Cross Country running is a sport in which teams of runners compete to complete a course over open or rough terrain faster than other teams. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively The courses used at these events may include grass, mud, woodlands, and water. Poaceae or Gramineae is a family in the Class Liliopsida of the flowering plants. It is a popular participatory sport, and usually takes place in temperate regions during the autumn and winter when soft conditions underfoot prevail.
Cross country running as an organized sport originates from The Crick Run held every year since 1837 in Rugby School England. Rugby School, located in the town of Rugby, Warwickshire, is a Co-educational Boarding school and one of the oldest public schools England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland In the early 19th century cross country was practiced in all public schools. An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local Government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges gifts and In 1851, undergraduates at Exeter College, Oxford organised a foot grind. Exeter College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England and the 4th oldest college of the University This was an analogy with steeple chasing on horse where a race would be held towards the nearest church steeple, forcing riders to clear rural obstacles such as hedges, fences, and ditches. The steeplechase is a form of Horse racing (primarily conducted in the United Kingdom, United States, France, and Ireland) and derives A two-mile cross country steeplechase formed part of the Oxford University sports (in which many of the modern athletics events were founded) in 1860, but replaced in 1865 by an event over barriers on a flat fields, which became the modern steeplechase in athletics. The steeplechase is an obstacle race in athletics, which derives its name from the steeplechase in horse racing
In 1868, members of Thames Rowing Club looking for winter exercise (when rowing did not take place then) formed Thames Hare and Hounds in Roehampton on the south-west fringes of London and adjoining Wimbledon Common on which cross-country races were staged. Thames Rowing Club is a Rowing club situated on the River Thames in Putney, London, United Kingdom. Thames Hare and Hounds is the oldest Cross-country running club in the world based on the Roehampton end of Wimbledon Common, adjacent to Richmond Roehampton is a large district in south-west London, forming the western end of the London Borough of Wandsworth. Wimbledon and Putney Commons are a large open space in south-west London, totalling 1140 acres (4 They were joined by Peckham Hare and Hounds in 1869 (which became Blackheath Harriers in 1880), Cheshire Tally Ho Hare and Hounds in 1872, Birchfield Harriers 1877, Cambridge University Hare and Hounds in 1880, and Ranelagh Harriers in 1881. This article is about the South London town For the villages in Kent see East Peckham and West Peckham. Blackheath is an area in southeast London centred around a section of open public grassland ('the Heath' and straddling the boundary of the London Borough of Lewisham and the This article is about the dog For other uses see Harrier (disambiguation Birchfield Harriers is an athletics club founded in 1877. Its home is at Birmingham 's Alexander Stadium, England. Since the late nineteenth century the Cambridge University Cross country running club has been providing training and competitions for its members The Ranelagh Harriers is a Road running and cross-country club based in Richmond, south-west London, UK. The English Cross Country Union followed in 1883 which introduced the National Championships. Most of these early clubs continue to thrive to this day. The reason for the names associated with hunting is that in many of the early matches, the course was set by paper chasing: a few runners (the hares) would have a start on the bulk of the field (the hounds), and lay a 'scent' by scattering a paper trail behind them which the hounds would follow. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. Racing would take place between the hares and the hounds and within the hounds themselves. Because of the obvious nuisance this can generate, this form of racing was largely discontinued quite early on. Occasional matches still take place, by Cheshire Tally Ho and the popular Hash House Harriers, for example. The Hash House Harriers (abbreviated to HHH, H3, or referred to simply as Hashing) is an international group of social non-competitive Running However, from an early date steeplechases and championship races also took place over fixed courses, as today.
In 1878, the sport was introduced into the United States by William C. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Vosburgh. At first, the sport served mainly as training for summer track and field athletics. Nine years later, cross country running became a formal sport in the United States. Despite the international popularity of cross-country, the sport was dropped from the Olympic Games after 1924 due to it being an inappropriate summer sport. The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games In the 1960s, the International Amateur Athletic Federation, which regulates cross-country running, allowed women to run for the first time. The International Association of Athletics Federations ( IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics.
The sport is still popular in temperate countries. Internationally, the IAAF organises the World Cross Country Championships. IAAF World Cross Country Championships is the most important competition in international Cross country running. In recent years the type of course at this event has changed, moving from the traditional form to faster, drier courses.
Each cross-country running course is different in composition. Distances are generally standardized, however there will be little in common between any two courses other than their distance. As such, accurate comparisons cannot be made between performances on different courses or even on the same course on different years as the weather and underfoot conditions can be significantly different. For this reason, records of the fastest times in international competition are not kept.
Races are started en masse, sometimes with each team having its own pen or box along the start line. Boxes may be big enough to fit the entire team on the starting line. In some meets, there is only enough room for one runner on the line. The 2-7 runners follow in a line, and if permitted may flow into other boxes. A gun or horn is then sounded, and runners have a few hundred metres to converge from the wide starting line into the much narrower path that must be followed until the finish.
The runner is responsible for staying within a specified distance of the marked path. Courses may be marked using various methods, such as tape, chalk, paint, cones, and flags. Runners should avoid hitting marks as cones flags and cones can be scattered which can cause confusion as to the proper course.
The course usually ends at a finish line located at the beginning of a funnel or chute. The chute is a long, roped walkway that keeps athletes single-file in order of finishing.
Helpers at the finish line assist in making sure the athletes keep moving through the line while staying in order as more runners come through. They settle close finishes and help along any collapsing athletes to make sure they get their number in the right order. The helpers that work the chute also are in charge of giving water to the finishers and helping them if they are having trouble (vomiting, collapsing, trouble breathing).
There is often a small slip at the bottom of the runners' number (that is pinned to the front of their jersey during the race) that gets ripped off and collected, which shows each athlete's information. That slip is used to keep track of finishing positions. An alternative method (common in the UK) is to have 4 officials in two pairs. In the first pair one official reads out numbers of finishers. In the second pair one official reads out times, the records. At the end of the race the two lists are joined along with information from the entry information. The major disadvantage of this system is that distractions can easily upset the results, particularly when large numbers of runners finish close together.
|Team||Total score||1||2||3||4||Tie breaker|
|Blue Team||18||1||4||6||7||9 *Wins tie|
|Note on examples, there are usually 5 scoring runners on each team, 4 is for brevity.|
Scoring is done by the noting of a number, or the issuing of a disk with the runner's position stamped on it which clubs use to compose a return for the race organisers. This helps the people running the meet make sure everyone is scored correctly. Less common is an open finish line, which usually involves reading radio-broadcasting computer chips (sometimes referred to as "chip timing") attached to each runner. Prior to the finish line, the course may widen to allow more passing.
Cross country running is normally scored on a team basis. Points are awarded to the individual runners of eligible teams, equal to the position in which they cross the finish line (first place gets 1 point, second place gets 2 points, etc). Teams are considered ineligible to score if they have fewer than the meet's required number of scorers, which is typically five. Only the first runners in for a team are counted towards that team's score. Teams are awarded ranks based on the number of points their top runners have, with lowest being best. The rules in the event of a tie vary depending on the competition; often the team that closes scoring first wins, though in the US NCAA ties are possible. In high school competition, if two teams tie, then the victor is decided by whose sixth runner, the first one whose score does not count, finished first.
The lowest possible score in a five-to-score match is 15 (1+2+3+4+5), achieved by a team's runners finishing in each of the top five positions. If there is a single opposing team then they would have a score of 40 (6+7+8+9+10), which can be considered a "sweep" for the winning team. In some competitions a team's sixth and seventh runner are scored in the overall field and are known as "pushers" or "displacers" as their place can count ahead of other runners. In the above match, if there are two non-scoring runners and they came 6th and 7th overall, the opponent's score would be 50 (8+9+10+11+12). Accordingly, the official score of a forfeited dual meet is 15-50.
Coaches move throughout the course to dictate strategy and motivate their teams. While the race is usually won by an outstanding individual, it is often the battles between the secondary teammates that determine which team wins.
One of the most successful cross-country coaches in the U. S. at the collegiate level is Jack Daniels formerly the coach at SUNY Cortland. Jack Daniels was a professor of physical education and Cross-country running coach at State University of New York at Cortland. The State University of New York College at Cortland, also called SUNY Cortland, is located in Cortland, New York. The Daniels training method outlined in his book Daniels' Running Formula is used in all levels of cross-country from high school to the international elite.
The most successful American high school cross country coach is Joe Newton from York Community High School in Elmhurst, Illinois. Joe Newton is a high school cross country coach at York High School in Elmhurst Illinois. His teams have won 26 Illinois state titles in 50 years. York was also the first winner of the Nike Team National Cross Country meet in 2004.
In high school competition, coaches sometimes build "home" courses on or near the school campus. This allows their runners to train on it frequently.
As in all distance races, runners often try to run even splits (or possibly negative splits, getting faster and faster as the race goes on) for the most efficient use of their energy, although other tactics are common. They may also run in packs to lessen the mental strain put on each individual runner.
Other strategies include running the top 5-7 members of the team as a pack for as long as possible, even to the finish; deploying a rabbit, an early sprinter, to lure the other team's top runners into using up their reserves; and "kicking," staying on the shoulder of the leader until the last 100-200 m, turning the three-mile fight into an exhausted sprint to the finish. In small meets, such as high school tri-meets, a team may lead the start race at a slow pace and then make a coordinated surge to catch a couple of the other runners off guard.
Cross-country running involves very little specialised equipment. Unless it is particularly cold, most races are run in shorts and a vest/tank/singlet, usually in club or school colors. Footwear is usually a pair of spikes, which are light running shoes with a fairly rigid rubber sole. Sometimes spikes and studs are used on slippery muddy, grassy courses to maintain grip. Cross country spikes have 8 or 6 spikes on the bottom and they are normally very pointy. On very cold days many runners will choose to wear long sleeved and long legged garments under vests and even hats and gloves .
Several athletes have won three or more individual titles at the IAAF World Cross Country Championships: Carlos Lopes, the first man to win three times; John Ngugi, the first man to win five times; Paul Tergat, the first man to win five times in a row; Kenenisa Bekele, the only man to win the short and long courses each five times in five years. IAAF World Cross Country Championships is the most important competition in international Cross country running. Carlos Alberto de Sousa Lopes, GCIH, pron 'kaɾluʃ 'lɔpɨʃ (born February 18 John Ngugi Kamau (born May 10, 1962 in Nyahururu, Laikipia) is a former Kenyan athlete, winner of 5000 metres Paul Kibii Tergat (born June 17, 1969) is a Kenyan professional athlete. Kenenisa Bekele (born 13 June 1982 Ethiopia) is an Ethiopian distance runner who holds the world records in the 5000 metres and 10000 metres In recent years, international cross-country has been dominated by eastern Africans, particularly those representing Kenya and Ethiopia. The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page
Grete Waitz, the first woman to win five times; Lynn Jennings, who won three times; Derartu Tulu, who won three times; Gete Wami and Tirunesh Dibaba, both of whom won twice at the long course and once at the short; and Edith Masai, who won the short race three times. Grete Waitz (born October 1, 1953) is a former Norwegian marathon runner who won nine New York City Marathons between 1978 and 1988 Lynn Jennings (born July 1, 1960 in Princeton NJ) is a retired American athlete who competed mainly in the long distances Derartu Tulu (born March 21, 1972 in Bekoji, Arsi Province, Ethiopia) is an Ethiopian long distance track Getenesh 'Gete' Wami ( Ge'ez:ጌጤነሽ 'ጌጤ' ዋሚ born December 11, 1974 in Debre Berhan) is a female Ethiopian Tirunesh Dibaba also known as Tirunesh Dibaba Kenene (born June 1 1985 in Bekoji, Arsi, Ethiopia) is an Ethiopian long distance Edith Chewangel Masai (born April 4, 1967) is a Kenyan track athlete.
Cross-country running is a far reaching sport in Canada. Starting in elementary school, most children have had some form of exposure to cross-country running, usually in the form of an annual all-school event. In middle school, races are more serious and are divided by grade and gender. In high school the races are very serious and tend to be the main talent pool (especially at the senior level) for university or national-level runners. At the university level, the sport is administered by the CIS. Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS is the national Governing body of University sport in Canada, comprised of the majority of degree granting universities
The organisation of cross-country running in the United Kingdom has continued to be mostly devolved to the four national associations: England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of The sport is based around the clubs, which usually are mixed cross-country and road running clubs. The current position (which is changing) is that in England, the ECCU is part of the Amateur Athletic Association. The Amateur Athletic Association of England (formerly simply the Amateur Athletic Association) or AAA (pronounced 'three As' is the oldest athletics organization
Cross-country running takes place from roughly September until March. Most matches are parts of different cross-country leagues, which are organised on an ad hoc basis. These vary from large, high quality leagues, such as the Birmingham League and Surrey League (which is unusual in requiring ten runners to score) to small, local leagues (such as the Gloucestershire AA league), and individual clubs can be a member of several leagues. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. History See also History of Gloucestershire Gloucestershire is a historic county mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 10th century
Typically there will be four or five fixtures a season. In addition there are county championships, area championships (north, south, and midlands), the national championship (whose location rotates around the three areas), and the Inter-Counties Championship (which is often the best quality race owing to its restricted entry and its role as the trial for the World Championships).
In addition there can be many inter-club matches, particularly among the older clubs. Most league matches are around 10 km (6. 2 miles) in length, and most championships 12 to 15 km (c. 7 1/2 to 9 miles) long. Most clubs are mixed, though women's races tend to be run separately from men's and to be shorter.
Secondary school aged students are also to compete at local schools races, with a set number of students qualifying for county level, at which their is a further race to qualify for the English Schools Cross Country race. There is also quite a lot of racing between universities, with larger fixtures organised through BUCS.
Distances in United States (US) amateur running differ based on gender and league.
Most elementary schools in the US do not have school teams, but many running clubs exist for youth runners of 18 years of age and younger. Youth running clubs compete in local, regional, and national championships sanctioned by the AAU or USATF. Official NameAmateur Athletic Union of the United States Incorporated (AAU USA Track & Field ( USATF) is the national governing body for the sport of track and field (or 'athletics' in the United States. Course distances for this age group vary depending on the age of the athlete. Common championship distances are 1. 9 miles or 3 km for ages 12 younger, 2 - 2. 5 miles(3. 2 - 4 km) for ages 13 and 14, and 3. 1 miles or 5 km for athletes 15 through 18 years of age.
Many middle school (grades 6-8) in the US offer cross country as a school sport and youth running clubs are still very dominant in this age group. The course length varies, as listed above, but middle school cross country distances are generally around 2 miles for both male and female.
In secondary/high schools, the standard male and female varsity distance is 5 kilometers (approximately 3. The University of Minnesota Twin Cities ( U of M or The U) is the oldest and largest part of the University of Minnesota system. In the United States and Canada, varsity sports teams are the principal athletic teams representing a College, University, High 1 miles)in many states such as Wisconsin, North Carolina and Virginia. 3. 0 miles is also common, such as in Illinois. However, states differ in their regulations, and in some a shorter 2. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government 5 miles course is typical for females. Some of the most prominent high school meets include September's Great American Cross Country Festival in Alabama, October's Manhattan Invitational in New York City's Van Cortlandt Park, and October's Mt. Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. The City of New York Van Cortlandt Park is a 1146 acre (46 km² park located in the Bronx in New York City. San Antonio College Invitational , "Mt. SAC" for short. The season culminates with the individual Foot Locker National XC Championships held in San Diego's Balboa Park and the Nike Team Nationals which are held in Portland, Oregon. Foot Locker Inc ( is an American sportswear and footwear retailer with its headquarters in New York City, and operating in approximately 20 countries worldwide Nike Team Nationals ( NTN) is an invitational cross country meet that serves as the unofficial team national championship of United States High school Portland is a city located in the Northwestern United States, near the Confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers
At college level, distances are usually 5 km or 6 km for females and 8 km (5 miles) for males for most invitationals and NCAA Division III regional and national meets. The Minnesota Golden Gophers are the college sports team for the University of Minnesota. Les Bolstad Golf Course is a Golf course owned by the University of Minnesota. The National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA, often pronounced "N-C-Double-A" is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions conferences organizations For NCAA Divisions I and II, men race 10 km (6. 2 mi) and women 6 km at regional and national competitions. The largest cross-country invitational in the world is at Mt. SAC. Mt San Antonio College (commonly called Mt SAC; pronounced as the word "sack" is a Community college located in the Los Angeles Suburb The USATF National Championships consist of a long course and a short course similar to the IAAF World Championships. USA Track & Field ( USATF) is the national governing body for the sport of track and field (or 'athletics' in the United States. The International Association of Athletics Federations ( IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics. The long course is 12 km for men and 8 km for women, while the short course is 4 km for both men and women.
Outstanding American cross-country runners include Don Lash, who won seven consecutive national championships from 1934 to 1940 and Pat Porter, who won eight titles from 1982 to 1989. Donald Ray Lash ( August 15, 1912 - September 19, 1994) was an American long-distance runner who won 12 national titles from 1934 to Only two American athletes have won the IAAF World Cross Country Championships; Craig Virgin, who won in 1980 and again in 1981 and Lynn Jennings from 1990-1992. Craig Steven Virgin (born August 2, 1955) is an American distance runner Lynn Jennings (born July 1, 1960 in Princeton NJ) is a retired American athlete who competed mainly in the long distances