|Croatian political party|
|Hrvatska Demokratska Zajednica|
|Croatian Democratic Union|
|Preceded by: Franjo Tuđman|
|Franjo Tuđman in office from:|
|1990 - December, 1999|
|Colours||Red, White, Blue from the flag|
|Political Ideology||Nationalism, Christian Democracy and Conservatism|
|European Affiliation||European People's Party|
|European Parliament Group||International Democratic Union|
Centrist Democrat International
|Former Yugoslav State Affiliation|
|Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Website||Croatian Democratic Union Website|
|See also||Political parties|
The Croatian Democratic Union (Croatian: Hrvatska demokratska zajednica, HDZ) is a major Croatian right-wing conservative and christian democratic political party. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Ivo Sanader saˈnaːdɛr}} (formerly Ivica Sanader) (born June 8, 1953 in Split) is the current Prime Minister of Croatia Franjo Tuđman ( May 14, 1922 - December 10, 1999. Tuđman was elected to the position of President of Croatia by the Parliament Franjo Tuđman ( May 14, 1922 - December 10, 1999. Tuđman was elected to the position of President of Croatia by the Parliament Zagreb (ˈzɑːgrɛb is the Capital and the largest city of Croatia. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Christian democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Christian (and often specifically Catholic) principles to public policy Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined The European People's Party (EPP is a Christian democratic and Liberal conservative European political party. The International Democrat Union (IDU is an Center-right international grouping of conservative, Christian-democratic and Liberal-conservative The Centrist Democrat International was until 2001 the Christian Democrat International (CDI and before that the Christian Democrat and People's Parties International The Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Croatian: Hrvatska demokratska zajednica Bosne i Hercegovine, HDZ BiH) is a Political party This article lists political parties in Croatia. Croatia has a Multi-party system with numerous parties in which no one party often has a chance of Elections in Croatia gives information on Election and election results in Croatia. Croatian language ( hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily in Croatia, by Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in neighbouring Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Christian democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Christian (and often specifically Catholic) principles to public policy The HDZ ruled Croatia from 1990 to 2000 and, in coalition, since 2003. The party is an associated member of the European People's Party (EPP). The European People's Party (EPP is a Christian democratic and Liberal conservative European political party.
The HDZ was founded in June 1989 by Croatian nationalist dissidents led by Franjo Tuđman. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Franjo Tuđman ( May 14, 1922 - December 10, 1999. Tuđman was elected to the position of President of Croatia by the Parliament When the party was founded, the multi-party system in Croatia was at an embryonic stage and open manifestations of Croatian nationalism were frowned upon. The HDZ was founded in an almost conspiratorial manner, and its first offices were in one Zagreb shack. Because of that the party founders proudly call themselves barakaši - from "baraka", which is Croatian word for "shack".
Despite such humble beginnings, the party quickly benefited from the loosening of Communist control. Tuđman and other HDZ officials travelled abroad and gathered large financial contributions from Croatian expatriates with this reflected in a more nationalist HDZ platform.
On the eve of the 1990 elections, the ruling Croatian Communist Party saw such tendencies within the HDZ as an opportunity to remain in power. First free multi-party elections for Croatian Parliament were held between April 22 and May 7 1990. League of Communists of Croatia (Savez komunista Hrvatske SKH was the Croatian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ The voting system was tailored to favour the two strongest parties and it was assumed that Croatian voters would opt for the ruling Communists, rebranded in as the Social Democratic Party of Croatia, as a lesser evil than the HDZ which was described as "the party of dangerous intentions". The Social Democratic Party of Croatia (Socijaldemokratska partija Hrvatske is the main Social democratic political party in Croatia. At the elections this proved to be miscalculation, because the overwhelming majority of Croatian people that actually voted in elections saw the patriotism of the HDZ not only as the way to get rid of Communism and Yugoslavia, but also as the proper answer to what they saw as "Serb nationalism", embodied in part by Slobodan Milošević. First free multi-party elections for Croatian Parliament were held between April 22 and May 7 1990. See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian The HDZ won a majority in the Croatian Parliament and Croatia became one of few countries of Eastern Europe where the Communist single party rule was replaced by anti-Communist single party rule. May 30, 1990 - the day the HDZ formally took power - was later celebrated as Statehood Day, a public holiday in Croatia.
The presidential elections followed in 1992 and Tuđman, who would remain as undisputed party leader until his death in 1999, was elected president. First Presidential elections under new 1990 Constitution of the republic of Croatia, held 1992 by popular vote
The party ruled Croatia throughout the 1990s and under its leadership, Croatia became independent (1991), was internationally recognised (1992), and consolidated all of its pre-war territory (by 1998). During that period the HDZ had its power confirmed by the 1992 and 1995 parliamentary elections.
As it strongly advocated Croatian independence, the HDZ was quite unpopular with the Serb minority who largely opposed Croatia's independence preferring to see Croatia remain inside the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: This was one of the factors contributing to the creation of the Republic of Serbian Krajina and the subsequent armed conflict in neighbouring Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Republic of Serbian Krajina abbreviated RSK (Република Српска Крајина РСК sometimes also translated "Republic of Serb Krajina" The role of the HDZ in those events is matter of controversy, even in Croatia where some tend to view HDZ policy in early stages of the conflict as extremist and a contributing factor in the escalation of violence, while others see the HDZ as having appeased Serbia and the Yugoslav People's Army, and therefore, responsible for Croatia not being properly prepared for defence. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA YPA ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian: Jugoslavenska Narodna Armija or Jugoslovenska It should be noted that the policies of Tuđman and the HDZ shifted according to the circumstances and that the more controversial among them could be properly judged only in the historic, economic, military and political context.
The HDZ also led Croatia through the process of political and economic transition from communism to capitalism. Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic Transition in former Communist states located in parts of Europe and Notably, HDZ governments implemented privatization in the country, in a manner which the critics consider suboptimal. Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business
The goal of the suboptimal process, as stated publicly by Franjo Tuđman, was to create a core of 200 Croatian families who would leverage the majority of Croatia's wealth. The plan, unsurprisingly, failed miserably on its economics, but it proved a useful distraction from dealing with the baggage of post-WWII communist nationalizations. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government In fact it was the HDZ in 1992 which enacted into law the right of corporations (the vast majority of which were under state ownership) the right to finally formally register themselves as the owners of nationalized property thus completing the process of nationalization started by the communist regime after WWII. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business
Many tycoons emerged in a pattern of state-sponsored loans brokered with HDZ influence, with the purpose of dissolving the state of ownership and accountability to the public of the campaign financing by companies privatized in this way. A business magnate, sometimes referred to as a mogul, tycoon, baron, or industrialist, is a person who has reached a prominent place in Accountability is a concept in Ethics with several meanings It is often used synonymously with such concepts as answerability enforcement responsibility, blameworthiness This model was abused, not only by the HDZ, but also by other political parties in Croatia, even though their share in the privatization was barely significant.
Not all of the nationalized property was dealt with in this way. The property of those who could lobby the HDZ or had substantial influence in Croatian politics was returned without much delay. Lobbying includes all attempts to influence Legislators and officials whether by other legislators constituents or organized groups These include possessions nationalized from the Catholic Church or widely known individuals such as Mr. Roman Catholicism in Croatia is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and Curia in Rome Gavrilović, owner of a major meat-producing factory in Petrinja south of Zagreb.
In terms of ideology, HDZ leaders at first described their party as right-wing, and Tuđman himself stated that he was inspired by Thatcherism. In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities Thatcherism is the system of political thought attributed to the governments of Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 Later, the party described itself as centre-right and Christian Democrat. The centre-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote individuals political parties or organizations (such as Think tanks whose views Christian democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Christian (and often specifically Catholic) principles to public policy However, the only official ideology was national reconciliation - idea that descendants of Croatian Partisans and Ustashas should patch up the differences between their ancestors and work together in order to create a modern, independent and democratic Croatia. The Yugoslav Partisans, or simply the Partisans, ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani In practice, this policy saw the powerful defence minister Gojko Šušak, head of the HDZ hardline faction, win Tuđman's favour. Gojko Šušak ( 16 April, 1945 &ndash 3 May, 1998) was a Croatian nationalist politician Minister of Defence from 1991 to 1998 Stjepan Mesić and Josip Manolić, Tuđman's associates opposed to such tendencies, left the party in 1994 and formed the Croatian Independent Democrats. Stjepan "Stipe" Mesić (born December 24, 1934) is a Croatian politician Josip Manolić (born 1920 is a Croatian politician who one of the most important public figures in 1990s Croatia Croatian Independent Democrats (Hrvatski nezavisni demokrati HND is a political party in Croatia. These tendencies were toned down after the end of the war and the HDZ, concerned with more mundane aspects of politics, became a mainly social conservative party. Social conservatism is a political or moral ideology that affirms the government's role in encouraging or enforcing traditional values or behaviors in the belief that these are what
The end of war and reintegration of Croatian territory also switched Croatian people's attention from independence and foreign relations to the more mundane issues of the economy and living standards. In the late 1990s this coincided with Tuđman's illness, which sparked bitter succession struggles between various factions within HDZ. These factions fought using friendly media and leaking compromising information about opponents' role in shadier aspects of privatisation. This, as well as Tuđman's mishandling of the Zagreb Crisis, did much to undermine HDZ popularity. Zagreb Crisis ( Croatian: Zagrebačka kriza) is the name used to describe a political crisis that followed the elections for the City of Zagreb Assembly
All this, together with Tuđman's death in December 1999, had an impact on the 2000 parliamentary elections. Elections for the Chamber of Representatives of the Croatian Parliament were held on January 3rd 2000. Although the HDZ remained the largest party, it was thoroughly defeated by a left-centre coalition of six opposition parties and many saw large turnout as referendum against the HDZ, just as the 1990 elections had been seen as referendum on Communism and Yugoslavia. This impression was underlined at the subsequent presidential election, when the HDZ candidate Mate Granić, heavily favoured to win, finished 3rd and failed to enter the second round of voting, won by Stipe Mesić. Third Presidential elections under new 1990 Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, held 2000 by popular vote Mate Granić (born September 19 1947 in Baška Voda near Makarska, SR Croatia, Yugoslavia) is a Croatian diplomat Stjepan "Stipe" Mesić (born December 24, 1934) is a Croatian politician
In the period from 2000 and 2003, several businessmen who became tycoons under the initial HDZ rule were tried and convicted for alleged abuses, though in general the privatization process implemented by the HDZ remained unaltered.
This period proved to be a low point for the HDZ and many thought that party could not recover. Those included Mate Granić, who, together with Vesna Škare Ožbolt, left to form the centre-right Democratic Centre (DC). The Democratic Centre (Demokratski centar DC is a Croatian Political party.
The HDZ began to recover when the International Criminal Tribunal began to prosecute Croatian Army commanders, thus creating major backlash among the Croatian public. The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 The Croatian Ground Army (Hrvatska kopnena vojska commonly referred to as the Croatian Army ( Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Popular discontent manifested itself in mass rallies. Although the HDZ and new leader Ivo Sanader took part in those events and supported the protests, they gradually began to distance themselves from the more extreme rhetoric, becoming perceived as moderates. Ivo Sanader saˈnaːdɛr}} (formerly Ivica Sanader) (born June 8, 1953 in Split) is the current Prime Minister of Croatia This tendency continued with Croatian Social Liberal Party shifting rightwards, making Sanader's HDZ appear centrist in comparison. Croatian Social Liberal Party (Hrvatska socijalno liberalna stranka HSLS is a Liberal conservative party in Croatia. This process was finalised in 2002 when Ivić Pašalić, leader of the HDZ hardliners and perceived to be associated with the worst excesses of Tuđman's era, challenged Sanader for party leadership, accusing him of betraying Tuđman's nationalist legacy. Ivić Pašalić (born November 3, 1960 in Šuica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia) is a Croatian right-wing At first it looked that Sanader would lose, but with the help of Branimir Glavaš and the tacit support of liberal sections of Croatian public opinion, he won at the party convention. Branimir Glavaš (born September 23, 1956) is a Croatian right-wing politician from Osijek and has rank of Major General Pašalić then left the HDZ to form the Croatian Bloc party. Croatian Bloc (Hrvatski blok HB was a right-wing political party in Croatia.
This allowed Sanader to present the HDZ as a "reformed" party, purged of the more controversial aspects of the Tuđman legacy, and to convince the public that returning the HDZ to power would not jeopardise democratic standards in Croatia. As such, the HDZ started to be perceived as a credible democratic alternative to the government of Ivica Račan, then plagued by indecision, inefficiency, corruption and factional struggles. Ivica Račan ( February 24 1944 – April 29 2007) was a Croatian Leftist politician who led the Social Democratic
At the legislative elections of November 2003, the party won 33. Elections for the Croatian Parliament were held on November 23, 2003. 9% of the popular vote and 66 out of 151 seats. Although it failed to win a clear majority in Croatian Parliament, even with the help of the allied DC and HSLS, it formed the government with the nominally left-wing Independent Democratic Serbian Party and Croatian Party of Pensioners. The Independent Democratic Serbian Party (Самостална демократска српска странка Samostalna demokratska srpska stranka SDSS is a Social democratic The Croatian Party of Pensioners (Hrvatska stranka umirovljenika is a Croatian Political party.
With such a broad and diverse mandate, the Sanader-led government vigorously pursued policies that amounted to the implementation of the basic criteria for joining the European Union, such as the return of refugees to their homes, rebuilding houses damaged in the war, improving minority rights by including minority representatives in the government, cooperating with the ICTY, and continuing to consolidate the Croatian economy. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Despite this the EU's Council of Ministers postponed Croatia's start of membership negotiations with the union on grounds of non-cooperation with the Hague Tribunal over the case of indicted general Ante Gotovina. Ante Gotovina (born October 12, 1955, Island of Pašman, Croatia) is a former lieutenant general ( general pukovnik) of the Croatian
This setback brought an increase in Eurosceptic views among the Croatian public, which also affected support for the HDZ. Euroscepticism Euro (disambiguation --> has become a general term for opposition to the process Since accession to EU is key part of Sanader's reformist course, the opposition to Sanader within and outside HDZ is on the rise. This opposition manifested itself at the 2005 local elections and the defection of Glavaš, who not only successfully challenged Sanader's authority but also managed to nominally deprive Sanader of his parliamentary majority.