Courland (Latvian: Kurzeme; German: Kurland; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: Kuršas; Estonian: Kuramaa; Polish: Kurlandia; Russian: Курляндия; Finnish: Kuurinmaa) is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia. A coat of arms or armorial bearings (often just arms for short in European tradition is a design belonging to a particular person (or group of people Latvian language (latviešu valoda is the official state language of Latvia. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Lithuanian ( lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognised as one of the official languages of the European Union. Estonian (; ˈeːsti ˈkeːl is the official language of Estonia, spoken by about 1 Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside Latvia is divided into several historical and cultural regions The regions of Semigallia and Selonia are sometimes considered as part of Courland. Zemgale, also known under Latinized names Semigalia or Semigallia (Zemgale Semgallen Žiemgala is an historical region of Latvia, sometimes also including Selonia (Sēlija Sėla also known as Augšzeme (the "Highland" is a cultural region in Latvia encompassing the eastern part of the historical
Situated in western Latvia, it roughly corresponds to the counties of Kuldīga, Liepāja, Saldus, Talsi and Ventspils. Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. |||} Latvia is divided into 26 districts ( rajons; pl rajoni) and 7 cities ( lielpilsētas; singular lielpilsēta) indicated with asterisks The Kuldīga District (Kuldīgas rajons is an administrative division of Latvia, located in the Courland region in the country's west The Liepāja District (Liepājas rajons is an administrative division of Latvia, located in the Courland region in the country's west The Saldus District (Saldus rajons is an administrative division of Latvia, located in the Courland region in the country's west The Talsi District (Talsu rajons is an administrative division of Latvia, located in the Courland region in the country's west The Ventspils District (Ventspils rajons is an administrative division of Latvia, located in the Courland region in the country's west
When combining with Semigallia and Selonia, Courland's northeastern boundary is the river Daugava, which separates it from the regions of Latgale and Vidzeme. The Daugava or Western Dvina (Daugava Западная Двина́ (Zapadnaya Dvina Заходняя Дзвiна za'xodnʲaja dzʲvʲi'na Dźwina Düna Väina Latgale or Latgalia (Latgale Latgale language: Latgolā) is one of the four cultural regions of Latvia recognised in the Constitution Vidzeme is one of the cultural and historical Regions of Latvia. To the north, Courland's boundary is the Gulf of Riga. The Gulf of Riga, or Bay of Riga, is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia. On the west it is bordered by the Baltic Sea, and on the south by Lithuania. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the It lies between 55° 45′ and 57° 45′ North and 21° and 27° East. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the Longitude (ˈlɒndʒɪˌtjuːd or ˈlɒŋgɪˌtjuːd symbolized by the Greek character Lambda (λ is the east-west Geographic coordinate measurement
The area comprises 27,286 km² (10,535 sq. mi. ), of which 262 km² (101 sq. mi. ) is made up of lakes. The landscape generally has a low and undulating character, with flat and marshy coastlands. The interior features wooded dunes, covered with pine, fir, birch, and oak, with swamps and lakes, and fertile patches between. This article is about the tree For other uses of the term "pine" see Pine (disambiguation. Firs ( Abies) are a genus of between 45-55 species of Evergreen conifers in the family Pinaceae. Birch is the name of any Tree of the genus Betula ( Bé-tu-la) in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin Courland's elevation never rises more than 213 m (700 feet) above sea level.
The Jelgava plain divides Courland into two parts:
Nearly one hundred rivers drain Courland, but only three of these rivers -- the Daugava, the Lielupe and the Venta–are navigable. The Lielupe Venta River They all flow northwestward and discharge into the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude.
Owing to its numerous lakes and marshes, Courland has a damp, often foggy, and changeable climate, with severe winters.
In ancient times the Curonians, a Baltic tribe, inhabited Courland. The Kursenieki are also known as Curonians The Curonians ( Curonian: Kursi; Kuren Kurši Kuršiai Kuralased were The Balts or Baltic peoples (People who live by the Baltic Sea) defined as speakers of one of the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European The Brethren of the Sword, a German military order, subdued the Curonians and converted them to Christianity in the first quarter of the 13th century. Bishop Albert of Riga founded the Military order of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae Schwertbrüderorden in 1202 military order is a Christian Order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings In 1237 the area passed into the rule of the Teutonic Knights owing to the amalgamation of this order with that of the Brethren of the Sword. The Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order.
The Livonian Confederation was a loosely organized confederation formed by the German-led Livonian Order and various bishoprics that encompassed much of present-day Estonia and Latvia. The Livonian Confederation was established in 1418 covering the territories of present day Estonia and Latvia. The Livonian Order was autonomous Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order and a member of the Livonian Confederation from 1418&ndash1561 Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region It existed from 1228 to the 1560s, when it was dismembered during the Livonian Wars. The Livonian War of 1558–1582 was a lengthy military conflict between the Tsardom of Russia and variable coalition of Denmark–Norway, Grand Duchy of
The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a semi-independent duchy that existed from 1561 until 1795, encompassing the areas of Courland and Semigallia. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii,Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste is the name of Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Kurland a vassal of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth being small but wealthy took a modest part in European Colonialism, in West Africa A duchy is a territory fief, or domain ruled by a Duke or Duchess. Although nominally a vassal state of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the dukes operated autonomously. A vassal (also called feodary or fedary) in the terminology that both preceded and accompanied the feudalism of Medieval Europe, The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic
In 1795, the last Duke, Peter von Biron, ceded the Duchy to the Russian Empire. Peter von Biron ( 15 February 1724 &ndash 13 January 1800) was the last Duke of Courland from 1769 to 1795 The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya
After annexation by Russian Empire the territory of the former Duchy formed the Courland Governorate. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Governorate of Courland, also known as the Province of Courland, Governorate of Kurland (Kurzemes guberņa Курля́ндская губерния and
From the time of the Northern Crusades in the early 13th century, most of land was owned by nobles descended from the German invaders. The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were Crusades undertaken by the Catholic kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian In 1863, the Russian authorities issued laws to enable Latvians, who formed the bulk of the population, to acquire the farms which they held, and special banks were founded to help them. Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common By this means, some occupants bought their farms, but the great mass of the population remained landless, and lived as hired labourers, occupying a low position in the social scale.
Agriculture was the chief occupation, with the principal crops being rye, barley, oats, wheat, flax, and potatoes. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Rye ( Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for Oats redirects here It may mean either the common cereal oat discussed here or any cultivated or wild species of the Genus Avena. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae The large estates conducted agriculture with skill and scientific knowledge. Fruit grew well. Excellent breeds of cattle, sheep and pigs were kept. Liepāja and Jelgava operated as the principal industrial centres, with ironworks, agricultural machinery works, tanneries, glass and soap works. Liepāja (liepaja) is a city in western Latvia on the Baltic sea and the administrative center of Liepāja district. Jelgava (jælgava) is a Town in central Latvia about 41 km southwest of Riga with 66087 inhabitants (2006 Ironwork is any Weapon, artwork, Utensil or architectural feature made of Iron especially used for decoration Tanning is the process of converting Putrescible skin into non-putrescible Leather, usually with Tannin, an Acidic Chemical compound Flax spinning took place mostly as a domestic industry. Spinning is an ancient textile art in which plant, animal or synthetic Fibers are twisted together to form Yarn (or thread Iron and limestone were the chief minerals; a little amber was found on the coast. Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Amber is Fossil tree Resin, which is appreciated for its color and beauty The only seaports were Liepāja, Ventspils and Palanga, there being none on the Courland coast of the Gulf of Riga. Ventspils (ventspils; Windau is a City in northwestern Latvia on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Palanga ( is a seaside Resort town in western Lithuania, on the shore of the Baltic Sea.
The population was 619,154 in 1870; 674,437 in 1897, of whom 345,756 were women; 714,200 (estimate) in 1906. Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1897 ( MDCCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Of the whole, 79% were Latvians, 8. Latvians or Letts (latvieši the indigenous Baltic people of Latvia, occasionally refer to themselves by the ancient name of Latvji, which 75% Germans, 1. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as 7% Russians, and 1% each Poles and Lithuanians. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Lithuanians are the Baltic Ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number a little over 3 million In addition, there were about 8% Jews, and some Livonians. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Livonians or Livs are the indigenous inhabitants of Livonia, a large part of what is today the northwestern Latvia and southwestern
The chief towns of the ten districts were Jelgava (Mitau), Courland's capital (pop. Jelgava (jælgava) is a Town in central Latvia about 41 km southwest of Riga with 66087 inhabitants (2006 35,011 in 1897); Liepāja (Libau) (pop. Liepāja (liepaja) is a city in western Latvia on the Baltic sea and the administrative center of Liepāja district. 64,500 in 1897); Bauska (6,543); Jaunjelgava (Friedrichstadt) (5,223); Kuldīga (Goldingen) (9,733); Grobiņa (1,489); Aizpute (Hasenpoth) (3,338); Ilūkste (Illuxt) (2,340); Talsi (Talsen) (6,215); Tukums (Tuckum) (7542); and Ventspils (Windau) (7,132). Bauska ( is a Town in Bauska County, in the Zemgale region of southern Latvia. Jaunjelgava ( is a city in Latvia See also List of cities in Latvia Kuldīga ( is a city in western Latvia. It is the center of Kuldigas County with a population of approximately 13500 Grobiņa ( is a city in western Latvia, eleven kilometers east of Liepāja. Aizpute (Hasenpoth is a Town in western Latvia 's Liepāja District. Ilūkste ( is a city in Latvia. See also List of cities in Latvia Talsi ( (population 12879 is a city in Latvia. It is the center of Talsu county. Tukums ( is a city in Latvia. Three regions of Latvia meet in the vicinity of Tukums - Vidzeme, Zemgale and Kurzeme. Ventspils (ventspils; Windau is a City in northwestern Latvia on the coast of the Baltic Sea.
75% of the population belonged to the prevailing denomination, Lutheranism; the rest belonged to the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther There was a small but vigorous Jewish population.
After World War I, Courland became a part of the newly-formed nation of Latvia. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was proclaimed on March 8, 1918 in German occupied Courland Governorate by Landesrat composed of Baltic Germans World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. In 1940 the USSR annexed the region, but Germany occupied it during World War II. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Courland became part of independent Latvia once more and it remains so to this day. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985
At the start of Operation Barbarossa in 1941, Courland, along with the rest of the Baltic area belonging to the Soviet Union, was overrun by Army Group North headed by Field Marshal Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb. Operation Barbarossa ( Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the Codename for Nazi Germany 's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Baltic Seven Islandsgif|right|thumb|330px|A contemporary transnational Euroregion encompasses the islands of the Baltic countries The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Army Group North ( Heeresgruppe Nord) was a strategic echelon formation commanding a grouping of Field Armies subordinated to the OKH during World War For other meanings see Field Marshal (disambiguation Field marshal is a military officer rank Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb ( September 5, 1876 - April 29, 1956) was a German Field Marshal during World War II In 1944, the Red Army lifted the siege of Leningrad and re-conquered the Baltic area along with much of Ukraine and Belarus. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya The Siege of Leningrad, also known as The Leningrad Blockade ( Russian: блокада Ленинграда ( transliteration: blokada Leningrada Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east However, some 200,000 German troops held out in Courland. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. With their backs to the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. they were trapped in what became known as the Courland Pocket, blockaded by the Red Army and the Red Baltic Fleet. The Courland Pocket referred to the Red Army 's blockade or encirclement of Axis forces on the Courland peninsula during the closing months of World War II Colonel-General Heinz Guderian, the Chief of the German General Staff, insisted to Adolf Hitler that the troops in Courland should be evacuated by sea and used for the defense of the German Reich. Colonel General is a senior Military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries Heinz Wilhelm Guderian ( 17 June, 1888 – 14 May, 1954) was a military theorist and innovative General of the German The German General Staff ( Großer Generalstab literally Great General Staff) was an institution whose rise and development gave the German military a decided Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Deutsches Reich was the name for Germany from 1871 to 1945 in the German language. Hitler refused, and ordered the Wehrmacht, Waffen-SS, Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine forces in Courland to continue the defence of the area. Hitler believed them necessary to protect Kriegsmarine submarine bases along the Baltic coast. On January 15, 1945, Army Group Courland (Heeresgruppe Kurland) was formed under Colonel-General Dr. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Army Group Courland (Heeresgruppe Kurland was a German Army Group on the Eastern Front which was created from remnants of the Army Group North, Colonel General is a senior Military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries Lothar Rendulic. Generaloberst Dr Lothar Rendulic ( November 23, 1887 &ndash January 18, 1971) was an Austro-Hungarian and Austrian The blockade by elements of the Leningrad Front remained until May 8, 1945, when the Army Group Courland, then under its last commander, Colonel-General Carl Hilpert, surrendered to Marshal Leonid Govorov, the commander of Leningrad Front (reinforced by elements of the 2nd Baltic Front on the Courland perimeter. The Leningrad Front (Ленинградский фронт was first formed on August 27, 1941, by dividing the Northern Front into the Leningrad Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Colonel General is a senior Military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries Carl Hilpert ( 12 September 1888 &ndash 24 December 1948) was an officer in the German Army ( Wehrmacht Heer) during Leonid Aleksandrovich Govorov (Леони́д Алекса́ндрович Го́воров ( – March 19 1955 Soviet military commander was born in the village of The Leningrad Front (Ленинградский фронт was first formed on August 27, 1941, by dividing the Northern Front into the Leningrad The Bryansk Front was a Front (ie a military formation of roughly Army Group size of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. At this time the group consisted of the remnants of some 31 divisions. After May 9, 1945, approximately 203,000 troops of Army Group Courland began moving to Soviet prison camps in the East. Events 1457 BC - Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of The majority of them never returned to Germany (Haupt,1997).
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone