|Classes of crime|
|Infraction · Misdemeanor · Felony|
|Summary · Indictable · Hybrid|
|Against the person|
|Assault · Battery|
|Extortion · Harassment|
|Kidnapping · Identity theft|
|Murder · Rape|
|Arson · Blackmail|
|Burglary · Deception|
|Embezzlement · False pretenses|
|Fraud · Handling|
|Larceny · Theft|
|Against the public order|
|Against the state|
|Espionage · Treason|
|Bribery · Misprision of felony|
|Obstruction · Perjury|
|Malfeasance in office|
|Accessory · Attempt|
|Conspiracy · Incitement|
|Solicitation · Common purpose|
|Note: Crimes vary by jurisdiction. Infraction as a general term means a violation of a rule or Local ordinance or regulation promise or obligation A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems is a "lesser" criminal act In Common law legal systems a felony is a serious Crime, often contrasted with a Misdemeanor. A summary offense, also known as a petty crime, is a criminal act in some Common law jurisdictions that can be proceeded with summarily without the right In many Common law Jurisdictions (eg the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Canada, United States, India, A hybrid offence, dual offence, Crown option offence, dual procedure offence, or wobbler are the special class offences in the Common law Assault is a Crime of Violence against another person. In some Jurisdictions including Australia and New Zealand, Battery is a term used by the Common law jurisdictions which involves an Injury or other Contact upon the Person of another in a manner likely Extortion, outwresting, or exaction is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person Unlawfully obtains either money property or services Harassment refers to a wide spectrum of offensive behaviour The term commonly refers to behaviour intended to disturb or upset and when the term is used in a legal sense it refers In Criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or Asportation of a person against the person's will usually to hold the person in False imprisonment Identity theft is a term used to refer to Fraud that involves stealing money or getting other benefits by pretending to be someone else Corporate manslaughter is a Crime in several Jurisdictions It enables a Corporation to be punished and censured for culpable conduct that leads to a person's Manslaughter is a legal term for the killing of a human being in a manner considered by law as less culpable than Murder. Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries Rape, also referred to as Sexual assault, is an Assault by a person involving Sexual intercourse with or Sexual penetration of another person Robbery is the Crime of seizing Property through Violence or Intimidation. Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual Blackmail is the crime of threatening to reveal substantially true information about a person to the public a family member or associates unless a demand made upon the Embezzlement is the act of dishonestly appropriating or secreting assets usually financial in nature by one or more individuals to whom such assets have been entrusted False pretenses or obtaining property by false pretenses is a Common law Crime in the United States, where its statutory forms handle situations not covered In the broadest sense a fraud is a Deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual In English Criminal law, handling takes place after the Theft is completed and is committed by a fence or other person who helps the thief to realise In the United States, larceny is a Common law Crime involving Theft. In Criminal law, theft (also known as stealing or filching) is the illegal taking of another person's Property without that person's freely-given Vandalism is the behaviour attributed to the Vandals in respect of Culture: ruthless Destruction or spoiling of anything beautiful or Venerable For relevant case law see Public order crime case law in the United States In Criminology public order crime is defined by Siegel (2004 Drug possession is the Crime of having one or more Illegal drugs in one's possession either for personal use distribution sale or otherwise A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Tax avoidance is the legal utilization of the Tax regime to one's own advantage in order to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation. JUSTICE is a Human rights and law reform organisation based in the United Kingdom. Bribery, a form of pecuniary corruption is an act usually implying money or gift given that alters the behaviour of the recipient in ways not consistent with the duties of that person Misprision of felony was an offence under the Common law of England and was classified as a Misdemeanour. The crime of obstruction of justice includes crimes committed by Judges Prosecutors attorneys general, and elected officials in general Perjury, also known as forswearing, is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under Oath or Affirmation in a Malfeasance in office, or official misconduct, is the commission of an Unlawful act done in an official capacity which affects the performance of official duties An accessory is a person who assists in the commission of a Crime, but who does not actually participate in the commission of the crime as a joint principal Attempt crimes are crimes where the defendant's actions have the form of the actual enaction of the crime itself the actions must go beyond mere preparation In the Criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between Natural persons to break the law at some time in the future and in some cases with at least one overt act In English Criminal law, incitement is an anticipatory Common law offence and is the act of persuading encouraging instigating pressuring or threatening In the United States, solicitation is a Crime; it is an Inchoate offense that consists of a person offering money or something else of value in order to In Criminal law, the doctrine of common purpose, common design or joint enterprise refers to the situation where two or more people embark on a project In Law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak" is the practical Authority |
Not all are listed here.
Crime is the breach of a rule or law for which a punishment may ultimately be prescribed by some governing authority or force. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The word crime originates from the Latin crimen (genitive criminis), from the Latin root cernō and Greek κρινω = "I judge". Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The root is the primary lexical unit of a Word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents A judge, or justice, is an Official who presides over a Court of law Originally it meant "charge (in law), guilt, accusation. ---- Guilt is the Fact, state or Verdict (by a Court or other Tribunal) of an Offence, Crime, Violation "
Informal relationships and sanctions have been deemed insufficient to create and maintain a desired social order. Social order is a concept used in sociology history and other social sciences resulting in formalized systems of social control by the government, or more broadly, the State. Social control refers to social mechanisms that regulate individual and group behavior leading to conformity and compliances to the rules of a given Society or For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. With the institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State are able to compel individuals to conform to behavioural codes and punish those that do not. Various mechanisms are employed to regulate behaviour, including rules codified into laws, policing people to ensure they comply with those laws, and other policies and practices designed to prevent crime. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce Victimization and to deter Crime and criminals In addition are remedies and sanctions, and collectively these constitute a criminal justice system. Sanctions are usually monetary fines, levied against a party to a Legal action or his/her Attorney, for violating rules of procedure Criminal justice is the system of practices and organizations used by national and local governments directed at maintaining Social control, deterring Not all breaches of the law, however, are considered crimes, for example, breaches of contract and other civil law offenses. Breach of contract is a Legal concept in which a Binding agreement or bargained-for exchange is not honored by one or more of the parties to the contract by non-performance Private law (Civil law is that part of a Legal system that involves relationships between individuals The label of "crime" and the accompanying social stigma are normally reserved for those activities that are injurious to the general population or the State, including some that cause serious loss or damage to individuals. Originating in Sociology and Criminology, labeling theory (also known as social reaction theory) focuses on the linguistic tendency of majorities to negatively Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or Beliefs that are against cultural norms. The label is intended to assert an hegemony of a dominant population, or to reflect a consensus of condemnation for the identified behavior and to justify a punishment imposed by the State, in the event that an accused person is tried and convicted of a crime. Hegemony (hɨˈdʒɛməni (Amer /hɨˈɡɛməni/ (Brit (ἡγεμονία hēgemonía) is a concept that has been used to describe and explain the dominance of one social In Law, a conviction is the Verdict that results when a Court of law finds a Defendant guilty of a Crime. . Usually, the perpetrator of the crime is a natural person, but in some jurisdictions and in some moral environments, legal persons are also considered to have the capability of committing crimes. In Jurisprudence, a natural person is a human being perceptible through the senses and subject to physical laws as opposed to an artificial legal or juristic person Note This Wikipedia entry deals with the legal concept legal person.
A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms, specifically, cultural standards prescribing how humans ought to behave normally. Normative has specialized meanings in several academic disciplines A definition is a statement of the meaning of a Word or Phrase. Deviance describes actions or behaviors that violate cultural norms including formally-enacted rules (e Social norms have been defined as "the rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values beliefs attitudes and behaviors Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic This approach considers the complex realities surrounding the concept of crime and seeks to understand how changing social, political, psychological, and economic conditions may affect the current definitions of crime and the form of the legal, law enforcement, and penal responses made by the State. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force These structural realities are fluid and often contentious. For the use of structuralism in biology see Structuralism (biology Structuralism is an approach to the human sciences that attempts to analyze For example, as cultures change and the political environment shifts, behavior may be criminalised or decriminalised, which will directly affect the statistical crime rates, determine the allocation of resources for the enforcement of such laws, and influence the general public opinion. In Criminology, criminalization or criminalisation is "the process by which behaviors and individuals are transformed into Crime and criminals" Decriminalization is the reduction or abolition of criminal penalties in relation to certain acts but regulated permits or fines might still apply (for contrast Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. Crime statistics attempt to provide a statistical measure of the level or amount of- Crime that is prevalent in societies Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Similarly, changes in the way that crime data are collected and/or calculated may affect the public perceptions of the extent of any given "crime problem". All such adjustments to crime statistics, allied with the experience of people in their everyday lives, shape attitudes on the extent to which law should be used to enforce any particular social norm. Crime statistics attempt to provide a statistical measure of the level or amount of- Crime that is prevalent in societies There are many ways in which behaviour can be controlled without having to resort to the criminal justice system. Indeed, in those cases where there is no clear consensus on the given norm, the use of criminal law by the group in power to prohibit the behaviour of another group may be considered an improper limitation of the second group's freedom, and the ordinary members of society may lose some of their respect for the law in general whether the disputed law is actively enforced or not. Consensus has two common meanings One is a general agreement among the members of a given group or Community, each of which exercises some discretion in The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different Jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential Power is a measure of a person's ability to control the environment around them including the behavior of other people Freedom, or the idea of being free is a broad concept that
Laws that define crimes which violate social norms are set by legislatures, and are called mala prohibita. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation Malum prohibitum (plural mala prohibita, literal translation "wrong or because prohibited" is a Latin phrase used in Law to These laws vary from time to time and place to place, such as gambling laws. Other crimes, called mala in se, are nearly universally outlawed, such as murder, theft and rape
The process of criminalization is controlled by the State because:
The first civilizations had codes of law, containing both civil and penal rules mixed together, though these codes were not always recorded. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society The first known written codes were produced by the Sumerians, and it is known that Urukagina had an early code that does not survive. Sumer ( Sumerian: sux-Latn [[Ki (earth ki]]-[[EN (cuneiform en]]-'''ĝir15''', Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar Urukagina (reigned ca 2380 BC &ndash 2360 BC, Short chronology) alternately rendered as Uruinimgina or Irikagina, was a ruler A later king, Ur-Nammu left the earliest code that has been discovered, creating a formal system of prescribed penalties for specific cases in 57 articles, the Code of Ur-Nammu. Ur-Nammu (or Ur-Namma, Ur-Engur, Ur-Gur, ca 2112-2095 BC Middle chronology) founded the Sumerian 3rd dynasty of Ur The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known tablet containing a Law code surviving today The Sumerians later issued other codes including the "code of Lipit-Ishtar" (last king of Isin - 20th century BCE). Lipit-Ishtar (Lipit-Eshtar was the fifth ruler of the first dynasty of Isin, and ruled from around 1934 BCE to 1924 BCE This code contains some fifty articles and has been reconstructed by the comparison among several sources.
The Sumerian was deeply conscious of his personal rights and resented any encroachment on them, whether by his King, his superior, or his equal. No wonder that the Sumerians were the first to compile laws and law codes.— Kramer
Successive legal codes in Babylon, including the code of Hammurabi, reflected Mesopotamian society's belief that law was derived from the will of the gods (see Babylonian law). Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq The Code of Hammurabi ( Codex Hammurabi) is the best-preserved ancient Law code, created ca Archaeological material for the study of Babylonian law is singularly extensive  Many states at this time were theocratic, and their codes of conduct were religious in origin or reference. Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler
Sir Henry Maine (1861) studied the ancient codes available in his day and failed to find any criminal law in the 'modern' sense of the word. Sir Henry James Sumner Maine, KCSI ( August 15, 1822 - February 3, 1888) was an English comparative jurist and While modern systems distinguish between offences against the "State" or "Community", and offences against the "Individual", what was termed the penal law of ancient communities was not the law of "Crimes" (crimina); it was the law of "Wrongs" (delicta). Thus, the Hellenic laws treated all forms of theft, assault, rape, and murder as private wrongs, and action for enforcement was up to the victim or their survivors (which was a challenge in that although there was law, there were no formalized courts in the earliest system). In Criminal law, theft (also known as stealing or filching) is the illegal taking of another person's Property without that person's freely-given Assault is a Crime of Violence against another person. In some Jurisdictions including Australia and New Zealand, Rape, also referred to as Sexual assault, is an Assault by a person involving Sexual intercourse with or Sexual penetration of another person It was the Romans who systemized law and exported it to their Empire. Again, the initial rules of Roman Law were that assaults were a matter of private compensation. Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting The significant Roman Law concept was of dominion.  The pater familias was in possession of all the family and its property (including slaves). " Pater Familias " or " Pater Families " is the third Season finale of Ghost Whisperer, it originally aired on May Hence, interference with any property was enforced by the pater. The Commentaries of Gaius on the Twelve Tables treated furtum (modern theft) as a tort. The Law of the Twelve Tables ( Lex Duodecim Tabularum, more informally simply Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient Legislation that stood at the foundation Tort law is the name given to a body of law that creates and provides remedies for civil wrongs that do not arise out of Contractual duties Similarly, assault and violent robbery were allied with trespass as to the pater's property (so, for example, the rape of a slave would be the subject of compensation to the pater as having trespassed on his "property") and breach of such laws created a vinculum juris (an obligation of law) that could only be discharged by the payment of monetary compensation (modern damages). Robbery is the Crime of seizing Property through Violence or Intimidation. Trespass (Fr trespas a crime properly a stepping across from Lat In Law, damages refers to the money paid or awarded to a Claimant (England Pursuer (Scotland or Plaintiff (US following a successful Similarly, in the consolidated Teutonic Laws of the Germanic tribes, there was a complex system of money compensations for what would now be considered the complete range of criminal offences against the person from murder down. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic
Even though Rome abandoned Britain sometime around 400 AD, the Germanic mercenaries who had largely been enforcing the Roman occupation, stayed on and continued to use a mixture of Roman and Teutonic Law, with much written down by the early Anglo-Saxon Kings. Anglo-Saxon monarchs were the rulers of the various kingdoms which arose in England following the withdrawal of the Romans in the fifth century  But, it was not until a more unified Kingdom emerged following the Norman invasion and the King was attempting to assert power over the land and its peoples, that the modern concept emerged, namely that a crime is not only an offence against the "individual", it is also a wrong against the "State".  This is a common law idea and the earliest conception of a criminal act involved events of such major significance that the "State" had to usurp the usual functions of the civil tribunals and direct a special law or privilegium against the perpetrator. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive All the earliest criminal trials were wholly extraordinary and arbitrary without any settled law to apply, whereas the civil delictual law was highly developed and consistent in its operation (except where the King wanted to raise money by selling a new form of Writ). In Law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial Jurisdiction. The development of the idea that it is the "State" dispensing justice in a court only emerges in parallel with or after the emergence of the concept of sovereignty. JUSTICE is a Human rights and law reform organisation based in the United Kingdom.
In continental Europe, Roman Law persisted, but with a stronger influence from the Church.  Coupled with the more diffuse political structure based on smaller State units, rather different legal traditions emerged, remaining more strongly rooted in Roman jurisprudence modified to meet the prevailing political climate. Jurisprudence is the Theory and Philosophy of Law. Scholars of jurisprudence or legal philosophers hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature In Scandinavia, the effect of Roman law was not felt until the 17th century, and the courts grew out of the things, which were the assemblies of the people. See also Medieval Scandinavian laws A thing or ting ( Old Norse, Old English and Icelandic: þing; other modern The cases were decided by the people (usually largest freeholders dominating) which later gradually transformed into a system of a royal judge nominating a number of most esteemed men of the parish as his board, fulfilling the function of "the people" of yore.
From the Hellenic system onwards, the policy rationale for requiring the payment of monetary compensation for wrongs committed has been to avoid feuding between clans and families. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca A clan is a group of People united by Kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor Family denotes a group of People affiliated by consanguinity affinity or co-residence  If families' feelings could be mollified by compensation, this would help to keep the peace. On the other hand, the threat of feudal warfare was played down also by the institution of oaths. Endemic warfare is the state of continual low-threshold Warfare in a tribal Warrior society Both in archaic Greece and in medieval Scandinavia, the accused was released if he could get a sufficient number of male relatives to swear him unguilty. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well This may be compared with the United Nations Security Council where the veto power of the permanent members ensures that the organization is not drawn into crises where it could not enforce its decisions. A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation. These means of restraining private feuds did not always work or prevented the fulfillment of justice but, in the earliest times, the "States" were not prepared to provide an independent police force. A feud (ˈfjuːd (referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud or vendetta) is a long-running argument or fight between parties&mdashoften through Guilt Thus, criminal law grew out of what is now tort and, in real terms, many acts and omissions that are classified as crimes overlap civil law concepts.
The consistent theoretical problem has been to justify the State's use of force to coerce compliance with its laws. One of the earliest justifications was the theory of natural law. Natural law or the law of nature ( Latin: lex naturalis) is a theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by Nature and that This posits that the standards of morality are derived from or constructed by the nature of the world or of human beings. Thomas Aquinas said: "the rule and measure of human acts is the reason, which is the first principle of human acts" (Aquinas, ST I-II, Q. 90, A. I), i. e. since people are by nature rational beings, it is morally appropriate that they should behave in a way that conforms to their rational nature. Thus, to be valid, any law must conform to natural law and coercing people to conform to that law is morally acceptable. William Blackstone (1979: 41) describes the thesis:
But John Austin, an early positivist, applied utilitarianism in accepting the calculating nature of human beings and the existence of an objective morality, but denied that the legal validity of a norm depends on whether its content conforms to morality, i. John Austin (1790 - 1859 was a noted British Jurist and published extensively concerning the philosophy of law and Jurisprudence. Legal positivism is a school of thought in Jurisprudence and the Philosophy of law. Utilitarianism is the idea that the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall Utility, that is its contribution to happiness e. a moral code can objectively determine what people ought to do, the law can embody whatever norms the legislature decrees to achieve social utility, but every individual is free to choose what he or she will do. Similarly, Hart (1961) saw the law as an aspect of sovereignty with lawmakers able to adopt any law as a means to a moral end. Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart (1907-1992 was an influential English-speaking legal philosopher of the twentieth century. Thus, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the truth of a proposition of law were simply that the law was internally logical and consistent, and that State power was being used with responsibility. Dworkin (2005) rejects Hart's theory and argues that fundamental among political rights is the right of each individual to the equal respect and concern of those who govern him. He offers a theory of compliance overlaid by a theory of deference (the citizen's duty to obey the law) and a theory of enforcement, which identifies the legitimate goals of enforcement and punishment. Deference denotes the extent to which a court respects the authority or validity of a government act or decision during the process of Judicial review. Legislation must conform to a theory of legitimacy, which describes the circumstances under which a particular person or group is entitled to make law, and a theory of legislative justice, which describes the law they are entitled or obliged to make.
Indeed, despite everything, the majority of natural law theorists have accepted that a primary function of the law is to enforce the prevailing morality. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society The problem with this view is that it makes any moral criticism of the law impossible in that, if conformity with natural law is a necessary condition for legal validity, all valid law must, by definition, be morally just. Thus, on this line of reasoning, the legal validity of a norm necessarily entails its moral justice. The solution to this problem is to admit some degree of moral relativism and to accept that norms may evolve over time and, therefore, the continued enforcement of old laws may be criticized in the light of the current norms. This article attempts to confine itself to discussion of relativism in morals and ethics The law may be acceptable but the use of State power to coerce citizens to comply with that law is not morally justified. In more modern conceptions of the theory, crime is characterized as the violation of individual rights. Individual rights refer to the Rights of Individuals in contrast with Group rights. Since so many rights are considered as natural, hence the term "right", rather than man-made, what constitutes a crime is also natural, in contrast to laws, which are man-made. A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics Adam Smith illustrates this view, saying that a smuggler would be an excellent citizen, ". Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. Smuggling, also known as trafficking, is the clandestine transportation of goods or persons past a point where prohibited such as out of a building into a Prison . . had not the laws of his country made that a crime which nature never meant to be so. "
Natural law theory therefore distinguishes between "criminality" which is derived from human nature, and "illegality" which is derived from the interests of those in power. The two concepts are sometimes expressed with the phrases malum in se and malum prohibitum. Malum in se (plural mala in se) is a Latin phrase meaning wrong or evil in itself. Malum prohibitum (plural mala prohibita, literal translation "wrong or because prohibited" is a Latin phrase used in Law to A crime malum in se is argued to be inherently criminal; whereas a crime malum prohibitum is argued to be criminal only because the law has decreed it so. This view leads to a seeming paradox, that an act can be illegal that is no crime, while a criminal act could be perfectly legal. A paradox is a true statement or group of statements that leads to a Contradiction or a situation which defies intuition; or inversely Many Enlightenment thinkers such as Adam Smith and the American Founding Fathers subscribed to this view to some extent, and it remains influential among so-called classical liberals and libertarians. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Founding Fathers are persons instrumental in the establishment of an Institution, usually a political institution especially those connected to the origination of its Ideals Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the
Antisocial behaviour is criminalised and treated as offences against society, in order to justify punishment by the government. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions A series of distinctions are made depending on the passive subject of the crime (the victim), or on the offended interest(s), in crimes against:
Or they can be distinguished depending on the related punishment with sentencing tariffs prescribed in line with the perceived seriousness of the offence with fines and noncustodial sentences for the least serious, and in some States, capital punishment for the most serious. In Law, a sentence forms the final act of a Judge -ruled process and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function For other uses of this word see Tariff (disambiguation. A tariff is a tax imposed on goods when they are moved across a political boundary FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment.
Crime is generally classified into categories, including violent crime, property crime, and public order crime. A violent crime or crime of violence is a Crime in which the offender uses or threatens to use violent force upon the victim Property crime is a category of Crime that includes among other crimes Burglary, Larceny, Theft, Motor vehicle theft, Arson For relevant case law see Public order crime case law in the United States In Criminology public order crime is defined by Siegel (2004
In the United States since 1930, Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) have been tabulated annually by the FBI from crime data submitted by law enforcement agencies across the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Uniform Crime Reports ( UCR) contain official data on crime that is reported to law enforcement agencies across the country who then provide the data to the Law enforcement agency ( LEA) is a term used to describe either an organisation that enforces the laws of one or more governing bodies or an organisation that actively and directly The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This data is compiled at the city, county, and State levels into the Uniform crime reports (UCR). The Uniform Crime Reports ( UCR) contain official data on crime that is reported to law enforcement agencies across the country who then provide the data to the Violations of laws, which are derived from common law, are classified as Part I (index) crimes in UCR data, and further categorised as violent and property crimes. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive Part I violent crimes include murder and criminal homicide (voluntary manslaughter), forcible rape, aggravated assault, and robbery, while Part I property crimes include burglary, arson, larceny/theft, and motor vehicle theft. All other crimes are classified as Part II crimes.
Crimes are also grouped by severity, some common categorical terms being: felonies (US and previously UK), indictable offences (UK), misdemeanors (US and previously UK), and summary offences (UK). In Common law legal systems a felony is a serious Crime, often contrasted with a Misdemeanor. In many Common law Jurisdictions (eg the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Canada, United States, India, A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems is a "lesser" criminal act A summary offense, also known as a petty crime, is a criminal act in some Common law jurisdictions that can be proceeded with summarily without the right For convenience, infractions are also usually included in such lists although, in the U. Infraction as a general term means a violation of a rule or Local ordinance or regulation promise or obligation S. , they may not be the subject of the criminal law, but rather of the civil law. Civil law, as opposed to Criminal law, refers to that branch of Law dealing with disputes between Individuals and/or Organizations, in which
Crime against international law are crimes defined by treaty and include crime against peaces, waging a war of aggression, crimes of apartheid, piracy, genocide, war crimes, and the slave trade. A number of crimes against international law are created by Treaty and convention A Treaty is an agreement under International law entered into by actors in international law namely States and International organizations. A crime against peace, in International law, refers to "planning preparation initiation or waging of wars of aggression, or a war in violation of international A war of aggression is a Military conflict waged in the absence of "a necessity of self-defense instant overwhelming leaving no choice of means and no moment of deliberation The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war" including but not limited to "murder the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history They may be prosecuted by extraordinary procedures, usually international courts such as the International Criminal Court at The Hague in the Netherlands. International courts are formed by Treaties between nations or under the authority of an International organization such as the United Nations — this The International Criminal Court ( ICC or ICCt) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for Genocide, crimes against The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands
Secular jurisdictions have been influenced by socially accepted or imposed religious morality on issues that may otherwise be answerable only to an individual's conscience. Examples of activities that have been criminalized on religious grounds are alcohol consumption (prohibition), abortion and stem cell research. Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, also known as Noble Experiment, refers to a Sumptuary law which prohibits Alcohol An Stem cells are cells found in most if not all multi-cellular Organisms. In various historical and present-day societies institutionalized religions have established systems of earthly justice which punish crimes against the divine will and specific devotional, organizational and other rules under specific codes, such as Islamic sharia or Roman Catholic canon law. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches
In the military sphere, both regular crimes and specific acts such as mutiny or desertion can be prosecuted under martial law codes that either supplant or extend civil codes in times of war. Mutiny is a conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the Military; or the Crew of any ship even In Military terminology desertion is the Abandonment of a " Duty " or post without permission from one's Government or superior Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice
Many constitutions contain provisions to curtail freedoms and criminalize otherwise tolerated behaviors under a state of emergency in the event of war, natural disaster or civil unrest. A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors or order government agencies Such activities include assembly in the streets, violation of curfew, or possession of firearms. A curfew can be one of the following An order by a Government for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time