahabharatha war.
The American crow is very susceptible to the West Nile virus, a disease just recently introduced in North America. West Nile virus (or WNV is a Virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE antigenic complex of viruses it is found in American crows usually die within one week of acquiring the disease with only very few surviving exposure. Crows are so affected by the disease that their deaths are now serving as an indicator of the West Nile Virus’ activity in an area.