The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. An entrepreneur is a person who has possession over a company enterprise, or Venture, and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome Lawrence Lessig (born June 3 1961) is an American academic and political activist A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Creative Commons licenses are several Copyright licenses released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons, a U A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage Creativity is a mental process involving the generation of new Ideas or Concepts, or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts The organization has released several copyright licenses known as Creative Commons licenses. Creative Commons licenses are several Copyright licenses released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons, a U These licenses, depending on the one chosen, restrict only certain rights (or none) of the work instead of traditional copyright, which is more restrictive.
Creative Commons Japan Seminar, Tokyo
The Creative Commons licenses enable copyright holders to grant some or all of their rights to the public while retaining others through a variety of licensing and contract schemes including dedication to the public domain or open content licensing terms. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone Open content, a Neologism coined by analogy with " Open source " describes any kind of Creative work published in a format that explicitly allows The intention is to avoid the problems current copyright laws create for the sharing of information. Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings from everyday usage to technical settings
The project provides several free licenses that copyright owners can use when releasing their works on the Web. The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked Hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. It also provides RDF/XML metadata that describes the license and the work, making it easier to automatically process and locate licensed works. The Resource Description Framework (RDF is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C Specifications originally designed as a Metadata Data Don't change "Extensible" Metadata ( meta data, or sometimes metainformation) is "data about data" of any sort in any media Creative Commons also provides a "Founders' Copyright" contract, intended to re-create the effects of the original U.S. Copyright created by the founders of the U. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the S. Constitution.
All these efforts, and more, are done to counter the effects of what Creative Commons considers to be a dominant and increasingly restrictive permission culture. Permission culture is a term often employed by Lawrence Lessig and other copyright activists to describe a Society in which Copyright restrictions are pervasive In the words of Lawrence Lessig, founder of Creative Commons and former Chairman of the Board, it is "a culture in which creators get to create only with the permission of the powerful, or of creators from the past". Lawrence Lessig (born June 3 1961) is an American academic and political activist  Lessig maintains that modern culture is dominated by traditional content distributors in order to maintain and strengthen their monopolies on cultural products such as popular music and popular cinema, and that Creative Commons can provide alternatives to these restrictions. 
The Creative Commons licenses were pre-dated by the Open Publication License and the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL). The Prix Ars Electronica is one of the most important yearly prizes in the field of electronic and Interactive art, Computer animation, digital culture Creative Commons licenses are several Copyright licenses released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons, a U Open Publication License is a license open publications created by the Open Content Project. The GNU Free Documentation License ( GNU FDL or simply GFDL) is a Copyleft License for free documentation designed by the Free Software The GFDL was intended mainly as a license for software documentation, but is also in active use by non-software projects such as Wikipedia. ***************************************************************************************** * * The Open Publication License is now largely defunct, and its creator suggests that new projects not use it. Both licenses contained optional parts that, in the opinions of critics, made them less "free". The GFDL differs from the CC licenses in its requirement that the licensed work be distributed in a form which is "transparent", i. e. , not in a proprietary and/or confidential format.
Headquartered in San Francisco, Creative Commons was officially launched in 2001. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Lawrence Lessig, the founder and former chairman, started the organization as an additional method of achieving the goals of his Supreme Court case, Eldred v. Ashcroft. Lawrence Lessig (born June 3 1961) is an American academic and political activist Eldred v Ashcroft, 537 US 186 (2003 challenged the constitutionality of the 1998 Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA The initial set of Creative Commons licenses was published on December 16, 2002. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.  The project itself was honored in 2004 with the Golden Nica Award at the Prix Ars Electronica, for the category "Net Vision". The Prix Ars Electronica is one of the most important yearly prizes in the field of electronic and Interactive art, Computer animation, digital culture The Prix Ars Electronica is one of the most important yearly prizes in the field of electronic and Interactive art, Computer animation, digital culture
The Creative Commons was first tested in court in early 2006, when podcaster Adam Curry sued a Dutch tabloid who published photos without permission from his Flickr page. Adam Clark Curry (born September 3 1964 in Washington DC) is a broadcasting and Internet personality well known for his stint from 1987 to 1994 as a The photos were licensed under the Creative Commons NonCommercial license. While the verdict was in favour of Curry, the tabloid avoided having to pay restitution to him as long as they did not repeat the offense. An analysis of the decision states, "The Dutch Court’s decision is especially noteworthy because it confirms that the conditions of a Creative Commons license automatically apply to the content licensed under it, and bind users of such content even without expressly agreeing to, or having knowledge of, the conditions of the license. "
On December 15, 2006, Professor Lessig retired as chair and appointed Joi Ito as the new chair, in a ceremony which took place in Second Life. Events 533 - Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. more commonly known as Joi Ito, is a Japanese Activist, Entrepreneur, and Venture capitalist. Second Life ( abbreviated as SL) and its sister site Teen Second Life are Internet-based 3D Virtual
The original non-localized Creative Commons licenses were written with the U. S. legal system in mind, so the wording could be incompatible within different local legislations and render the licenses unenforceable in various jurisdictions. To address this issue, Creative Commons International has started to port the various licenses to accommodate local copyright and private law. As of February 2008, there are 43 jurisdiction-specific licenses, with 8 other jurisdictions in drafting process, and more countries joining the project.
Projects using Creative Commons licenses
List of projects using Creative Commons licenses Several million pages of web content use Creative Commons licenses. Several million pages of web content use Creative Commons licenses Common Content was set up by Jeff Kramer with cooperation from Creative Commons, and is currently maintained by volunteers.
Sampling of CC adoption scope
This list provides a short sampling of CC-licensed projects which convey the breadth and scope of Creative Commons adoption among prominent institutions and publication modes.
Tools for discovering CC-licensed content
Audio and music
- Electrobel Community - More than 10,000 electronic music songs released under one of the CC licences. The Internet Archive ( IA) is a Nonprofit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line Library and archive of Web and An archive refers to a collection of historical records and also refers to the location in which these records are kept Multimedia is media and content that utilizes a combination of different content forms. Ourmedia is a media archive supported by the Internet Archive, which freely hosts any images text and video or Audio clips which do not violate The Internet Archive ( IA) is a Nonprofit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line Library and archive of Web and
- iRATE radio
- Adrenalinic Sound - Italy
- Starfrosch Community MP3 Blog with a huge Creative Commons Section
- Dogmazic - Archive of free music based in France, one of the main actor of free music movement in Europe. Gnomoradio is an Open source application for the GNOME desktop which manages a user's collection of audio files (typically encoded with lossy Compression algorithms Dogmazic in one of the main Free music Download manager in France.
- Jamendo - An archive of music albums under Creative Commons licenses
- Phlow - Magazine that picks Creative Commons music and music from the Netlabel Community on a daily basis
- CC:Mixter - A Creative Commons Remix community site. Jamendo is a music platform and community combining Creative Commons / Free Art License licensed music BitTorrent and Originally Phlow is a German Webzine founded by Moritz "mo
- Date a Conocer [www. dateaconocer. com] - A Spanish archive of music under Creative Commons licenses
Photos and images
The critical positions taken can be roughly divided up into complaints of a lack of:
- A political position - Where the object is to critically analyze the foundations of the Creative Commons movement and offer an eminent critique (e. The Open Clip Art Library (acronym OCAL project aims to create a collection of vector Clip art that is Free content. g. Berry & Moss 2005, Geert Lovink, Free Culture movements). One of the more notable concerns to be found in this vein of criticism is on the role the Creative Commons plays as an unconcerned corporate filter. As mentioned in Martin Hardie and "Creative License Fetishism", "When one examines closely just exactly what sort of 'freedom' is ultimately to be had within these licenses, one is quick to discover that they are primarily set up as tools meant to feed directly into corporate co-option. " Matteo Pasquinelli (2008) describes two fronts of criticism: "those who claim the institution of a real commonality against Creative Commons restrictions (non-commercial, share-alike, etc. ) and those who point out Creative Commons complicity with global capitalism". Pasquinelli specifically criticises CC for not establishing "productive commons".
- A common sense position - These usually fall into the category of "it is not needed" or "it takes away user rights" (see Toth 2005 or Dvorak 2005). John Charles Dvorak (born 1952 in Los Angeles, California) is an American Columnist and broadcaster in the areas of Technology
- A pro-copyright position - These are usually marshalled by the content industry and argue either that Creative Commons is not useful, or that it undermines copyright (Nimmer 2005). The content industry is an Umbrella term that encompasses companies owning and providing Mass media and media metadata
- Another criticism is that it worsens license proliferation, by providing multiple licenses that are incompatible. License proliferation refers to the problems created when additional Software licenses are written for software packages. License compatibility refers to the problem with licenses of software packages which can contain contradictory requirements rendering it impossible to combine Source code Most notably, 'attribution-sharealike' and 'attribution-noncommercial-sharealike' are incompatible, meaning that works under these licenses cannot be combined in a derivative work without obtaining permission from the license-holder.
- ^ Founder's Copyright. Creative Commons licenses are several Copyright licenses released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons, a U Projects and works using Creative Commons licenses Several million pages of web content Copyleft is a play on the word Copyright and describes the practice of using copyright law to remove restrictions on distributing copies and modified versions The term Digital Rights is indicative of the freedom of individuals to perform actions involving the use of a computer any electronic device or a communications network FAIRSHARE Scotland's Campaign for a Better Democracy Fairshare Voting Reform is a cross-party and non-party organisation set up in February 2001 to campaign for the introduction of the _____ __ / ___/ / /_ ____ ____ \__ \ / __/ / __ \ / __ \ ___/ / / /_ Free software or software libre is Software that can be used studied and modified without restriction and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified Open content, a Neologism coined by analogy with " Open source " describes any kind of Creative work published in a format that explicitly allows Open source is a development methodology which offers practical accessibility to a product's source (goods and knowledge The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone Science Commons (SC is a Creative Commons project for designing strategies and tools for faster more efficient web-enabled Scientific research. Share-alike is a descriptive term used in the Creative Commons project for Copyright Licenses which include certain Copyleft provisions Creative Commons. Retrieved on 2006-04-07. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor
- ^ Lessig, Lawrence (2004). Free Culture. New York: Penguin Press, 8.
- ^ Ermert, Monika (2004). "Germany debuts Creative Commons". Register.
- ^ Lessig, Lawrence (2006). Lawrence Lessig on Creative Commons and the Remix Culture (mp3). Talking with Talis. Retrieved on 2006-04-07. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor
- ^ Creative Commons Unveils Machine-Readable Copyright Licenses. Creative Commons (2002-12-16). See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Retrieved on 2007-02-09. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
- ^ Creative Commons License Upheld by Dutch Court. Groklaw (2006-03-16). Groklaw is an award-winning website covering legal news of interest to the free and open-source software community Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king Retrieved on 2006-09-02. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion.
- ^ Joi Ito Named Chairman of Creative Commons; Lawrence Lessig to Remain CEO and Board Member. Creative Commons (2006-12-18). Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 218 BC - Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal 's Carthaginian forces defeat those of the Retrieved on 2008-06-01. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected
- ^ Música Libre - Date a Conocer
- Ardito, Stephanie C. "Public-Domain Advocacy Flourishes. " Information Today 20, no. 7 (2003): 17,19.
- Asschenfeldt, Christiane. "Copyright and Licensing Issues—The International Commons." In CERN Workshop Series on Innovations in Scholarly Communication: Implementing the Benefits of OAI (OAI3), 12 February-14 February 2004 at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Geneva: CERN, 2004. (video)
- Brown, Glenn Otis. "Academic Digital Rights: A Walk on the Creative Commons." Syllabus Magazine (April 2003).
- ———. "Out of the Way: How the Next Copyright Revolution Can Help the Next Scientific Revolution." PLoS Biology 1, no. 1 (2003): 30-31.
- Chillingworth, Mark. "Creative Commons Attracts BBC's Attention." Information World Review, 11 June 2004. Events 1184 BC - Trojan War: Troy is sacked and burned according to the calculations of Eratosthenes. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
- Conhaim, Wallys W. "Creative Commons Nurtures the Public Domain." Information Today 19, no. 7 (2002): 52, 54.
- "Delivering Classics Resources with TEI-XML, Open Source, and Creative Commons Licenses." Cover Pages, 28 April 2004. Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
- Denison, D. C. "For Creators, An Argument for Alienable Rights. " Boston Globe, 22 December 2002, E2. Events 1790 - The Turkish fortress of Izmail is stormed and captured by Suvorov and his Russian armies See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.
- Ermert, Monika. "Germany Debuts Creative Commons." The Register, 15 June 2004. Events 763 BC - Assyrians record a Solar eclipse that will be used to fix the Chronology of Mesopotamian history "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
- Fitzgerald, Brian, and Ian Oi. "Free Culture: Cultivating the Creative Commons." (2004).
- Johnstone, Sally M. "Sharing Educational Materials Without Losing Rights. " Change 35, no. 6 (2003): 49-51.
- Lessig, Lawrence. "The Creative Commons" (1994) vol. 55 Florida Law Review 763.
- Pasquinelli, Matteo. "The ideology of Free Culture and the Grammar of Sabotage", Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2008.
- Plotkin, Hal. "All Hail Creative Commons: Stanford Professor and Author Lawrence Lessig Plans a Legal Insurrection." SFGate. com, 11 February 2002. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.
- Schloman, Barbara F. "Creative Commons: An Opportunity to Extend the Public Domain." Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 13 October 2003. Events 54 - Nero ascends to the Roman throne 409 - Vandals and Alans crossed the Pyrenees Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar.
- Stix, Gary. "Some Rights Reserved." Scientific American 288, no. 3 (2003): 46.
- Weitzman, Jonathan B. , and Lawrence Lessig. "Open Access and Creative Common Sense." Open Access Now, 10 May 2004. Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
- "The Commons: The Commons as an Idea - Ideas as a Commons" -(article by David M. The Hour is a Canadian television Newsmagazine broadcast on CBC Television. George Mark Paul Stroumboulopoulos (born August 16, 1972 in Malton, Ontario) is a Canadian television and radio personality known The Internet Archive ( IA) is a Nonprofit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line Library and archive of Web and Berry about the commons and ideas)
- "BBC to Open Content Floodgates The BBC's Creative Archive project" -(article in Wired magazine on the BBC's use of Creative Commons licenses)
- "Creative Commons: Let’s be creative together" -(from "Framasoft")
- "Take My Music ... Please" -(a Newsweek article about Creative Commons by Brian Braiker)
- "Creative Commons Humbug" -(critical article in PC Magazine by John C. Dvorak)
- "Creative Humbug" -(critical article by Péter Benjamin Tóth)
- Berry, D. M. & Moss, G. (2005). On the “Creative Commons”: a critique of the commons without commonality. Free Software Magazine. No. 5.
- Berry, D. M & Moss, G. (2005). Libre Commons = Libre Culture + Radical Democracy. Noema. No. 44.
- Fitzgerald, Michael (2005), Copyleft hits a Snag. Technology Review
- Hill, Benjamin Mako. (2005). Towards a Standard of Freedom: Creative Commons and the Free Software Movement.
- Nimmer, Raymond (2005). Open source license proliferation, a broader view
- Orlowski, Andrew (2005). On Creativity, Computers and Copyright. The Register
- Tóth, Péter Benjamin. (2005). Creative Humbug: Personal feelings about the Creative Commons licenses
- Richard Stallman explains his disagreement with Creative Commons
- A Debian Developer gives his summary of problems discussed on the debian-legal mailing list (note that this comments on the outdated 2. Wired is a full-color monthly American Magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993 Newsweek is an American weekly Newsmagazine published in New York City. PC Magazine (sometimes referred to as PC Mag) is a Computer magazine that is published monthly in the United States (until 2008 it was published John Charles Dvorak (born 1952 in Los Angeles, California) is an American Columnist and broadcaster in the areas of Technology 0 versions of the licenses)
- "Why the BBS Documentary is Creative Commons" by Jason Scott
- Greentown article Overview of copyright history from 1556 leading to Creative
- Möller, Erik (2006). The Case for Free Use: Reasons Not to Use a Creative Commons NC License. Open Source Jahrbuch 2006.
- "Community Created Content; Law, Business and Policy" Hietanen, Oksanen and Välimäki
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