The Cromford Canal ran 14. Cromford, in Derbyshire, England, is a large Village that is one of the significant sites in the development of the Industrial Revolution The Midland Railway Centre is a large tourist attraction in Derbyshire incorporating a Standard gauge rail line called the Midland Railway, a narrow gauge line The Nottingham Canal was a 1475 mile (236km long canal between Langley Mill in Derbyshire and Nottingham, England. The Erewash Canal is a broad canal in Derbyshire, England. It runs just under 12 miles (19 km and has 14 locks. 5 miles (23 km) from Cromford to the Erewash Canal in Derbyshire, England with a branch to Pinxton. Cromford, in Derbyshire, England, is a large Village that is one of the significant sites in the development of the Industrial Revolution The Erewash Canal is a broad canal in Derbyshire, England. It runs just under 12 miles (19 km and has 14 locks. History The area that is now Derbyshire was first visited probably briefly by humans 200000 years ago during the Aveley Interglacial as evidenced by a Middle England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Pinxton is a village on the eastern boundary of Derbyshire in the Bolsover district England. Built by William Jessop with the assistance of Benjamin Outram, its alignment included four tunnels and 14 locks. William Jessop ( 23 January 1745 - 18 November 1814) was a noted English Civil engineer, particularly famed for his work Benjamin Outram ( 1 April 1764 - 22 May 1805) was an English Civil engineer, surveyor and industrialist A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon A lock is a device for raising and lowering boats between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal Waterways.
From Cromford it ran south following the 300-foot (91 m) contour line along the east side of the valley of the Derwent to Ambergate, where it turned eastwards along the Amber valley. For other rivers called Derwent see River Derwent. The Derwent is a River in the County of Derbyshire Ambergate is a Village in Derbyshire, England, where the River Amber joins the River Derwent. The River Amber is a River in Derbyshire, England which rises clos to the village of Ashover, near Clay Cross, and flows southwards It turned sharply to cross the valley, crossing the river and the Ambergate to Nottingham road, by means of an aqueduct at Bullbridge, before turning towards Ripley. Nottingham ( is a city in the Ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire, England. Bullbridge is a small village in Derbyshire. It has a population of approx Ripley is a small town in the Amber Valley area of Derbyshire in England. From there the Butterley Tunnel took it through to the Erewash Valley. Butterley Tunnel is a one and three quarter mile long canal tunnel on the Cromford Canal below Ripley, in Derbyshire, England, opened to traffic The Erewash Valley is the valley of the River Erewash (pronounced erry-wash) on the border of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire as far as the
From the tunnel it continued to Pye Hill, near Ironville, the junction for the branch to Pinxton, and then descended through fourteen locks to meet the Erewash Canal at Langley Mill. Ironville in Derbyshire was built by the Butterley Company as a "model village" to house its workers around 1830 Langley Mill is a small town in the Amber Valley district of Derbyshire. The Pinxton Branch became important as a route for Nottinghamshire coal, via the Erewash, to the River Trent and Leicester and was a terminus of the Mansfield and Pinxton Railway. Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire The River Trent is one of the major rivers of England. Its source is in Staffordshire between Biddulph and Biddulph Moor. Leicester (ˈlɛstə is the largest city and Unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and is the traditional The Mansfield and Pinxton Railway was an early horse-drawn railway company in the United Kingdom, constructed in 1819 to transport coal between Mansfield and the head
A 6-mile (9. 7 km) long section of the Cromford canal between Cromford and Ambergate is listed as a Biological Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). Cromford, in Derbyshire, England, is a large Village that is one of the significant sites in the development of the Industrial Revolution Ambergate is a Village in Derbyshire, England, where the River Amber joins the River Derwent. A Site of Special Scientific Interest or SSSI is a Conservation designation denoting a Protected area in the United Kingdom. 
At the end of the eighteenth century an extension was proposed to the Erewash Canal by various interested parties who wished to encourage coal mining further north. The Erewash Canal is a broad canal in Derbyshire, England. It runs just under 12 miles (19 km and has 14 locks. The suggestion was declined by the canal company, so local businessmen, including Joseph Outram, the father of Benjamin decided to go ahead on their own, asking William Jessop to design one between Langley Mill and Cromford, with a branch to Pinxton. This would carry coal to Cromford, which was becoming industrialised, and limestone from the area for the growing iron industry. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Also important would be lead from Wirksworth and cotton from the Cromford mills. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Wirksworth is a small market Town in Derbyshire, England, with a population of approximately 9000 The connection to the Erewash Canal would provide an outlet to the Trent and Mersey Canal and the rest of the country. The Trent and Mersey Canal is a 935 miles (150 km long Canal in the East Midlands West Midlands and North West of England
The canal therefore attracted the support of some powerful figures such as Philip Gell of Hopton Hall and Sir Richard Arkwright - the latter initially at least. Philip Gell may refer to Sir Philip Gell 3rd Baronet (1651&ndash1719 lead-mining magnate and last MP for Derbyshire (UK Parliament constituency Sir Richard Arkwright ( Old Style 23 December 1732 / New Style 3 January 1733 – 3 August Matters were taken out of the Erewash Canal owners hands, for, without their co-operation, there was the implicit threat that a competing canal would be built to the Trent. The major opposition came from the water-powered mill owners along the Derwent, of which there were many, downstream of the proposed canal, fearful of loss of flow in dry weather. For other rivers called Derwent see River Derwent. The Derwent is a River in the County of Derbyshire Since, between Cromford and Pinxton, the canal would be level, Jessop was able to give reassurance, carefully downplaying the problem of the descent, with its locks, to Langley Mill.
However, with the assistance of Benjamin Outram, he also spent over a year measuring the flow rate of the Derwent, a precaution which was invaluable when the bill was placed before Parliament. He also proposed to make the summit pound deep enough that it could be replenished on Sundays when the mills were closed, and hold enough water to supply the locks for a week even in the driest weather.
The length from the Erewash Canal would be built to match, accessible to barges from the Trent. Through the Butterley Tunnel and along the narrow Derwent valley it would be to narrow boat standards, similar to the Trent and Mersey. Butterley Tunnel is a one and three quarter mile long canal tunnel on the Cromford Canal below Ripley, in Derbyshire, England, opened to traffic
At the last minute before the Bill was to be presented to Parliament, Richard Arkwright raised a problem. The assumption had been that water would come from Cromford Sough, the drainage from the Wirksworth lead mines. A Sough is an underground channel for draining water out of a mine Wirksworth is a small market Town in Derbyshire, England, with a population of approximately 9000 Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Arkwright complained that the canal crossed his land and insisted that water should be obtained from the river by raising the height of the weir at Masson Mill. Derwent Valley Mills is a World Heritage Site along the River Derwent in Derbyshire, England, designated in December 2001 This was an unwelcome complication (which would mainly benefit Arkwright himself and his mill) but the canal Committee reluctantly agreed.
The canal obtained its Act of Parliament in 1789. An Act of Parliament is a Law enacted as Primary legislation by a national or sub-national Parliament. Perhaps because they had quoted too little, basing their estimates on Jessop's cost predictions which may themselves have been too optimistic, the contractors soon found themselves in financial difficulties and, at the end of 1790, simply walked off the site. Benjamin Outram hastily took over full management control and was awarded a salary increase. In January 1792 there was a problem when the Amber Aqueduct failed but, by May, the canal to the east of Butterley was virtually complete and most of the earthworks to the west. The Bull Bridge Aqueduct was situated on the Cromford Canal, built in 1794 at Bullbridge east of Ambergate along the Amber Valley where it turned
The Butterley Tunnel was excavated by first sinking 33 shafts, about 75 yards (69 m) apart as much as 57 yards (52 m) deep to give a number of working faces. Butterley Tunnel is a one and three quarter mile long canal tunnel on the Cromford Canal below Ripley, in Derbyshire, England, opened to traffic Most of the heading was through soil, with some coal measures and iron ore deposits, the final tunnel being lined through most of its length.
By 1793 the company had a balance in hand of only £273 and the cost had risen to half as much again as Jessop's original estimate. Nevertheless the canal was showing an income, unfinished though it was.
In August, however, there were problems with the Derwent Aqueduct which required considerable modification. The spandrel walls had parted due to the horizontal forces imposed by the canal, and a longitudinal split had opened up in the arch. In his report to the canal committee, Jessop gave his opinion that the use of Crich lime, being unusually pure, had delayed the setting of the mortar. Later writers, with the benefit of engineering knowledge acquired after Jessop's time, have suggested that the spandrel walls were simply too slender for the forces imposed. At any rate, the arch was partly dismantled and steel tie bars and lateral reinforcing arches were installed, together with external buttresses. This Jessop did at his own expense.
In the end, despite costing about twice the initial estimate (£42,697), the canal opened in 1794 and was a financial success.
Jessop had based his initial predictions for the expected returns on the carriage of limestone from Cromford and Crich and coal from Pinxton. Crich (ˈkraɪtʃ kryech) is a Village in Derbyshire in England. However the canal itself encouraged new enterprises. The canal mostly carried coal, lead and iron ore, some extracted from inside the Butterley Tunnel. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Butterley Tunnel is a one and three quarter mile long canal tunnel on the Cromford Canal below Ripley, in Derbyshire, England, opened to traffic Copper was brought from as far away as Ecton Hill in Staffordshire and the canal opening the way for lead from Ecton, as well as Wirksworth to be taken to the Lead Market at Hull and chert from Bakewell to the Potteries. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 For the hamlet of Ecton in the Staffordshire Peak District see Ecton Staffordshire. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Wirksworth is a small market Town in Derbyshire, England, with a population of approximately 9000 Kingston upon Hull ( almost invariably referred Chert (ˈtʃɝt is a fine-grained Silica -rich Microcrystalline, Cryptocrystalline or Microfibrous Sedimentary rock that may contain Bakewell is a small Market town in Derbyshire, England, deriving its name from 'Badeca's Well' Stoke, or to give it its full name Stoke-upon-Trent is a component town of the city of City of Stoke-on-Trent, in the ceremonial county of Staffordshire It also allowed the finished products of the area to be exported widely, the Butterley Company's castings and Arkwright's spun cotton. Butterley Engineering are an engineering company based in Ripley Derbyshire. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp The opening of the Derby Canal and the Nottingham Canal, both in 1796 , further facilitated the latter's trade with these textile centres. The Derby Canal ran 14 miles (23 km from the Trent and Mersey Canal at Swarkestone to Derby and Little Eaton, and to the Erewash Canal The Nottingham Canal was a 1475 mile (236km long canal between Langley Mill in Derbyshire and Nottingham, England. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn.
Although Arkwright had asked that water should be drawn from the Derwent, the canal committee had secretly no intention of so doing. Once the canal was built, it led across the meadows to its present terminus, where a connection was made to the Cromford sough. A Sough is an underground channel for draining water out of a mine Although they had to pay Arkwright £1000 in compensation, water could be drawn at night as well as at weekends. Coming from underground, it was slightly warm, and it was said that it never froze. The opening of the Nottingham Canal provided further water.
In 1819 the Mansfield and Pinxton Railway opened up trade with Mansfield including moulding sand for the foundries. The Mansfield and Pinxton Railway was an early horse-drawn railway company in the United Kingdom, constructed in 1819 to transport coal between Mansfield and the head Mansfield is a town in Nottinghamshire, England. It is the largest town in the County, lying on the River Maun, from which the name of the town Molding sand, Foundry sand or Green sand is sand that when moistened or oiled tends to pack well and hold its shape
The canal also carried limestone from the Butterley Company's quarry at Crich with a plateway to the Amber Wharf at Bullbridge. The Cromford and High Peak Railway (C&HPR in Derbyshire, England, was completed in 1831 to carry Minerals and goods between the Cromford Canal Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Butterley Engineering are an engineering company based in Ripley Derbyshire. Crich (ˈkraɪtʃ kryech) is a Village in Derbyshire in England. A plateway is an early kind of railway or tramway or Wagonway, with a Cast iron rail. In an attempt to avoid using cable-haulage or a rack and pinion system, a remarkable steam engine, the "Steam Horse" was tried out in 1813. A cable railway (also known as an Incline or Inclined plane) is a steeply graded Railway that uses a cable or A cog railway, rack-and-pinion railway or rack railway is a Railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails. The Steam Horse was constructed by the Butterley Company in Derbyshire in 1813 by William Brunton (1777-1851
In 1840 when the North Midland Railway was built, George Stephenson was faced with the problem at Bullbridge of taking the line over the road but under the canal, thus the Bullbridge Aqueduct, in its final form, placed the river, road, railway and canal at four levels. The North Midland Railway was a British Railway company which opened its line from Derby to Rotherham (Masborough and Leeds in 1840 George Stephenson ( 9 June 1781 &ndash 12 August 1848) was an English Civil engineer and mechanical engineer The Bull Bridge Aqueduct was situated on the Cromford Canal, built in 1794 at Bullbridge east of Ambergate along the Amber Valley where it turned
In 1846 the mining beneath Wirksworth had reached such a depth that Meerbrook Sough was built, draining into the Derwent near Whatstandwell, which deprived both Arkwrights mill and the canal of water, leaving the latter with only that from Butterley Reservoir. Wirksworth is a small market Town in Derbyshire, England, with a population of approximately 9000 A Sough is an underground channel for draining water out of a mine Whatstandwell is a Village on the River Derwent in Derbyshire, England. Accordingly the canal owners hired a pump which they installed in the Leawood Pump House, in 1849 buying a Cornish type beam engine from Grahams of Elscar. A beam engine is a design of Engine based on the principles of a first-class Lever.
In 1802 the canal had carried over 150,000 tons and by 1842 nearly 300,000, then in 1849, the Manchester, Buxton, Matlock and Midlands Junction Railway was built alongside as far as Ambergate, which reached Manchester in 1867. The Manchester Buxton Matlock and Midlands Junction Railway initially served neither Manchester nor the Midlands since its connection with the North Midland Railway A further line to Pye Bridge was built in 1875. By 1888 trade had shrunk to 45,000 tons a year.
In 1846, Parliamentary assent was granted to merge with the MBM&MJR. The sale was not carried through until 1852 by which time the Midland Railway and the LNWR had assumed joint control and, with railway lines from Rowsley through Ambergate to the north and south, it was being used for little more than local traffic. The Midland Railway (MR was a Railway company in the United Kingdom, which existed from 1844 to 1922 when it became part of the London Midland and Scottish The London and North Western Railway (LNWR L&NWR was a Railway company of the United Kingdom which existed between 1846 and 1922 Rowsley is a village on the A6 road in the English county of Derbyshire.
In 1889, subsidence closed the 3,063 yard (2801m) Butterley Tunnel for four years, and further subsidence in 1900 closed the Tunnel permanently. Butterley Tunnel is a one and three quarter mile long canal tunnel on the Cromford Canal below Ripley, in Derbyshire, England, opened to traffic Most of the canal was abandoned in 1944 with the exception of a half-mile (800m) stretch to Langley Mill which was abandoned in 1962. The Bullbridge Aqueduct was removed in 1968 when the Ripley road was widened. In 1985 the Codnor Park Reservoir was lowered by 6 feet (1. 8 m) and a lock was removed as part of a flood prevention scheme.
After closure, the canal was taken over by the British Waterways Board and sold to the Derbyshire County Council in 1974. British Waterways is the informal name of the British Waterways Board a Statutory corporation sponsored by the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs History The area that is now Derbyshire was first visited probably briefly by humans 200000 years ago during the Aveley Interglacial as evidenced by a Middle Attempts are being made to restore the canal and about 5 miles (8km) of it remains in water.