Cremation is the act of reducing a corpse by burning, generally in a crematorium furnace or crematory fire. A cadaver or corpse is a dead Body. "Cadaver" is normally used as a more formal term for a body being used in medical training or research Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of Contrary to popular belief, the remains (often called cremains) are not "ashes" in the usual sense, but rather dried bone fragments which have been pulverized in a device called a cremulator.
Cremation may serve as a funeral or post-funeral rite which is alternative to the interment of an intact body in a casket. Cremains, which are not a health risk, may be buried or immured in memorial sites or cemeteries, or they may be legally retained by relatives or dispersed in a variety of ways and locations.
The cremation occurs in a 'crematorium' consisting of one or more cremator furnaces or cremation 'retorts' for the ashes. A cremator is an industrial furnace capable of generating 870-980 °C (1600-1800 °F) to ensure disintegration of the corpse. A furnace is a device used for Heating The name derives from Latin fornax, Oven. A crematorium may be part of chapel or a funeral home, or part of an independent facility or a service offered by a cemetery. A chapel is a holy place or area of Worship for Christians, which may be attached to an institution such as a large church, a College, a A funeral home, funeral parlor or mortuary, is a business that provides burial and Funeral services for the deceased and their families A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried.
Modern cremator fuels include natural gas and propane. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Propane is a three- Carbon Alkane, normally a gas but compressible to a liquid that is transportable However, coal or coke were used until the early 1960s. Coke is a solid Carbonaceous material derived from Destructive distillation of low-ash low-sulfur Bituminous coal.
Modern cremators have adjustable control systems that monitor the furnace during cremation.
A cremation furnace is not designed to cremate more than one body at a time, which is illegal in many countries including the USA.
The chamber where the body is placed is called the retort. It is lined with refractory bricks that resist the heat. A refractory is a material that retains its strength at high Temperatures ASTM C71 defines refractories as "non-metallic materials having those chemical and physical The bricks are typically replaced every five years due to thermal fatigue.
Modern cremators are computer-controlled to ensure legal and safe use, e. g. the door cannot be opened until the cremator has reached operating temperature. The coffin is inserted (charged) into the retort as quickly as possible to avoid heat loss through the top-opening door. The coffin may be on a charger (motorised trolley) that can quickly insert the coffin, or one that can tilt and tip the coffin into the cremator.
Some crematoria allow relatives to view the charging. This is sometimes done for religious reasons, such as traditional Hindu and Jain funerals. 
Most cremators are a standard size. Typically, larger cities have access to an oversize cremator that can handle deceased in the 200+ kg range (441 pounds). Most large crematoriums have a small cremator installed for the disposal of fetal remains and infants.
A body ready to be cremated must be placed in a container for cremation, which can be a simple corrugated cardboard box or a wooden casket. Most casket manufacturers provide a line of caskets specially built for cremation. Another option is a cardboard box that fits inside a wooden shell designed to look like a traditional casket. After the funeral service the interior box is removed from the shell before cremation, permitting the shell to be reused. Funeral homes may also offer rental caskets, which are traditional caskets used only for the duration of the services, after which the body is transferred to another container for cremation. A funeral home, funeral parlor or mortuary, is a business that provides burial and Funeral services for the deceased and their families Rental caskets are sometimes designed with removable beds and liners, replaced after each use.
In the UK, the body is not removed from the coffin, and is not placed into a container as described above. The body is cremated with the coffin, which is why all UK coffins that are to be used for cremation must be made of combustible material. The Code Of Cremation Practice forbids the opening of the coffin once it has arrived at the crematorium, and rules stipulate it must be cremated on the same day as the funeral service. Therefore, if a corpse is to be cremated in the UK, it will be done so in the same coffin as it is placed in at the funeral parlor. Jewellery is strongly advised to be removed before the coffin is sealed, as the coffin cannot be opened once it has been received at the crematorium. After the cremation process has been completed, the remains are passed through a magnetic field to remove any bits of metal, which will be interred elsewhere in the crematorium grounds. The ashes are then given to relatives or loved ones.
In Australia, the deceased are cremated in a coffin supplied by the undertaker. Reusable or cardboard coffins are unknown. If cost is an issue, a plain, particle-board coffin known in the trade as a 'chippie' will be offered. Handles (if fitted) are plastic and approved for use in a cremator. Coffins vary from unfinished particle board (covered with a velvet pall if there is a service) to solid timber. Most are veneered particle board.
Cremations can be 'delivery only' with no preceding chapel service at the crematorium (although a church service may have been held) or preceded by a service in one of the crematorium chapels. Delivery-only allows crematoriums to schedule cremations to make best use of the cremators, perhaps by holding the body overnight in a refrigerator. As a result a lower fee is applicable. Delivery-only may be referred to by industry jargon such as 'west chapel service'.
The box containing the body is placed in the retort and incinerated at a temperature of 760 to 1150 °C (1400 to 2100 °F). Incineration is a waste treatment technology that involves the Combustion of organic materials and/or substances During the cremation process, a large part of the body (especially the organs) and other soft tissue are vaporized and oxidized due to the heat, and the gases are discharged through the exhaust system. Evaporation is the process by which Molecules in a Liquid state (e The entire process usually takes about two hours.
All that remains after cremation are dry bone fragments (mostly calcium phosphates and minor minerals). Their color is usually light gray. They represent very roughly 3. 5% of the body's original mass (2. 5% in children). Because the weight of dry bone fragments is so closely connected to skeletal mass, their weight varies greatly from person to person, although it is more closely connected with the person's height and sex than with their simple weight. The mean weight of adult cremains in a Florida, U. S. sample was 5. 3 lb (approx. 2. 4 kg) for adults (range 2 to 8 lb/900 g to 3. 6 kg). This was found to be distributed bimodally according to sex, with the mean being 6 lb (2. 7 kg) for men (range 4 to 8 lb/1. 8 kg to 3. 6 kg) and 4 lb (1. 8 kg) for women (range 2 to 6 lb/900 g to 2. 7 kg). In this sample, generally all adult cremated remains over 6 lb (2. 7 kg) were from males, and those under 4 lb (1. 8 kg) were from females. 
Jewelry, such as wristwatches and rings, are ordinarily removed and returned to the family. The only non-natural item required to be removed is a pacemaker, as a pacemaker could explode and damage the cremator. In the United Kingdom, and possibly other countries, the undertaker is required to remove pacemakers prior to delivering the body to the crematorium, and sign a declaration stating that any pacemaker has been removed. 
After the incineration is completed, the bone fragments are swept out of the retort and the operator uses a pulverizer called a cremulator (also known informally as a crembola) to process them into what are known as cremains which exhibit the appearance of grains of sand (note that this varies with the efficiency of the cremulator used, and recognizable chips of very dry bone may be seen in some final product cremated remains, depending on origin and facility). Cremulators usually use some kind of rotating or grinding mechanism to powder the bones, such as the heavy metal balls on older models. 
In Japan and Taiwan, the bones are not pulverized unless requested beforehand, and are collected by the family. A Japanese funeral includes a wake the Cremation of the deceased a burial in a family grave, and a periodic memorial service Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia.
This is one of the reasons cremated remains are called ashes although a technical term sometimes used is "cremains" (a portmanteau of "cremated" and "remains"). The ashes are placed in a container, which can be anything from a simple cardboard box to a fancy urn. An urn is a Vase, ordinarily covered and without handles that usually has a narrowed neck above a footed Pedestal. An unavoidable consequence of cremation is that a tiny residue of bodily remains is left in the chamber after cremation and mixes with subsequent cremations.
Not all that remains is bone. There will be melted metal lumps from missed jewellery, casket furniture, and dental fillings, and surgical implants such as hip replacements. Large items such as titanium hip replacements are usually removed before grinding, as they may damage the grinder. After grinding, smaller bits of metal are sieved out and later interred in common, consecrated ground in a remote area of the cemetery. Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service usually religious
Cremated remains are returned to the next of kin in a rectangular plastic container, contained within a further cardboard box or velvet sack, or in an urn if the family had already purchased one. An official certificate of cremation prepared under the authority of the crematorium accompanies the remains and if required by law the permit for disposition of human remains, which must remain with the cremains.
Cremated remains can be kept in an urn, sprinkled on a special field, mountain, in the sea, or buried in the ground at any location. Burial at sea describes the procedure of disposing of human remains in the ocean normally from a ship or boat In addition, there are several services which will scatter the cremated remains in a variety of ways and locations. Some examples are via a helium balloon, through fireworks, shot from shotgun shells or scattered from an airplane (this is not illegal in most jurisdictions, in part because laws prohibiting it would be difficult to enforce). One service will send a lipstick-tube sized sample of the cremains into low earth orbit, where they remain for years, but not permanently, before re-entering the atmosphere. Another company claims to turn part of the cremains into a diamond in an artificial diamond manufacturing machine. These converted grown diamonds can then be cut, polished, and mounted as would a real diamond into jewelry as a keepsake for the family. Cremains may also be incorporated, with urn and cement, into part of an artificial reef, or they can also be mixed into paint and made into a portrait of the deceased. Cremated remains can be scattered in national parks in the US, with a special permit. They can also be scattered on private property, with the owner's permission. A portion of the cremated remains may be retained in a specially designed locket known as a keepsake pendant. The cremated remains may also be entombed. Most cemeteries will grant permission for burial of cremains in occupied cemetery plots which have already been purchased or are in use by the families disposing of the cremains, without any additional charge or oversight.
The final disposition depends on the personal wishes of the deceased as well as their cultural and religious beliefs. Some religions will permit the cremated remains to be sprinkled or kept at home. Some religions, such as Roman Catholicism, insist on either burying or entombing the remains. Hinduism obliges the closest male relative (son, father, husband, etc. ) of the deceased to immerse the cremated remains in the holy river Ganges, preferably at the holy city of Haridwar, India. The Ganges (ˈgænʤiːz also Ganga, Devanāgarī: hi गंगा in most Indian languages) is the major river in the Indian subcontinent WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Haridwar (also spelled Hardwar Hindi: हरिद्वार भारत) is a holy city and India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Sikhs and Punjabi Hindus immerse the remains in Sutlej, usually at Sri Harkiratpur. Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River (ਸਤਲੁਜ शतद्रु or सुतुद्री, ستلج and सतलुज is the longest In Japan and Taiwan, the remaining bone fragments are given to the family and are used in a burial ritual before final interment (see Japanese funeral). A Japanese funeral includes a wake the Cremation of the deceased a burial in a family grave, and a periodic memorial service
Apart from religious reasons (discussed below), some people find they prefer cremation for personal reasons. For some people it is because they are not attracted to traditional burial. The thought of a long, slow decomposition process is unappealing to some; some people find that they prefer cremation because it disposes of the body immediately. 
Other people view cremation as a way of simplifying their funeral process. These people view a traditional burial as an unneeded complication of their funeral process, and thus choose cremation to make their services as simple as possible.
The cost factor tends to make cremation attractive. Generally speaking, cremation costs less than traditional burial services, especially if direct cremation is chosen, in which the body is cremated as soon as legally possible without any sort of services. However, there is wide variation in the cost of cremation services, having mainly to do with the amount of service desired by the deceased or the family. A cremation can take place after a full traditional funeral service, which adds cost. The type of container used also influences cost.
Cremated remains can be scattered or buried. Cremation plots or columbarium niches usually cost less than a burial plot or mausoleum crypt, and require less space. A columbarium (plural columbaria or columbariums) is a place for the respectful and usually public storage of cinerary Urns (i Some religions, such as Roman Catholicism, require the burial or entombment of cremated remains, but burial of cremains may often be accomplished in the burial plot of another person, such as a family member, without any additional cost.
To some, cremation might be preferable for environmental reasons. See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and Burial is a known source of certain environmental contaminants. Embalming fluids, for example, are known to contaminate groundwater with mercury, arsenic and formaldehyde. Embalming, in most modern Cultures is the Art and Science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall Decomposition Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33 Formaldehyde is a Chemical compound with the formula H2CO It is the simplest Aldehyde —an organic compound containing a terminal Carbonyl The coffins themselves are another known source of contamination.  Another concern is contamination from radioisotopes that entered the body before death or burial. A radionuclide is an Atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created One possible source of isotopes is radiation therapy, although no accumulation of radiation occurs in the most common type of radiation therapy involving high energy photons. Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of Ionizing radiation as part of Cancer treatment to control Malignant In Physics, the photon is the Elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena However, cremation has no effect on radioisotopes other than to return them to the environment more rapidly (beginning with some spread into the air). Thus, cremation is of no overall help with pollution from this source. 
Yet another environmental concern, of sorts, is that traditional burial takes up a great deal of space. In a traditional burial the body is buried in a casket made from a variety of materials. In America the casket is often placed inside a concrete vault or liner before burial in the ground. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag While individually this may not take much room, combined with other burials it can over time cause serious space concerns. Many cemeteries, particularly in Japan and Europe as well as those in larger cities, have run out, or are starting to run out, of permanent space. A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. In Tokyo, for example, traditional burial plots are extremely scarce and expensive, and in London, a space crisis led Harriet Harman to propose re-opening old graves for "double-decker" burials. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Harriet Ruth Harman .
However, there is a growing body of research that indicates cremation has a significant impact on the environment:
The major emissions from crematories are: nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, mercury, hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), NMVOCs, and other heavy metals, in addition to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP). The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any Binary compound of Oxygen and Nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds Nitric Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Structure HF forms orthorhombic crystals consisting of zig-zag chains of HF molecules NMVOC is the abbreviation for non-methane volatile organic compounds
According to the United Nations Environment Programme report on POP Emission Inventory Guidebook, emissions from crematoria contribute 0. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security 2% of the global emission of dioxins and furans. Not to be confused with Dioxane or Digoxin. Dioxin is a heterocyclic, organic, antiaromatic compound Furan, also known as furane and furfuran, is a heterocyclic Organic compound.
The Indian religions, such as Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism, mandate open air cremation. Bangkok, known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (krūŋtʰêːp máhǎːnákʰɔn) or Krung Thep ( for short is the Capital, largest The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Indian religions, also called Dharmic religions, are the related religious traditions that originated in the Indian subcontinent, namely Hinduism, Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices In these religions the body is seen as an instrument to carry the soul. The soul, according to many religious and philosophical beliefs is the self-awareness, or Consciousness, unique to a particular living As an example the Bhagavad Gita quotes "Just as old clothes are cast off and new ones taken, the soul leaves the body after the death to take a new one". Hence, the dead body is not considered sacred since the soul has left the body and the cremation is regarded as ethical by the Eastern religions. In Sikhism, burial is not prohibited, although cremation is the preferred option for cultural reasons rather than religious. Sikhism ( IPA: or; ਸਿੱਖੀ sikkhī, IPA:) founded on the teachings of Nanak and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Since Sikhism has a lot of cultural similarity with Hinduism, Sikhs prefer cremation. Sikhism ( IPA: or; ਸਿੱਖੀ sikkhī, IPA:) founded on the teachings of Nanak and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. They also scatter the ashes in holy rivers like Hindus. "Riverine" redirects here For the use of that term in Maritime geography, see there A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical
According to Hindu traditions, the reasons for preference of destroying the corpse by fire over burying it into ground, is to induce a feeling of detachment into the freshly-disembodied spirit, which will be helpful to encourage it into passing to 'the other world' (the ultimate destination of the dead). A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical  This also explains the ground-burial of holy men (whose spirit is already 'detached' enough due to lifelong ascetic practices) and young children (the spirit has not lived long enough to grow attachments to this world). Hindu holy men are buried in lotus position and not in horizontal position as in other religions. Holy Man is a Film produced in 1998 starring Eddie Murphy, Jeff Goldblum and Kelly Preston. The lotus position ( Devanāgarī: पद्मासन IAST: padmāsana; Japanese:) is a cross- Legged Hindus have 16 rituals (Sanskars) like Name, Thread ceremony, beginning of student life, marriage, etc. , and the last one is Cremation. Cremation is referred to as antim-samskara, literally meaning "the last rites". At the time of the cremation or "last rites" a "Puja" (ritual worship) is performed. Holy text of Rigveda, one of the most oldest Hindu scripture has many Ruchas(small poems) related to cremation stating that Lord Agni (God of Fire) will purify this body so instead of any other method let’s give this Parthiv (dead body) to Agni (Fire). The Rigveda ( Sanskrit sa ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise verse" and veda "knowledge" A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. The word agni is Sanskrit for "fire" (noun cognate with Latin ignis Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction.
In Christian countries and cultures, cremation has typically been discouraged, but not forbidden. Today Cremation is an increasingly popular form of disposition of the deceased Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
The Roman Catholic Church's discouragement of cremation stemmed from several ideas: first, that the body, as the instrument through which the sacraments are received, is itself a sacramental, a holy object; second that as an integral part of the human person, it should be disposed of in a way that honours and reverences it, and many early practices involved with disposal of dead bodies were viewed as pagan in origin or an insult to the body; third, that in imitation of Jesus Christ's burial, the body of a Christian should be buried; and fourth, that it constituted a denial of the resurrection of the body. A sacrament, as defined in Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion is "a Rite in which God is uniquely active SACRED was a Cubesat built by the Student Satellite Program of the University of Arizona. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed "  Cremation was not forbidden because it might interfere with God's ability to resurrect the body, however; this was refuted as early as Minucius Felix, in his dialogue Octavius. Felix Marcus Minucius was one of the earliest if not the earliest of the Latin apologists for Christianity. 
Cremation was, in fact, not forbidden in and of itself; even in Medieval Europe cremation was practised in situations where there were multitudes of corpses simultaneously present, such as after a battle, after a pestilence or famine, and where there was an imminent danger of diseases spreading from the corpses, since individual burials with digging graves would take too long time and body decomposition begin before all the corpses had been interred. A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation However, earth burial or entombment remained the law unless there were circumstances that required cremation for the public good.
Beginning in the Middle Ages, and even more so in the 18th century and later, rationalists and classicists began to advocate cremation again as a statement denying the resurrection and/or the afterlife, although the pro-cremation movement more often than not took care to address and refute theological concerns about cremation in their works.  Sentiment within the Catholic Church against cremation became hardened in the face of the association of cremation with "professed enemies of God".  Rules were made against cremation, which were softened in the 1960s. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969  The Catholic Church still officially prefers the traditional burial or entombment of the deceased, but cremation is now freely permitted as long as it is not done to express a refusal to believe in the resurrection of the body. 
Until 1997, Catholic liturgical regulations required that cremation take place after the funeral Mass, so that, if possible, the body might be present for the Mass - the body was present as a symbol, and to receive the blessings and be the subject of prayers in which it is mentioned. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Mass is a fundamental concept in Physics, roughly corresponding to the Intuitive idea of how much Matter there is in an object Prayer is the act of attempting to communicate with a Deity or spirit Once the Mass itself was concluded, the body could be cremated and a second service could be held at the crematorium or cemetery where the ashes were to be interred just as for a body burial. The liturgical regulations now allow for a Mass with the container of ashes present, but permission of the local bishop is needed for this. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight The Church still specifies requirements for the reverent disposition of ashes, normally that the ashes are to be buried or entombed in an appropriate container, such as an urn (rather than scattered or preserved in the family home). Catholic cemeteries today regularly receive cremated remains and many have columbaria. A columbarium (plural columbaria or columbariums) is a place for the respectful and usually public storage of cinerary Urns (i
Protestant churches were much more welcoming of the use of cremation and at a much earlier date than the Catholic Church; pro-cremation sentiment was not unanimous among Protestants, however. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation.  The first crematoria in the Protestant countries were built in 1870s, and in 1908 the Dean and Chapter of Westminster Abbey, one of the most famous Anglican churches, required that remains be cremated for burial in the abbey's precincts. The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs  Scattering, or "strewing," is an acceptable practice in many Protestant denominations, and some churches have their own "garden of remembrance" on their grounds in which remains can be scattered. Other Christian groups also support cremation. These include Jehovah's Witnesses and the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance
On the other hand, some branches of Christianity oppose cremation, including some minority Protestant groups.  Most notably, the Eastern Orthodox Churches forbid cremation. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Exceptions are made for circumstances where it may not be avoided (when civil authority demands it, or epidemics) or if it may be sought for good cause, but when a cremation is willfully chosen for no good cause by the one who is deceased, he or she is not permitted a funeral in the church and may also be permanently excluded from liturgical prayers for the departed. In Orthodoxy, cremation is a rejection of the dogma of the general resurrection, and as such is viewed harshly. Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek, plural) is the established Belief or 
Leaders of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints have typically declared that cremation is strongly discouraged. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known This is based on the LDS belief that the body is holy, and that the body and soul will eventually be reunited. Prominent LDS leader Bruce R. McConkie wrote that "only under the most extraordinary and unusual circumstances" would cremation be consistent with LDS teachings. Bruce Redd McConkie ( July 29 1915 &ndash April 19 1985) was a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus
Judaism traditionally disapproved of cremation in the past (it was the traditional means of disposing the dead in the neighboring Bronze Age cultures). Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for It has also disapproved of preservation of the dead by means of embalming and mummifying, a practice of the ancient Egyptians. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, as the Jewish cemeteries in many European towns had become crowded and were running out of space, cremation became an approved means of corpse disposal amongst the Liberal Jews. Current liberal movements like Reform Judaism still support cremation, although divided burial remains the preferred option. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently subjected to vandalism and the insertion of personal opinions 
The Orthodox Jews have maintained a stricter line on cremation, and disapprove of it as Halakha (Jewish law) forbids it. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law This halakhic concern is grounded in the upholding of bodily resurrection as a core belief of traditional Judaism, as opposed to other ancient trends such as the Sadduccees, who denied it. This article concerns itself with Jesus Christ Christian, Islamic and other religious interpretations of resurrection in general The Sadducees were members of a Jewish sect founded in the second century BC, possibly as a political party Conservative Jewish groups also oppose cremation. Conservative Judaism (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel and Europe) is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out 
Traditionally, Zoroastrianism disavows cremation or burial to preclude pollution of fire or earth. Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings The traditional method of corpse disposal is through ritual exposure in a "Tower of Silence," but both burial and cremation are increasingly popular alternatives. Towers of Silence are circular raised structures used by Zoroastrians for exposure of the dead Some contemporary figures of the faith have opted for cremation. Parsi-Zoroastrian singer Freddie Mercury of the group Queen was cremated after his death. Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings Freddie Mercury (born Farrokh Bulsara; 5 September 1946 – 24 November 1991 was a Zanzibar -born British Musician, best known as the lead Queen were an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist
Of modern Neo-Pagan religions, Ásatrú favours cremation, as do forms of Celtic Paganism. Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is an Umbrella term used to identify a wide variety of modern religious movements particularly those influenced by historical is Ásatrú ( Icelandic for " Æsir faith" auːsatruː in Old Norse; Norwegian Åsatru, Swedish
Ásatrú, Buddhism, Christianity (containing Church of Ireland, Church in Wales, United Church of Canada, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheranism, Methodism, Moravian Church, Salvation Army, Scottish Episcopal Church), Christian Science, Church of Scientology, Hinduism (mandatory except for sanyasis, eunuchs and children under five), Jainism, Sikhs, Society of Friends (Quakers), and Unitarian Universalism all permit cremation. is Ásatrú ( Icelandic for " Æsir faith" auːsatruː in Old Norse; Norwegian Åsatru, Swedish Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating across the island of Ireland. The Church in Wales (Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six Dioceses in Wales. The United Church of Canada was founded in 1925 as a merger of four Christian denominations two thirds of the Presbyterian Church in Canada (then the largest Canadian Protestant Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations This page is about the Moravian Church globally For information about the church in a particular geographic area use the links at Organisation below The Salvation Army is a Christian charity and church that is internally organised like a military service. The Scottish Episcopal Church (Eaglais Easbaigeach na h-Alba is a Christian denomination in Scotland and a member of the Anglican Communion, although it Christian Science is believed by its supporters to be a system of spiritually scientific truths which are summed up in the two commandments having one God one Mind one Life Truth The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. "Sanyasi" redirects here For the motion picture see Sanyasi (1975 film Sannyasa, ( Devanagari: संन्यास Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. Unitarian Universalism ( UUism) is a theologically liberal Religion characterized by its support for a "free and responsible search for truth
The Bahá'í Faith forbids cremation. The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind Neo-Confucianism under Zhu Xi strongly discourages cremation of one's parents' corpses as unfilial. Neo-Confucianism (/( is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Zhu Xi or Chu Hsi (朱熹 born October 18, 1130, Yuxi, Fujian province China &ndash died April 23, 1200 In Confucian thought filial piety ( is one of the Virtues to be cultivated a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors In Egyptian Reconstructionism it is believed the Ka will be killed with cremation but it is not forbidden and during ancient times, was a practice of desposing of criminals who were executed in order for them to be deprived of an afterlife. In Islam the Islamic Law forbids Cremation. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.
Cremation dates to at least 26,000 years ago in the archaeological record with the Mungo Lake cremation.
Alternative death rituals emphasizing one method of disposal of a body, inhumation (burial, cremation, and exposure), have gone through periods of preference throughout history.
In the Middle East and Europe both burial and cremation are evident in the archaeological record in the Neolithic. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Cultural groups had their own preference and prohibitions. The ancient Egyptians developed an intricate transmigration of soul theology, which prohibited cremation, and this was adopted widely among other Semitic peoples. The Babylonians, according to Herodotus, embalmed their dead. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash Early Persians practiced cremation but this became prohibited during the Zoroastrian Period. Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings Phoenicians practiced both cremation and burial. Ancient Greeks and Romans practiced both with cremation generally associated with military honours.
In Europe, there are traces of cremation dating to the Early Bronze Age (ca. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for 2000 BC) in the Pannonian Plain and along the middle Danube. The Pannonian Plain is a large Plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea dried out The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj The custom becomes dominant throughout Bronze Age Europe with the Urnfield culture (from ca. The Urnfield culture (c 1300 BC - 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe. 1300 BC). In the Iron Age, inhumation becomes again more common, but cremation persisted in the Villanovan culture and elsewhere. This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. Burial, also called interment and inhumation, is the act of placing a person or object into the ground The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly Homer's account of Patroclus' burial describes cremation with subsequent burial in a tumulus similar to Urnfield burials, qualifying as the earliest description of cremation rites. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the In Greek mythology, as recorded in the Iliad by Homer, Patroclus, or Patroklos (Gr A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a Mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves This is mostly an anachronism, as during Mycenaean times burial was generally preferred, and Homer may have been reflecting more common use of cremation in the period in which the Iliad was written centuries later.
Criticism of burial rites is a common aspersion in competing religions and cultures and one is the association of cremation with fire sacrifice or human sacrifice. Worship or deification of Fire (also pyrodulia pyrolatry or pyrolatria is known from various religions Human sacrifice is the act of Homicide (the Killing of one or several Human beings in the context of a Religious ritual ( ritual killing
Hinduism and Jainism are notable for not only allowing but prescribing cremation. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Cremation in India is first attested in the Cemetery H culture (from ca. The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BCE in and around the Punjab region which is located on the 1900 BC), considered the formative stage of Vedic civilization. The Vedic Period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the History of India during which the Vedas, the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism, were being The Rigveda contains a reference to the emerging practice, in RV 10. The Rigveda ( Sanskrit sa ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise verse" and veda "knowledge" The tenth Mandala of the Rigveda has 191 hymns Together with Mandala 1, it forms the latest part of the Rigveda containing much mythological material 15. 14, where the forefathers "both cremated (agnidagdhá-) and uncremated (ánagnidagdha-)" are invoked.
Cremation remained common, but not universal, in both Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC According to Cicero, in Rome inhumation was considered the more archaic rite, while the most honoured citizens were most typically cremated, especially upper classes and members of imperial families. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman
Christianity frowned upon cremation, both influenced by the tenets of Judaism, and in an attempt to abolish Graeco-Roman pagan rituals. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings By the 5th century, the practice of cremation had practically disappeared from Europe.
In early Roman Britain cremation was usual but diminished by the fourth century. Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between AD 43 and 410 It then reappeared in the fifth and sixth centuries during the migration era, when sacrificed animals were sometimes included with the human bodies on the pyre, and the deceased were dressed in costume and with ornaments for the burning. That custom was also very widespread among the Germanic peoples of the northern continental lands from which the Anglo-Saxon migrants are supposed to have been derived, during the same period. These ashes were usually thereafter deposited in a vessel of clay or bronze in an 'urn cemetery'. The custom again died out with the Christian conversion among the Anglo-Saxons or Early English, during the seventh century, when inhumation of the corpse became general. 
Throughout parts of Europe, cremation was forbidden by law, and even punishable by death if combined with heathen rites.  Cremation was sometimes used by authorities as part of punishment for heretics, and this did not only include burning at the stake. For example, the body of John Wycliff was exhumed years after his death and cremated, with the ashes thrown in a river,. John Wycliffe (ˈwɪklɪf also spelled Wyclif, Wycliff, Wiclef, Wicliffe, or Wickliffe) (mid-1320s – 31 December  explicitly as a posthumous punishment for his denial of the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. See also Eucharist (Catholic Church On the related belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist in body blood soul and divinity see Real Presence.  On the other hand, mass cremations were often performed because of necessity, when there was a danger of contagious diseases, such as after a battle, pestilence or famine. Retributory cremation continued into modern times. For example, after World War II, the bodies of the 12 men convicted of crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials were not returned to their families, but were instead cremated, then disposed of at a secret location, as a specific part of a legal process intended to deny their use as a location for any sort of memorial. The Nuremberg Trials were a series of trials most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany after  In Japan, however, a memorial building for many executed war criminals, who were also cremated, was allowed to be erected for their remains.  Many Communist countries used similar obliteration as an aggravated capital punishment: the bodies of the executed were cremated and the ashes ignominiously disposed, thus humiliating the families even further. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based
Even today, cremation bears the stigma of "human waste disposal" in many ex-Socialist countries and is considered ignominious or shameful.
In 1873, Paduan Professor Brunetti presented a cremation chamber at the Vienna Exposition. Padua ( Padova 'padova Latin: Patavium, Padoa) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. In Britain, the movement found the support of Queen Victoria's surgeon, Sir Henry Thompson, who together with colleagues founded the Cremation Society of England in 1874. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Henry Thompson redirects here For the American songwriter see H The first crematoria in Europe were built in 1878 in Woking, England and Gotha, Germany, the first in North America in 1876 by Dr. Gotha is a town in Thuringia, within the central core of Germany. Francis Julius LeMoyne in Washington, Pennsylvania. Francis Julius LeMoyne ( September 4, 1798 - October 14, 1879) was a 19th century American Medical doctor and Philanthropist Washington is a city in Washington County, Pennsylvania, United States and part of the Pittsburgh Metro Area. The second cremation in the United States was that of Charles F. Winslow in Salt Lake City, Utah on July 31, 1877. Charles Frederick Winslow (1811-1877 was a physician diplomat and world traveler Salt Lake City is the Capital and the most populous city of the U Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently Year 1877 ( MDCCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The first cremation in Britain took place on 26th March 1886 at Woking. 
Cremation was declared as legal in England and Wales when Dr William Price was prosecuted for cremating his son; formal legislation followed later with the passing of the Cremation Act 1902, (this Act did not extend to Ireland) which imposed procedural requirements before a cremation could occur and restricted the practice to authorised places. Dr William Price ( 4 March 1800 &ndash 23 January 1893) was a Welsh physician and a famous eccentric, best known  Some of the various Protestant churches came to accept cremation, with the rationale being, "God can resurrect a bowl of ashes just as conveniently as he can resurrect a bowl of dust". The 1908 Catholic Encyclopedia was critical about these efforts, referring to them as a "sinister movement" and associating them with Freemasonry, although it said that "there is nothing directly opposed to any dogma of the Church in the practice of cremation". The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language Encyclopedia published by The Encyclopedia  In 1963, Pope Paul VI lifted the ban on cremation, and in 1966 allowed Catholic priests to officiate at cremation ceremonies. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Pope Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it in an Organisation or
Australia also started to establish modern cremation movements and societies. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Australians had their first purpose-built modern crematorium and chapel in the West Terrace Cemetery in the South Australian capital Adelaide in 1901. South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia with a This small building, resembling the buildings at Woking, remained largely unchanged from its 19th century style and in full operation until the late 1950s. The oldest operating Crematorium in Australia is at Rookwood in Sydney. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 It opened in 1925.
In the Netherlands, the foundation of the Association for Optional Cremation in 1874 ushered in a long debate about the merits and demerits of cremation. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Laws against cremation were challenged and invalidated in 1915 (two years after the construction of the first crematorium in the Netherlands), though cremation did not become legally recognised until 1955. 
During the Holocaust, massive crematoria were constructed and operated by the Nazis within their concentration camps and extermination camps to dispose of the bodies of thousands of Jews, Gypsies, and other prisoners who were killed or died in the camps daily. The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial Extermination camps were two types of facilities that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins In addition to the atrocity of mass murder, the remains of Jews were thus disposed of in a manner deeply offensive to Orthodox Judaism because Halakha, the Jewish law, forbids cremation and holds that the soul of a cremated person cannot find its final repose. This article deals with mass killings that are not considered Genocide. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law Since then, cremation has carried an extremely negative connotation for many Jews.
A recent controversial event involved the failure to cremate, known as the Tri-State Crematory Incident. The Tri-State Crematory was the subject of a national incident in the United States in 2002 leading to litigation and criminal prosecution in which over three hundred bodies In the state of Georgia in the United States in early 2002, three hundred thirty-four corpses that were supposed to have been cremated in the previous few years at the Tri-State Crematory were found intact and decaying on the crematorium's grounds, having been dumped there by the crematorium's proprietor. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Many of the corpses were beyond identification. In many cases the "ashes" that were returned to the family were not human remains - they were made of wood and concrete dust.
Eventually Ray Brent Marsh—who was the operator at the time the bodies were discovered—had 787 criminal charges filed against him. On November 19, 2004 Marsh pleaded guilty to all charges. Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Marsh was sentenced to two 12-year prison sentences from both Georgia and Tennessee which he is serving concurrently. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. Afterwards he will be on probation for 75 years.
Civil suits were filed against the Marsh family as well as a number of funeral homes who shipped bodies to Tri-State. These suits were ultimately settled. The property of the Marsh family has been sold, but collection of the full $80 million judgment remains doubtful. Families have expressed the desire to return the former Tri-State crematory to a natural, park like setting.
The magnitude 9. TalkMoment magnitude scale#Real world examples please.--> The moment magnitude scale 0-9. 3 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake triggered a series of lethal tsunamis on December 26, 2004 that killed almost 300,000 people, making them the deadliest tsunamis in recorded history. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea Earthquake that occurred at 005853 UTC on December 26 2004 with an Epicentre off the west coast of Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The tsunamis killed people over an area ranging from the immediate vicinity of the quake in Indonesia, Thailand, and the north-western coast of Malaysia, to thousands of kilometres away in Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and even as far as Somalia, Kenya, and Tanzania in eastern Africa. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island The Maldives ( or, or Maldive Islands) officially the Republic of Maldives, is an Island nation consisting of a group of atolls stretching Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya
Authorities had difficulties dealing with the large numbers of bodies, and as a result thousands of bodies were of necessity cremated together. Many of these bodies were not identified or viewed by relatives prior to cremation. A particular point of objection was that the bodies of Westerners were kept separate from those of Asian descent, who were mostly locals. Asian or Asiatic is a Demonym for people from Asia. However the use of the term varies by country and person often referring to people from a particular This meant that the bodies of tourists from other Asian nations, such as Japan and Korea, were mass cremated rather than being returned to their country of origin for funeral rites. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia.
The state of California has a law that forbids scattering human ashes on privately-owned land, including that of the decedant, although it does allow scattering at sea. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Carl Djerassi found this to be a problem after the death of his daughter, Pamela. Carl Djerassi (born October 29, 1923 in Vienna, Austria) is a chemist, Novelist, and Playwright best known As he states in the chapter "A Scattering of Ashes" in his autobiography 'The Pill, Pigmy Chimps, and Degas' Horse, he solved the problem by scattering Pamela's ashes into a creek on the family estate that was a tributary to San Francisquito Creek, which eventually runs to the San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Bay is a shallow productive Estuary through which water draining from approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento