|İ. Gaspıralı • N. Çelebicihan • M.A. Qırımoğlu|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Ukraine, Crimea: 248,200|
|Related ethnic groups|
|other Turkic peoples|
Crimean Tatars (sg. İsmail Gaspıralı (Gasprinskiy ( March 8 1851 — September 11 1914) was a famous Crimean Tatar intellectual, Educator Noman Çelebicihan (Numan Çelebi Cihan (1885-1918 was one of the most popular Crimean Tatar leaders of all time Mustafa Abdülcemil Qırımoğlu (Cemilev (born November 13, 1943 Ay-Serez Crimea) also known as Mustafa Jemilev (Dzhemilev Cemilev Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania The Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili Qırımtatarca also known as Crimean (Qırım tili Qırımca and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi is the language Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family Qırımtatar, pl. Qırımtatarlar) or Crimeans (sg. Qırım, Qırımlı, pl. Qırımlar, Qırımlılar) are a Turkic ethnic group originally residing in Crimea. The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым They speak the Crimean Tatar language. The Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili Qırımtatarca also known as Crimean (Qırım tili Qırımca and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi is the language
The Crimean Tatars and non-Russian minorities living in Crimea are descendants of a mix of Turkic (Bulgars, Khazars, Petchenegs and Cumans) and non-Turkic (Alans, East Slavs, Romanians, Byzantine Greeks, Crimean Goths, Circassians), as well as of other various people (e. The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family The Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) were a seminomadic people probably of Turkic descent originally from Central Asia, "Kazar" redirects here for the Marvel Comics character see Ka-Zar; for the village in Azerbaijan see Xəzər. The Pechenegs or Patzinaks ( Turkish: Peçenekler, Hungarian: Besenyő, Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi or Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι/Πατζινακίται Cumans (Кумани Byzantine: Kuman or Cuman, Kunok Turkic: Kumanlar) were a nomadic Turkic people who inhabited a The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. The Romanians (dated Rumanians or Roumanians; Romanian: români or historically and today rather seldom and only regional rumâni Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines or Romaioi, is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenized citizens Crimean Goths were those Gothic tribes who remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in Crimea. Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess ( Çerkes) and is not the self-designation of any people g. Venetians and Genoese), who lived, settled (colonised) or were even brought as slaves by the Tatars themselves, in the Crimean penisula and the adjacent areas north of the Black Sea (the Pontic-Caspian steppe). Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey The term Pontic-Caspian steppe summarizes the vast Steppelands stretching from north of the Black Sea as far as the east of the Caspian Sea, from central The non-Turkic populations were assimilated into the Turkic ones.
The Crimean Tatars are subdivided into three sub-ethnic groups: the Tats (not to be confused with the Tat people) who used to inhabit the mountainous Crimea before 1944 (about 55%), the Yalıboylus who lived on the southern coast of the peninsula (about 30%), and the Noğays (not to be confused with the Nogai people) - former inhabitants of the Crimean steppe (about 15%). For Tattoos also called "tats" see Tattoo. The Tat are an Aryan (Iranic ethnic group in the Caucasus. The Nogai people (also written as Nogay or Noghai, and sometimes called Caucasian Mongols) are a Turkic ethnic group in northern The Tats and Yalıboylus have a Caucasian physical appearance, while the Noğays retain Mongoloid Central Asian characteristics. The Caucasian race, sometimes the Caucasoid race, is a term of Racial classification, coined around 1800 by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach for the " The term " Mongoloid " is a variation of the word "Mongol" meaning "Mongol-like"
In modern times, in addition to living in Crimea, Ukraine, there is a large diaspora of Crimean Tatars in Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Uzbekistan, Western Europe and North America, as well as small communities in Finland, Lithuania, Russia, Belarus and Poland. Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. The term Diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά &ndash " a scattering or sowing of seeds " refers any population sharing common ethnic Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland (See Lipka Tatars and Crimean Tatar diaspora)
Today, more than 250,000 Crimean Tatars live in Crimea and about 150,000 remain in exile in Central Asia, mainly in Uzbekistan. The Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars, Belarusian Tatars, Lipkowie or Muślimi) are a group of Tatars living on the lands The Crimean Tatar diaspora dates back to the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 1783 after which Crimean Tatars were forced to emigrate The Crimean Tatar diaspora dates back to the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 1783 after which Crimean Tatars were forced to emigrate Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly There are 5,000,000 people of Crimean Tatar origin living in Turkey, descendants of those who emigrated in the 19th and early 20th centuries . In the Dobruja region of Romania and Bulgaria, there are more than 27,000 Crimean Tatars: 24,000 on the Romanian side, and 3,000 on the Bulgarian side.
The Crimean Tatars emerged as a nation at the time of the Crimean Khanate. The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Qırım Hanlığı|قريم خانلغى Крымское ханство - Krymskoye khanstvo; The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Qırım Hanlığı|قريم خانلغى Крымское ханство - Krymskoye khanstvo; The Crimean Khanate was a Turkic-speaking Muslim state which was among the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the beginning of the 18th century. The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Qırım Hanlığı|قريم خانلغى Крымское ханство - Krymskoye khanstvo;  The Crimean Tatars adopted Islam in the 13th century and thereafter Crimea became one of the centers of Islamic civilization. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. According to Baron Iosif Igelström, in 1783 there were close to 1600 mosques and religious schools in Crimea. Count Otto Heinrich Igelström (Otto Henrik Igelström Игельстрем Иосиф Андреевич Iosif Andreyevich Igelström) ( May 7 In Bakhchisaray, the khan Meñli I Giray built Zıncırlı Medrese (literally "Chain Madrassah"), an Islamic seminary where one has to bow while entering from its door because of the chain hanging over. Bakhchisaray (Бахчисарай Бахчисарай Bağçasaray Bahçesaray is a town in Central Crimea, centre of the Bakhchisaray raion (district best Meñli I Giray (I Meñli Geray|۱مڭلى گراى (1445&ndash1515 also spelled as Mengli I Giray, was a khan of the Crimean Khanate (1466 1469&ndash1475 "Madrasa" and "Medrese" redirect here For the village in Azerbaijan see Mədrəsə. This symbolized the Crimean society's respect for learning. Meñli I Giray also constructed a large mosque on the model of Hagia Sophia (which was ruined in 1850s). Meñli I Giray (I Meñli Geray|۱مڭلى گراى (1445&ndash1515 also spelled as Mengli I Giray, was a khan of the Crimean Khanate (1466 1469&ndash1475 Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya Αγία Σοφία " Holy Wisdom " Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a former patriarchal Basilica, later Later, the khans built a greater palace, Hansaray in Bakhchisaray, which survives until today. The Khan's Palace or Hansaray is located in the town of Bakhchisaray, Crimea, Ukraine. Bakhchisaray (Бахчисарай Бахчисарай Bağçasaray Bahçesaray is a town in Central Crimea, centre of the Bakhchisaray raion (district best Sahib I Giray patronized many scholars and artists in this palace. Sahib I Giray (1501-1551 — a khan of the Crimean Khanate in 1532 &ndash1551 During the reign of Devlet I Giray the architect Sinan built a mosque, Cuma Cami, in Kezlev. Devlet I Giray (I Devlet Geray|۱دولت گراى Taht Alğan Devlet Geray|تخت آلغان دولت گراى (1512&ndash1577 was a khan of the Crimean Khanate Koca Mi‘mār Sinān Āġā ( Ottoman Turkish: خوجه معمار سنان آغا ( April 15, 1489 - April 09, For the lake Kerkinitis see Kerkini Eupatoria or Yevpatoria (Євпаторія Евпатория Kezlev Eupatoria Kerkinitis is a city in Crimea
Until the beginning of the 18th century, Crimean Tatars were known for frequent devastating raids into Ukraine and Russia. In 1571, they seized and burned Moscow. For a long time, until the early 18th century, Crimean Khanate maintained massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East.
One of the most known and important trading ports and slave markets was Kefe. Feodosiya ( Ukrainian Феодосія Crimean Tatar Kefe Russian Феодосия is a Port and Resort city in Crimea Some researchers estimate that altogether more than 3 million people, predominantly Ukrainians but also Russians, Belarusians and Poles, were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate in what was called "the harvest of the steppe. " A constant threat from Crimean Tatars supported the appearance of cossackdom. The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern
The Crimean Khanate became a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire in 1475, when the Ottoman general Gedik Ahmed Pasha conquered the southern coast of Crimea. In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect Gedik Ahmet Pasha was a distinguished Ottoman grand vizier as well as an army and navy commander during the reigns of sultans Mehmed the Conqueror and Beyazid The alliance with the Ottomans became an important factor in the survival of the khanate until the 18th century.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774 resulted with the defeat of the Ottomans, and according to the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (1774) signed after the war, Crimea became independent and Ottomans renounced their political right to protect the Crimean Khanate. The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was a decisive conflict that brought Southern Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, and Crimea within the orbit of the Russian The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was signed on July 21, 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca Dobruja (today Kaynardzha Russia violated the treaty and annexed the Crimean Khanate in 1783. After the annexation, under pressure of Slavic colonization, Crimean Tatars began to abandon their homes and move to the Ottoman Empire in continuing waves of emigration. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Particularly, the Crimean War of 1853-1856, the laws of 1860-63 and the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 caused an exodus of the Crimean Tatars. The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered Of total Tatar population 300,000 of the Tauride Province about 200,000 Crimean Tatars emigrated. The Taurida Governorate (Таврическая губернiя modern spelling Таврическая губерния Таврiйська губернiя Tavrida guberniyası or  Many Crimean Tatars perished in the process of emigration, including those who drowned while crossing the Black Sea. Today the descendants of these Crimeans form the Crimean Tatar diaspora in Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey. The Crimean Tatar diaspora dates back to the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 1783 after which Crimean Tatars were forced to emigrate The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches
İsmail Gaspıralı (1851-1914) was a renowned Crimean Tatar intellectual, whose efforts laid the foundation for the modernization of Muslim culture and the emergence of the Crimean Tatar national identity. İsmail Gaspıralı (Gasprinskiy ( March 8 1851 — September 11 1914) was a famous Crimean Tatar intellectual, Educator The bilingual Crimean Tatar-Russian newspaper Terciman-Perevodchik he published in 1883-1914, functioned as a school through which a national consciousness and modern thinking emerged among the whole Turkic-speaking population of the Russian Empire. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya His New Method (Usul-i Cedid) schools, numbered 350 across the Crimean peninsula raised a new Crimean Tatar elite. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 this new elite, which included Noman Çelebicihan and Cafer Seydamet proclaimed the first democratic republic in the Islamic world named the Crimean People's Republic in December 26, 1917. See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them Noman Çelebicihan (Numan Çelebi Cihan (1885-1918 was one of the most popular Crimean Tatar leaders of all time The Crimean People's Republic (Qırım Halq Cumhuriyeti existed during December 1917-January 1918 on the territory of the Crimean Peninsula, now located in modern-day Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year However, this republic was short-lived and destroyed by the Bolsheviks in January 1918. The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction
During Stalin's Great Purge, statesmen and intellectuals such as Veli Ibraimov and Bekir Çoban-zade (1893-1937), were imprisoned or executed on various charges. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Great Purge (Большая чистка transliterated Bolshaya chistka) was a series of campaigns of Political repression and Persecution Bekir Çoban-zade (Sıdqiy (tʃobanzade ( May 15 1893 &ndash October 13 1937) was a Crimean Tatar poet and professor of Turkic
During World War II, the entire Crimean Tatar population in Crimea fell victim to Soviet policies. Although a great number of Crimean Tatar men served in the Red Army and took part in the partizan movement in Crimea during the war, the existence of the Tatar Legion in the Nazi army and the collaboration of Crimean Tatar religious and political leaders with Hitler during the German occupation of Crimea provided the Soviets with a pretext for accusing the whole Crimean Tatar population of being Nazi collaborators. The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Modern researchers also point to the fact that a further reason was the geopolitical position of Crimea where Crimean Tatars were perceived as a threat. This belief is based in part on an analogy with numerous other cases of deportations of non-Russians from boundary territories (see, e. g. , Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union), as well as the fact that other non-Russian populations, such as Greeks, Armenians and Bulgarians have also been removed from Crimea. Forced settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms Though the most notorious was the Gulag Labor camp system of Penal labor, resettling of entire The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large The Bulgarians (българи balgari) are a South Slavic people generally associated with the Republic of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian language
All Crimean Tatars were deported en masse, in a form of collective punishment, on 18 May 1944 as special settlers to Uzbek SSR and other distant parts of the Soviet Union. Collective punishment is the Punishment of a group of people as a result of the behaviour of one or more other individuals or groups Events 1152 - Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Forced settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms Though the most notorious was the Gulag Labor camp system of Penal labor, resettling of entire The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Ўзбекистон Совет Социалистик Республикаси O`zbekiston Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi; Узбекская The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991  The decree "On Crimean Tatars" describes the resettlement as a very humane procedure. The reality described by the victims in their memoirs was different. 46. 3% of the resettled population died of diseases and malnutrition. This event is called Sürgün in the Crimean Tatar language. Sürgün ( Crimean Tatar and Turkish for " Exile " refers to the deportation of the Crimean Tatars in 1944 The Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili Qırımtatarca also known as Crimean (Qırım tili Qırımca and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi is the language
Although a 1967 Soviet decree removed the charges against Crimean Tatars, the Soviet government did nothing to facilitate their resettlement in Crimea and to make reparations for lost lives and confiscated property. Crimean Tatars, differing from other Soviet nations like Ukrainians or Jews, having definite tradition of non-communist political dissent, succeeded in creating a truly independent network of activists, values and political experience. Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens  Crimean Tatars, leaded by Crimean Tatar National Movement Organization, were not allowed to return to Crimea from exile until the beginning of the Perestroika in the mid 1980s. (Перестройка) is the Russian term (now used in English for the economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev
Today, more than 250,000 Crimean Tatars have returned to their homeland, struggling to re-establish their lives and reclaim their national and cultural rights against many social and economic obstacles. In 1991, the Crimean Tatar leadership founded the Qurultay, or Parliament, to act as a representative body for the Crimean Tatars which could address grievances to the Ukrainian central government, the Crimean government, and international bodies.  Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People is the executive body of the Qurultay. The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People or Parliament (Qırımtatar Milliy Meclisi Меджлiс Кримськотатарського Народу is a representative
Since the 1990s, the political leader of the Crimean Tatars and the charmian of the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People is a former Soviet dissident Mustafa Abdülcemil Qırımoğlu. The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People or Parliament (Qırımtatar Milliy Meclisi Меджлiс Кримськотатарського Народу is a representative Mustafa Abdülcemil Qırımoğlu (Cemilev (born November 13, 1943 Ay-Serez Crimea) also known as Mustafa Jemilev (Dzhemilev Cemilev
Crimean Tatars endorsed and supported Viktor Yushchenko in the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election. Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko ( Ukrainian: Viktor Andrijovyč Juščenko) (born February 23 1954) is the third and current President of The presidential election held in November and December 2004 in Ukraine was mostly a political battle between Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych