The counterculture of the 1960s (and early 1970s) refers to a period between 1960 and 1973 that began in the United States as a reaction against the conservative government, social norms of the 1950s, the political conservatism (and perceived social repression) of the Cold War period, and the US government's extensive military intervention in Vietnam. Counterculture (also " counter-culture " is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a Cultural group, or This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Social norms have been defined as "the rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values beliefs attitudes and behaviors Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Political repression is the Persecution of an individual or group for political reasons particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia 
As the 1960s progressed, widespread tensions developed in American society that tended to flow along generational lines regarding the war in Vietnam, race relations, sexual mores, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, experimentation with psychedelic drugs and a predominantly materialist interpretation of the American Dream. The development of the culture of the United States of America — music, cinema, dance, architecture, literature, poetry Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Race relations is the area of Sociology that studies the Social, Political, and Economic relations between races at all different Generally speaking human sexuality is how people experience and express themselves as sexual beings Mores (ˈmɔːreɪz are norms or customs Mores derive from the established practices of a society rather than its written Laws. In Politics, authority ( Latin Auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to Potestas and Imperium A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a Chemical substance that acts primarily upon the Central nervous system where it alters Brain The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. The American Dream is Belief in the Freedom that allows all citizens and residents of the United States to achieve their goals New cultural forms emerged, including the pop music of English band the Beatles, which rapidly evolved to shape and reflect the youth culture's emphasis on change and experimentation. Pop music as a genre features a noticeable rhythmic element catchy melodies and hooks, a mainstream style and conventional structure England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 A youth subculture is a Youth -based Subculture with distinct styles behaviours and interests
Social anthropologist Jentri Anders has observed that a number of freedoms were endorsed within a countercultural community which she lived in and studied: "freedom to explore one’s potential, freedom to create one’s Self, freedom of personal expression, freedom from scheduling, freedom from rigidly defined roles and hierarchical statuses…" Additionally, Anders believed these people wished to modify children's education so that it didn't discourage "aesthetic sense, love of nature, passion for music, desire for reflection, or strongly marked independence…"
The British Invasion was the term applied by media - and subsequently by consumers - to the influx of rock and roll, beat and pop performers from the United Kingdom who became popular in the United States, Australia & Canada. Cultural anthropology is one of four fields of Anthropology (the holistic study of humanity) as it developed in the United States. The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African This is a timeline of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. The British Invasion was the term applied by the news media — and subsequently by consumers — to the influx of Rock and roll, beat and pop performers Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African Pop music as a genre features a noticeable rhythmic element catchy melodies and hooks, a mainstream style and conventional structure The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The classic British Invasion period was 1964 to 1967, but the term has also been applied to later "waves" of UK artists that had significant impact on the North American entertainment market.
In one view, the 1960s counterculture largely originated on college campuses. The Free Speech Movement (FSM was a Student protest which took place during the 1964-1965 school year on the campus of the University of California Berkeley under A campus is traditionally the land on which a College or University and related institutional buildings are situated The 1964 Free Speech Movement at the University of California, Berkeley, which had its roots in the Civil Rights Movement of the American South, was one early example. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley See also Protests of 1968 Historically the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately twenty years (1960-1980 in At Berkeley a socially privileged group of students began to identify themselves as having interests as a class that were at odds with the interests and practices of the University and its corporate sponsors. However, other rebellious young people who had never been college students also contributed to counterculture development. The beatnik café and bar scene was a tributary stream.
The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. The New Left were the Left-wing movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that unlike the earlier leftist focus on union activism instead adopted a They differed from earlier leftist movements that had been more oriented towards labour activism, and instead adopted a broader definition of political activism commonly called social activism. The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change The U. S. "New Left" is associated with college campus mass protest movements and radical leftist movements. The British "New Left" was an intellectually driven movement which attempted to correct the perceived errors of "Old Left" parties in the post-WWII period. The Old Left is a term used to describe classic 1930s-era Western Leninists Trotskyists and Stalinists to differentiate them from the Marxists of The movements began to wind down in the 1970s, when activists either committed themselves to party projects, developed social justice organizations, moved into identity politics or alternative lifestyles or became politically inactive. Social justice, sometimes called civil justice, refers to the concept of a Society in which Justice is achieved in every aspect of society rather than Identity politics is Political action to advance the interests of members of a group whose members are oppressed by virtue of a shared and marginalized Identity (such
Opposition to the Vietnam War began in 1964 on United States college campuses. Opposition to US involvement in the Vietnam War is significant because domestic protest in the U Students for a Democratic Society ( SDS) was historically a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main iconic representations The Free Speech Movement (FSM was a Student protest which took place during the 1964-1965 school year on the campus of the University of California Berkeley under The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced "snick" was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement The Vietnam Day Committee ( VDC) was a coalition of left-wing political groups student groups labour organizations and pacifist religions in the United States of America The National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam was a group that became an umbrella anti- Vietnam war group Vietnam Veterans Against the War ( VVAW) is a tax-exempt Non-profit organization and Corporation, originally created to oppose the Vietnam War Jerry Rubin ( July 14, 1938 – November 28, 1994) was a high-profile left-wing American social activist during the 1960s and Abbot Howard "Abbie" Hoffman (November 30 1936 &ndash April 12 1989 was a radical social and political activist in the United States who co-founded the The Youth International Party, whose members were commonly called Yippies, was a highly theatrical and Anti-authoritarian Political party established in Chicago Convention redirects here for the Convention on International Civil Aviation for the event also referred to by this name The Chicago Seven were seven (originally eight known as the Chicago Eight) defendants charged with conspiracy inciting to Riot, and other charges related IMPORTANT After careful consideration the title "Kent State Shootings" has been applied in this article rather than "Kent State Massacre The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Student activism became a dominant theme among the baby boomers, growing to include many Americans. Exemptions and deferments for the middle and upper classes resulted in the induction of a disproportionate number of poor, working-class, and minority registrants. Countercultural works such as MacBird by Barbara Garson encouraged a spirit of nonconformism and anti-establishmentarianism. MacBird! was a notorious 1966 Counterculture drama by Barbara Garson which satirically depicted President Lyndon Johnson as Barbara Garson (born July 7, 1941 in Brooklyn, New York City) is an American Playwright, Author and Social activist By 1968, a majority of Americans opposed the war. 
Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters helped shape the developing character of the 1960s counterculture when they embarked on a cross-country voyage during the summer of 1964 in a psychedelic school bus named "Further. The Psychedelic drug / Entheogen LSD was first synthesized by the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann in the Sandoz (now Novartis Kenneth Elton Kesey ( September 17, 1935 &ndash November 10, 2001) was an American Author, best known for his major novels The Merry Pranksters are a group of people who originally formed around American Author Ken Kesey in 1964 and sometimes lived communally at his " Beginning in 1959, Kesey had volunteered as a research subject for medical trials financed by the CIA's MK ULTRA project. These trials tested the effects of LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, and other psychedelic drugs. Psilocybin (IPA /saɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic Indole of the Tryptamine family found in Psilocybin Mescaline or 345-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a naturally-occurring Psychedelic Alkaloid of the Phenethylamine class After the medical trials, Kesey continued experimenting on his own, and involved many close friends; collectively they became known as "The Merry Pranksters. " The Pranksters visited Harvard LSD proponent Timothy Leary at his Millbrook, New York retreat, and experimentation with LSD and other psychedelic drugs, primarily as a means for internal reflection and personal growth, became a constant during the Prankster trip. Timothy Francis Leary ( October 22, 1920 &ndash May 31, 1996) was an American Writer, Psychologist, Futurist Millbrook is a Village in Dutchess County, New York, United States. Modern psychedelia For "psychedelics" see Psychedelic drug. The Pranksters created a direct link between the 1950s Beat Generation and the 1960s psychedelic scene; the bus was driven by Beat icon Neal Cassady, Beat poet Allen Ginsberg was onboard for a time, and they dropped in on Cassady's friend, Beat author Jack Kerouac—though Kerouac declined participation in the Prankster scene. Neal Leon Cassady ( February 8, 1926 &ndash February 4, 1968) was a major personage of the Beat Generation of the 1950s and the Irwin Allen Ginsberg (ˈgɪnzbɝg (June 3 1926 &ndash April 5 1997 was an American Poet. Jack Kerouac ( March 12 1922 &ndash October 21 1969) was an American Novelist, Writer, Poet, and After the Pranksters returned to California, they popularized the use of LSD at so-called "Acid Tests", which initially were held at Kesey's home in La Honda, California, and then at many other West Coast venues. The Acid Tests were a series of Psychedelic parties held by Ken Kesey in the San Francisco Bay Area during the early 1960's centered entirely around the La Honda is a small unincorporated town in San Mateo County in the state of California California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Experimentation with LSD and other psychedelic drugs became a major component of 1960s counterculture, influencing philosophy, art, music and styles of dress. Psychedelic art is art inspired by the psychedelic experience induced by drugs such as gymnastics take place in the world the art is LSD, Mescaline, and Psilocybin
In 1967 Scott McKenzie's rendition of the song "San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)" brought as many as 100,000 young people from all over the world to celebrate San Francisco's "Summer of Love. Black Power is a racially based Political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies The Hippie Subculture was originally a Youth movement that began in the United States during the early 1960s and spread around the world Scott McKenzie (born Philip Blondheim on January 10 1939, Jacksonville, Florida) is an American Singer, best A song is a Musical composition. Songs contain vocal parts that are performed 'sung' and generally feature Words ( Lyrics) commonly followed "San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair" is a Song, written by John Phillips of The Mamas & the Papas, and sung by Scott This article refers to the summer of 1967 For the film of a similar name please go to My Summer of Love. " While the song had originally been written by John Phillips of The Mamas & The Papas to promote the June, 1967 Monterey Pop Festival, it became an instant hit worldwide (#4 in the United States, #1 in Europe) and quickly transcended its original purpose. John Phillips or John Philips may refer to John Aristotle Phillips (fl The Mamas & the Papas (credited as The Mama's and the Papa's on the debut album cover were a Vocal group of the 1960s. The Monterey International Pop Music Festival was a three-day concert event held June 16 to June 18 1967 at the Monterey County Fairgrounds in Monterey San Francisco's Flower Children, also called "hippies" by local newspaper columnist Herb Caen, adopted new styles of dress, experimented with psychedelic drugs, lived communally and developed a vibrant music scene. Flower child or Flower Children usually someone born between 1940 and 1955 originated as a synonym for Hippie, especially those who gathered in San Francisco The Hippie Subculture was originally a Youth movement that began in the United States during the early 1960s and spread around the world When people returned home from "The Summer of Love" these styles and behaviors spread quickly from San Francisco and Berkeley to all major U. S. cities and European capitals. A counterculture movement gained momentum in which the younger generation began to define itself as a class that aimed to create a new kind of society. Some hippies formed communes to live as far outside of the established system as possible. This aspect of the counterculture rejected active political engagement with the mainstream and, following the dictate of Timothy Leary to "turn on, tune in, and drop out", hoped to change society by dropping out of it. Timothy Francis Leary ( October 22, 1920 &ndash May 31, 1996) was an American Writer, Psychologist, Futurist Dropping out means leaving a group for either practical reasons necessities or disillusionment with the system from which the individual in question leaves Looking back on his own life (as a Harvard professor) prior to 1960, Leary interpreted it to have been that of "an anonymous institutional employee who drove to work each morning in a long line of commuter cars and drove home each night and drank martinis . . . . like several million middle-class, liberal, intellectual robots. "
The hippie ethos posed a considerable impediment to the success of alternative movements growing within the counterculture. At the extremes, "doing one's own thing" could lead to rejection of values imposed from without and adamant avoidance of other people's expectations. As a result, the individual tends to be isolated, which may or may not be much of a problem for that individual – but it does threaten collaborative actions or accomplishments.
As members of the hippie movement grew older and moderated their lives and their views, and especially after all US involvement in the Vietnam War ground to a halt in the mid 1970s, the counterculture was largely absorbed by the mainstream, leaving a lasting impact on philosophy, morality, music, art, lifestyle and fashion. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
Beginning in San Francisco in the mid 1960s, a new culture of "free love" arose, with millions of young people embracing the hippie ethos and preaching the power of love and the beauty of sex as a natural part of ordinary life. The sexual revolution refers to the well-documented changes in social thought and codes of behaviour related to sexuality throughout the Western world that continues to evolve The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a Social movement that rejects Marriage, which is seen as a form Love is any of a number of Emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong Affection. An organism's sex is defined by the gametes it produces males produce male gametes (spermatozoa or Sperm) while females produce female gametes (ova or Egg cells; individual By the start of the 1970s it was acceptable for colleges to allow co-educational housing where male and female students mingled freely. This aspect of the counterculture continues to impact modern society.
The counterculture movement took hold in Western Europe, with London, Amsterdam, Paris and Berlin rivaling San Francisco and New York as counterculture centers. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous One manifestation of this was the general strike that took place in Paris in May 1968, which nearly toppled the French government. Another was the German student movement of the 1960s. The German student movement (also called 68er-Bewegung, movement of 1968, or soixante-huitaires) was a Protest movement that took place during
In Central Europe, young people adopted the song "San Francisco" as an anthem for freedom, and it was widely played during Czechoslovakia's 1968 "Prague Spring," a premature attempt to break away from Soviet repression. Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and The Prague Spring ( Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during
As this newly emergent youth class began to criticize the established social order, new theories about cultural and personal identity began to spread, and traditional non-Western ideas – particularly with regard to religion, social organization and spiritual enlightenment – were more frequently embraced.
Rock music was tied into the youth revolt of the 1960s, Mexico City as well as northern cities such as Monterrey, Nuevo Laredo, Ciudad Juarez, and Tijuana, were exposed to American music. La Onda ( Spanish for The Wave in English) refers to the Mexican Counterculture of the 1960s. Mexican rock, often referred to in Mexico as Rock nacional ("national rock" is Rock music created by Mexican groups and soloists The Tlatelolco Massacre, also known as The Night of Tlatelolco (from a book title by the Mexican writer Elena Poniatowska) took place on the afternoon and night of This article is about the Mexican city for other uses see Monterrey (disambiguation. Nuevo Laredo is a city located in the Municipality of Nuevo Laredo in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. Ciudad Juárez, also known as just Juárez, is a city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua formerly known as El Paso del Norte. Tijuana (ˌtiːəˈwɑːnə Spanish, ti'xwana|ti'ʍana is the largest city of the Mexican state of Baja California, situated on the U Many Mexican rock stars became involved in the counterculture. Counterculture (also " counter-culture " is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a Cultural group, or The three-day Festival Rock y Ruedas de Avándaro, held in 1971, was organized in the valley of Avándaro near the city of Toluca, a town neighboring Mexico City, and became known as "The Mexican Woodstock". Festival Rock y Ruedas de Avándaro (also known as Festival de Avándaro was a Rock concert that took place on the night of Saturday September 11, 1971 Nudity, drug use, and the presence of the American flag scandalized conservative Mexican society to such an extent that the government clamped down on rock and roll performances for the rest of the decade. Flags of the United States The Flag of the United States of America consists of 13 equal horizontal stripes of Red (top and bottom alternating The festival, marketed as proof of Mexico's modernization, was never expected to attract the masses it did, and the government had to evacuate stranded attendees en masse at the end. This occurred during the era of President Luis Echeverría, an extremely repressive era in Mexican history. The Constitutional Citizen President of the United Mexican States (the official title in Spanish is Ciudadano Presidente Constitucional de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Luis Echeverría Álvarez (born January 17, 1922) served as President of Mexico from 1970 to 1976 Anything that could possibly be connected to the counterculture or student protests was prohibited from being broadcast on public airwaves, with the government fearing a repeat of the student protests of 1968. The Tlatelolco Massacre, also known as The Night of Tlatelolco (from a book title by the Mexican writer Elena Poniatowska) took place on the afternoon and night of Few bands survived the prohibition; though the ones that did, like Three Souls in My Mind (now El Tri), remained popular due in part to their adoption of Spanish for their lyrics, but mostly as a result of a dedicated underground following. While Mexican rock groups were eventually able to perform publicly by the mid-1980s, the ban prohibiting tours of Mexico by foreign acts lasted until 1991.
The role of women as full-time homemakers in industrial society was challenged in 1963, when American feminist Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, giving momentum to the women's movement and influencing the second wave of feminism. Second-wave feminism refers to a period of Feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s Betty Friedan ( February 4, 1921 – February 5, 2006) was an American feminist, activist and The Feminine Mystique is a 19 February 1963 book written by Betty Friedan which brought to light the lack of fulfillment in many women's
Underground newspapers sprang up in most cities and college towns, serving to define and communicate the range of phenomena that defined the counterculture: radical political opposition to "The Establishment," colorful experimental (and often explicitly drug-influenced) approaches to art, music and cinema, and uninhibited indulgence in sex and drugs as a symbol of freedom. Alternative media are media (newspapers radio television movies Internet etc The phrase underground press is most often used to refer to the independently published and distributed underground papers associated with the Counterculture of the The Establishment is a Pejorative term used to refer to the traditional Ruling class Elite and the structures of society that they control The papers also often included comic strips, from which the underground comix were an outgrowth. Underground comics (or comix) are Small press or self-published Comic books that began to appear in the US in the late 1960s
During the early 1960s, Britain's new generation of blues rock gained popularity in its homeland and cult fame in the United States. The 1960s and 1970s were a tumultuous period for the United States, with the Cold War, Vietnam War and The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Folk singers like Peter, Paul & Mary ("Puff the Magic Dragon") and Bob Dylan (The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan) influenced the British groups, and popular music became more closely aligned with the counterculture. Peter Paul and Mary (often called PP&M) are a musical group from the United States who were one of the most successful folk-singing groups of the Bob Dylan (born Robert Zimmerman, May 24 1941 in Duluth, Minnesota) is an American singer-songwriter author poet and painter who has been a major The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan is singer-songwriter Bob Dylan 's second Studio album, released in May 1963 by Columbia Records. Counterculture (also " counter-culture " is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a Cultural group, or
An international sound developed that moved towards an electric, psychedelic version of rock. In 1962 (see 1962 in music), The Beatles (Please Please Me) emerged from England and popularized British rock, while The Beach Boys' success brought harmony-laden surf music to the forefront of the American scene. Events January 1 - The Beatles and Brian Poole and the Tremeloes both audition at Decca Records, a company which has the option The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 Please Please Me is the first album recorded by The Beatles, rush-released on March 22, 1963 in the United Kingdom to capitalise The Beach Boys is an American rock band Formed in 1961 the group gained popularity for its close vocal harmonies and lyrics reflecting a California Youth culture With country and soul musicians unable to maintain their hipness, both faded from mass consciousness.
The Beatles went on to become the most prominent commercial exponents of the "psychedelic revolution" (e. g. , Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band) in the late 1960s. Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band is the eighth studio album by the British rock band The Beatles. American bands that achieved commercial success include the The Mamas & the Papas (If You Can Believe Your Eyes and Ears), Big Brother and the Holding Company, (Cheap Thrills), Jimi Hendrix (Are You Experienced?), Jefferson Airplane (Surrealistic Pillow) and The Doors (The Doors). The Mamas & the Papas (credited as The Mama's and the Papa's on the debut album cover were a Vocal group of the 1960s. If You Can Believe Your Eyes and Ears is the 1966 debut Album by The Mamas & the Papas (spelled "The Mama's and the Papa's" on the cover Big Brother and the Holding Company is an American rock band that formed in San Francisco in 1965 as part of the psychedelic music scene Cheap Thrills is the second album from Big Brother and the Holding Company and their last album with Janis Joplin as primary lead vocalist James Marshall Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix) (November 27 1942 – September 18 1970 was an American Guitarist, Singer and Songwriter Are You Experienced is the debut album by The Jimi Hendrix Experience. Jefferson Airplane was an American rock band from San Francisco, a pioneer of the Psychedelic rock movement Surrealistic Pillow is an album by American Psychedelic rock band Jefferson Airplane, released in February 1967 This article is about the band For their self-titled debut album see The Doors (album; for the Oliver Stone film see The Doors (film; for Doors in computing The Doors is the self-titled debut album by the band The Doors, recorded in 1966 and released in 1967 The Grateful Dead are considered the first jam band of the 1960s. The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Jam bands (or jambands) are musical groups whose albums and live performances relate to a fan culture which originated with the 1960s group Grateful Dead and continued Psychedelic rock came to dominate the popular music scene for both black and white audiences. Psychedelic rock is a style of Rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs.
While the hippie psychedelic scene was born in California, an edgier scene emerged in New York City that put more emphasis on avant-garde and art music. The City of New York Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard Art music (or serious music or erudite music) as defined by Jacques Siron is an umbrella term generally used to refer to musical traditions implying advanced structural Bands such as The Velvet Underground came out of this underground music scene, predominantly centered at Andy Warhol's legendary Factory Club. This article is about the band For their self-titled album see The Velvet Underground (album; for the book see The Velvet Underground (book Underground music refers to a variety of post-1960s rock pop or dance subgenres that developed a Cult following despite their lack of Mainstream appeal visibility For the song by David Bowie, see Andy Warhol (song. Andrew Warhola (August 6 1928 &ndash February 22 1987 known as Andy Warhol
Detroit, Michigan's MC5 (Motor City 5) also came out of the underground rock music scene of the late 1960s. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. The MC5 ( Motor City Five) was an American Hard rock band formed in Lincoln Park Michigan in 1964 and active until They introduced a more aggressive evolution of garage rock which was often fused with sociopolitical and countercultural lyrics of the era, such as in the songs "Motor City Is Burning" (a John Lee Hooker cover adapting the story of the Detroit Race Riot (1943) to the Detroit Insurrection of 1967), and "The American Ruse" (which discusses U. John Lee Hooker ( August 22, 1917 &ndash June 21, 2001) was an influential American Post-war Blues singer The 1943 Detroit Race Riot was a Race riot which occurred during World War II. S. police brutality as well as pollution, prison, materialism and rebellion). Police brutality is the world wide use of excessive force usually physical but potentially also in the form verbal attacks and psychological intimidation, by Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. Rebellion is a refusal of obedienceIt may therefore be seen as encompassing a range of Behaviours from Civil disobedience and mass Nonviolent resistance They had ties to radical leftist organizations such as Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers and John Sinclair's White Panther Party (composed of white American socialists seeking to assist African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement). Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers (often referred to as simply "the Motherfuckers" or UAW/MF was an Anarchist Affinity group based in New York City The White Panthers were a Far left, Anti-racist, white -American political Collective founded in 1968 by Lawrence (Pun Plamondon and Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution MC5 performed a lengthy set before the 1968 Democratic Convention held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois where an infamous riot subsequently broke out between police and students protesting the recent assassination of The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Vietnam War. Chicago Convention redirects here for the Convention on International Civil Aviation for the event also referred to by this name The International Amphitheatre was an indoor arena located in Chicago Illinois. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations sometimes in favor though more often opposed AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia MC5, as well as The Stooges and the aforementioned Velvet Underground, have now been seen as among the most influential bands in rock music history and developed the protopunk sound that would lead to punk rock in the late 1970s. The Stooges are an American rock band that was active from 1967 to 1974 then reformed in 2003
As the psychedelic revolution progressed, lyrics grew more complex and long playing albums enabled artists to make more in-depth statements than could be made in a single song. Even rules governing single songs were stretched--singles lasting longer than three minutes emerged for the first time (Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone" was the first of these). Bob Dylan (born Robert Zimmerman, May 24 1941 in Duluth, Minnesota) is an American singer-songwriter author poet and painter who has been a major " Like a Rolling Stone " is a song by American songwriter Bob Dylan.
Though not unheard of before the 1960s, the idea that popular music could and should lead social change came into its own during this period. Most existing musical styles were influenced, and new musical genres came into being, including heavy metal, punk rock, electronic music and hip hop.
The Counterculture Revolution also had a significant effect on cinema. Events Hundreds of full-length films were produced during the 1960s Movies began to break social taboos against explicit depiction of sex and violence causing both controversy and fascination. An organism's sex is defined by the gametes it produces males produce male gametes (spermatozoa or Sperm) while females produce female gametes (ova or Egg cells; individual Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes They turned increasingly dramatic, unbalanced, and hectic as the cultural revolution was starting. This was the beginning of the New Hollywood era that dominated the next decade in theatres and revolutionized the movie industry. New Hollywood or post- classical Hollywood, sometimes referred to as the "American New Wave" refers to the brief time between roughly the mid- 1960s ( Films such as Arthur Penn's Bonnie and Clyde (1967), Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), and Roman Polanski's Rosemary's Baby (film) (1968) are examples of this new, edgy direction. Arthur Hiller Penn (born September 27, 1922, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a Film director and producer. Bonnie and Clyde is a American Crime film about Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow, the bank robbers who operated in the Central United States 2001 A Space Odyssey is a 1968 Science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick, written by Kubrick and Arthur C Rosemary's Baby is a 1968 American horror / thriller Film written and directed by Roman Polanski. Films of this time also focused on the changes happening in the world. Dennis Hopper's Easy Rider (1969) focused on the drug culture of the time. Dennis Lee Hopper (born May 17, 1936) is an Academy Award -nominated American Actor and Film -maker Easy Rider, a 1969 American Road movie written by Peter Fonda, Dennis Hopper and Terry Southern. Movies also became more sexually explicit, such as Roger Vadim's Barbarella (1968) as the sexual revolution progressed. Roger Vadim, born Roger Vladimir Plemiannikov (26 January 1928 – 11 February 2000 was a French Journalist, Author, Actor, Screenwriter Barbarella is a 1968 erotic sci-fi film directed by Roger Vadim and based on the French Barbarella comics The sexual revolution refers to the well-documented changes in social thought and codes of behaviour related to sexuality throughout the Western world that continues to evolve
Counterculture environmentalists were quick to grasp the early (i. Environmentalism is a broad philosophy and Social movement centered on a concern for the conservation and improvement of the environment. e. , 1970s) analyses of the reality and the import of the Hubbert "peak oil" prediction. More broadly they saw that the dilemmas of energy derivation would have implications for geo-politics, lifestyle, environment, and other dimensions of modern life.
In his 1986 essay From Satori to Silicon Valley, cultural historian Theodore Roszak pointed out that Apple Computer emerged from within the West Coast counterculture. Theodore Roszak is professor emeritus of history at California State University East Bay. Apple Inc, ( formerly Apple Computer Inc, is an American Multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing Consumer electronics Roszak outlines the Apple computer's development, and the evolution of 'the two Steves' (Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, the Apple's developers) into businessmen. Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24 1955 is the Co-founder, Chairman, and CEO of Apple Inc and former CEO of Pixar Animation Like them, many early computing and networking pioneers – after discovering LSD and roaming the campuses of UC Berkeley, Stanford, and MIT in the late 60s and early 70s – would emerge from this caste of social "misfits" to shape the modern world.
The counterculture had representatives in the sciences, the trades, business, and law. Many counterculture participants were stable, dedicated, and persistent. Much was done in the area of the human interface with the natural environment (in connection with science, technologies, community planning, parks, and other spheres). While ad hoc action groups sprang up frequently, usually fading away just as quickly, some established themselves as ongoing non-governmental organizations (NGOs) dedicated to working toward particular goals. The counterculture gave rise to many lasting NGOs.
The legacy of the 1960s Counterculture is still actively contested in debates that are sometimes framed, in the U. S. , in terms of a "culture war. The culture war (or culture wars) in American usage is a metaphor used to claim that political conflict is based on sets of conflicting values " Jay Walljasper, a commentator and the editor of Utne Reader — though not himself from the so-called '60s Generation, and having grown up in American-Heartland farming country — has written, "From the great gyrations of the counterculture would come a movement dedicated to the greening of America. Utne Reader is an American bimonthly Magazine. The cover logo was changed to simply Utne in 2003-06 Heartland is used in geography to refer to the central areas of a country While many once-ardent advocates of radical ideas now live in the suburbs and vote Republican, others have held fast to the dream of creating a new kind of American society and they've been joined by fresh streams of younger idealists. South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California. "