Counterculture (also "counter-culture") is a sociological word used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" A cultural group is a self-defined group of people who share a commonality of cultural experience For the term in biology see Subculture (biology. For the song by New Order see Sub-culture (song. In Politics, the opposition comprises one or more political parties or other organized groups that are opposed to the Government, party or group This was a neologism from 1968 attributed to Theodore Roszak. A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word" is a word that although devised relatively recently in a specific time period has been Theodore Roszak is professor emeritus of history at California State University East Bay.  However earlier references exist, since Stein Rokkan in his models in political science, used the term about the struggle of the periphery against central state- and nation-building and that kind of central cultural standardisation, as early as 1967 (JSTOR-40). Stein Rokkan ( 4 July 1921 in Vågan – 1979 in Bergen) was a Norwegian political scientist and sociologist. Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems State-building is a term used in state theory It describes the construction of a functioning state For nation-building in the sense of enhancing the capacity of state institutions building state-society relations and also external interventions see State-building Standardization (or standardisation) is the process of developing and agreeing upon technical standards. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar.
Although distinct countercultural undercurrents exist in many societies, here the term "counterculture" refers to a more significant, visible phenomenon that reaches critical mass and persists greatly for a period of time. A counterculture movement thus expresses the ethos, aspirations and dreams of a specific population during an era — a social manifestation of zeitgeist. Zeitgeist ( pronounced) is a German language expression literally translated Zeit time; Geist spirit, meaning "the The term is applied to a group, rather than opinions of a single individual, separately.
Countercultural milieux in 19th century Europe included the traditions of Romanticism, Bohemianism and of the Dandy. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the The term bohemian, of French origin was first used in the English language in the nineteenth century to describe the untraditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished Artists A dandy (also known as a beau gallant or flamboyant person is a man who places particular importance upon Physical appearance, refined language and leisurely hobbies Another movement existed in a more fragmentary form in the 1950s, both in Europe and the US, in the form of the Beat generation/Beatniks, followed in the 1960s by the hippies. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive The Hippie Subculture was originally a Youth movement that began in the United States during the early 1960s and spread around the world
The term 'counterculture' came to prominence in the news media as it was used to refer to the social revolution that swept North America, Western Europe, Japan, Australia and New Zealand during the 1960s and early 1970s. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. 
The counterculture of the 1960s began in the United States as a reaction against the social norms of the 1950s, segregation in the Deep South, and the Vietnam War In the United Kingdom the counterculture was mainly a reaction against the post-war social norms of the 1940s and 1950s, although "Ban the Bomb" protests centered around opposition to nuclear weaponry. The Counterculture of the 1960s and early 1970s refers to a period between 1960 and 1973 that began in the United States as a reaction against The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Social norms have been defined as "the rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values beliefs attitudes and behaviors Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Deep South is a descriptive category of cultural and geographic subregions in the American South. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Social norms have been defined as "the rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values beliefs attitudes and behaviors The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949 Events and trends The 1940s was a period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s which also leads the period to be Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion.
White middle class youth, for the first time since the Great Depression of the 1930s, had sufficient leisure time to raise concerns about social issues - especially civil rights, the Vietnam War and women's rights. Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a Society and are considered to be problems controversies related to Moral values The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The far-reaching changes that began during the late 1960s and early 1970s affected many aspects of society, creating a social revolution in many industrialized countries. The effects of the 1960s and 1970s counterculture also significantly affected voters and institutions, especially in the U. S. Every Western capital experienced significant protests.
As the 1960s progressed, widespread tensions developed in American society that tended to flow along generational lines regarding the war in Vietnam, race relations, sexual mores, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, experimentation with psychedelic drugs and a predominantly materialist interpretation of the American Dream. Race relations is the area of Sociology that studies the Social, Political, and Economic relations between races at all different The sexual revolution refers to the well-documented changes in social thought and codes of behaviour related to sexuality throughout the Western world that continues to evolve Recreational drug use is the use of Psychoactive drugs for Recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes The American Dream is Belief in the Freedom that allows all citizens and residents of the United States to achieve their goals
The Hippies became the largest countercultural group in the United States, fighting for racial equality, women's rights, sexual liberation (including gay rights), relaxation of prohibitions against recreational drugs, and an end to the Vietnam War. The Hippie Subculture was originally a Youth movement that began in the United States during the early 1960s and spread around the world Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender social movements share related goals of social acceptance of Homosexuality, Bisexuality and Transgenderism Lesbian Hippie culture was best embodied by the new genre of psychedelic rock music and the artists who exemplified this era, such as Jefferson Airplane, The Grateful Dead, Jimi Hendrix, The Doors, The Rolling Stones, The Beatles, Bob Dylan, and Janis Joplin. Modern psychedelia For "psychedelics" see Psychedelic drug. Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums. Jefferson Airplane was an American rock band from San Francisco, a pioneer of the Psychedelic rock movement The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in the San Francisco Bay Area. James Marshall Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix) (November 27 1942 – September 18 1970 was an American Guitarist, Singer and Songwriter This article is about the band For their self-titled debut album see The Doors (album; for the Oliver Stone film see The Doors (film; for Doors in computing The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 Bob Dylan (born Robert Zimmerman, May 24 1941 in Duluth, Minnesota) is an American singer-songwriter author poet and painter who has been a major Janis Lyn Joplin ( January 19, 1943  – October 4, 1970) was an American singer songwriter and music arranger from The pop-art culture led by Andy Warhol and Edie Sedgwick also played a prominent part in the social change in the United States by redefining what "art" was and what made it valuable. Pop Art is a visual Art movement that emerged in the mid 1950s in Britain and in parallel in the late 1950s in the United States. For the song by David Bowie, see Andy Warhol (song. Andrew Warhola (August 6 1928 &ndash February 22 1987 known as Andy Warhol Edith Minturn "Edie" Sedgwick ( April 20, 1943 &ndash November 16, 1971) was an American actress Socialite His mass-produced monographs and silk-screens, such as the iconic Campbell's Soup Cans challenged the notion that art is only about certain subjects -ie. Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink blocking stencil wealthy patrons or pretty landscapes, or that art is a singular creation. Warhol's expressed views of glamour, art, and drugs very prominently through Warhol's paintings, films, and music (through his sponsored bands The Velvet Underground and Nico and his Factory). Glamour is a women's magazine published by Condé Nast Publications. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual This article is about the band For their self-titled album see The Velvet Underground (album; for the book see The Velvet Underground (book Christa Päffgen ( October 16, 1938 ? &ndash July 18, 1988) was a German Singer - Songwriter, fashion model
Theodore Roszak stated, "A eclectic taste for mystic, occult, and magical phenomena has been a marked characteristic of our postwar [WWII] youth culture since the days of the beatniks" (1968).  The spiritualism included major interest in astrology, such as the term "Age of Aquarius" and knowing people's signs (Sun Signs). Astrology (from Greek grc ἄστρον astron, "constellation star" and grc -λογία -logia) is a group of Systems For the song see Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In. For the album see The Age of Aquarius (album. Zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the Ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the Constellations that divide the ecliptic
The counterculture in the United States reached its peak between 1965 and the mid-1970s. It eventually waned for several reasons-- mainstream America's backlash against its excesses, many notable countercultural figures died, the Civil Rights movement achieved its main goals, and the Vietnam War ended. Though most of the 1960s countercultural groups have died out, they have left a lasting mark on society that continues to inspire modern day movements.
The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender community (commonly abbreviated as the “LGBT” community), mostly evident in North America, Western Europe, Australasia and South Africa, fits the definition of a countercultural movement as "a cultural group whose values and norms of behavior run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day". LGBT (also GLBT) is an initialism referring collectively to Lesbian, Gay, bisexual, and Transgender / transsexual
At the outset of the 20th century, homosexual acts were punishable offenses in these countries. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. The prevailing public attitude was that homosexuality was a moral failing that should be punished, as exemplified by Oscar Wilde’s 1895 trial and imprisonment for "gross indecency. Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900 was an Irish Playwright, Novelist, poet and Author of " But even then, there were dissenting views. Sigmund Freud publicly expressed his opinion that homosexuality was a perfectly normal condition for some people. Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded
According to Charles Kaiser’s The Gay Metropolis, there were already semi-public gay-themed gatherings by the mid-1930s in the United States (such as the annual drag balls held during the Harlem Renaissance). Drag in its broadest sense means any clothing one wears however the traditional use of the term is for any Costume or outfit that carries symbolic significance The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925 There were also bars & bathhouses that catered to gay clientele and adopted warning procedures (similar to those used by Prohibition-era speakeasies and 21st century smokeasies) to warn customers of police raids. gay bar (also known as a boy bar if the clientele is predominantly male or conversely a girl bar) is a drinking establishment that caters exclusively Gay bathhouses, also known as Gay Saunas or Steam baths (and sometimes called in Gay slang in some regions "the baths" or "the Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, also known as Noble Experiment, refers to a Sumptuary law which prohibits Alcohol A speakeasy was an establishment that surreptitiously sold Alcoholic beverages during the period of United States history known as Prohibition (1920-1933 A smokeasy (also spelled smoke-easy or smokeeasy) is a business especially a barroom, which allows smoking despite a Smoking ban enacted as But homosexuality was typically subsumed into bohemian culture, and was not a significant movement in itself. The term bohemian, of French origin was first used in the English language in the nineteenth century to describe the untraditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished Artists 
During World War II, millions of American men and women were uprooted from their homes, and relocated to large port cities, such as New York City and San Francisco, either en route to tours of duty abroad or to serve in the home-front war effort. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The City of New York The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Being "anonymous" in the large urban landscape and separated from 'shaming' societal figures, many who otherwise would have spent their lives closeted were exposed to nascent gay culture. When the war ended, many of these people chose to permanently settle in New York and San Francisco and live more openly gay lives.
At this time, a genuine gay culture began to take root, albeit very discreetly, with its own styles, attitudes and behaviors and industries began catering to this growing demographic group. For example, publishing houses cranked out pulp novels like The Well of Loneliness or The Velvet Underground that were targeted directly at gay people. "The Well Of Loneliness" was the fourth single by McCarthy taken from their debut album I Am A Wallet. The Velvet Underground is a paperback by journalist Michael Leigh that reports on sexual Paraphilia in the USA published in September 1963 By the early 1960s, openly gay political organizations such as the Mattachine Society were formally protesting abusive treatment toward gay people, challenging the entrenched idea that homosexuality was an aberrant condition, and calling for the decriminalization of homosexuality. The Mattachine Society was the earliest lasting Homophile organization in the United States. Despite very limited sympathy, American society began at least to acknowledge the existence of a sizable population of gays. The film The Boys in the Band, for example, featured negative portrayals of gay men, but at least recognized that they did in fact fraternize with each other (as opposed to being isolated, solitary predators who ‘victimized’ straight men). The Boys in the Band is a 1970 American Drama film directed by William Friedkin.
The watershed event in the American gay rights movement was the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City. The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous violent demonstrations against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28 1969 at the Stonewall Inn Following this event, gays and lesbians began adopting the militant protest tactics used by anti-war and black power radicals to confront anti-gay ideology. Opposition to US involvement in the Vietnam War is significant because domestic protest in the U Black Power is a racially based Political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies Another major turning point was the 1973 decision by the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from the official list of mental disorders. The American Psychiatric Association (APA is the main Professional organization of Psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the  Although gay radicals used pressure to force the decision, Kaiser notes that this had been an issue of some debate for many years in the psychiatric community, and that one of the chief obstacles to normalizing homosexuality was that therapists were profiting from offering dubious, unproven "cures". 
The AIDS epidemic was a massive, unexpected blow to the movement, especially in North America. The history of HIV/AIDS in the United States began in about 1969 when HIV likely entered the United States through a single infected immigrant from Haiti. There was speculation that the disease would permanently drive gay life underground. Ironically, the tables were turned. Many of the early victims of the disease had been openly gay only within the confines of insular gay ghettos such as New York City’s Greenwich Village and San Francisco’s Castro); they remained closeted in their professional lives and to their families. Greenwich Village (ˌgrɛnɪtʃ ˈvɪlɪdʒ often simply called the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern Manhattan The Castro District better known as The Castro is a neighborhood within Eureka Valley in San Francisco California. Many heterosexuals who thought they didn't know any gay people were confronted by friends and loved ones dying of ‘the gay plague. ’ The LGBT community were increasingly seen not only as victims of a disease, but as victims of ostracism and hatred. Most importantly, the disease became a rallying point for a previously complacent gay community. AIDS invigorated the community politically to fight not only for a medical response to the disease, but also for wider acceptance of homosexuality in mainstream America. Ultimately, coming out became an important step for many LGBT people. Closeted Coming out (that is " coming out of the closet " describes the voluntary public announcement of one's Sexual orientation and/or Gender identity
Among the steps to greater acceptance was the reclaiming of language, such as the word "queer", once been used as a derogatory term. Queer has traditionally meant odd or unusual but is now also used to refer to anyone who is not heteronormative. During the 1980s gay people embraced the word as a defiant, pro-gay term. Its use became a broad declaration that gay men, lesbians, bisexuals and transgendered people would no longer 'apologize' for themselves, or try to placate homophobic elements.
In 2003, the United States Supreme Court officially declared all sodomy laws unconstitutional. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Sodomy (ˈsɒdəmi is a term used today predominantly in Law (derived from traditional Christian usage to describe the act of Anal intercourse, Oral intercourse  Virtually every large city and community in America has its own network of bars, gay-friendly businesses and community centers. Annual gay pride events take place throughout the US and the world. LGBT pride or gay pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that LGBT ( Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Many of the current debates at the forefront of the LGBT community, such as same-sex marriage and parenting) would have been unthinkable even 20 years ago. Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same LGBT adoption refers to the Adoption of children by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgendered people As of 2007, the gay community is focusing on marital rights, although sufficient numbers of Americans oppose gay marriage to the point that 27 state constitutional amendments banning gay marriage have been passed by comfortable popular margins of 60-80%. This indicates that despite the wider acceptance and tolerance of homosexual life, it is still viewed by mainstream American society as an aberration, making it in every sense one of several contemporary 'countercultures'.
Although not exactly equivalent to the English definition, the term "Контркультура" (Kontrkul'tura, "Counterculture") found a constant use in Russian to define a cultural movement that promotes acting outside usual conventions of Russian culture - use of explicit language, graphical description of sex, violence and illicit activities and uncopyrighted use of "safe" characters involved in everything mentioned.
During the early 70's, Russian culture was forced into quite a rigid framework of constant optimistic approach to everything. Even mild topics, such as breaking marriage and alcohol abuse, tended to be viewed as taboo by the media. In response, Russian society grew weary of the gap between real life and the creative world. Thus, the folklore and underground culture tended to be considered forbidden fruit. On the other hand, the general satisfaction with the quality of the existing works promoted parody, often within existing settings. For example, the Russian anecdotal joke tradition turned the settings of War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy into a grotesque world of sexual excess. See also Russian humour Russian Jokes (анекдо́ты ( transcribed anekdoty literally Anecdotes the most popular form of War and Peace (Война и мир Voyna i mir) is a Novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869 in Russkii Vestnik Leo Tolstoy, or Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy ( –) (Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й, was a Russian Writer widely regarded Another well-known example is black humor (mostly in the form of short poems) that dealt exclusively with funny deaths and/or other mishaps of small innocent children. Russian humour gains much of its wit from the great flexibility and richness of the Russian language, allowing for plays on words and unexpected associations
In the mid-80s, the Glasnost policy allowed the production of not-so-optimistic creative works. (Гла́сность)is literally defined as publicity and sometimes figuratively interpreted as "tipping a vase to let someone see into the vase but not the bottom of the vase" As a consequence, Russian cinema during the late 80s to the early 90s was dominated by crime-packed action movies with explicit (but not necessarily graphic) scenes of ruthless violence and social dramas on drug abuse, prostitution and failing relations. Although Russian movies of the time would be rated R in the USA due to violence, the use of explicit language was much milder than in American cinema.
Russian counterculture as we know it emerged in the late 90s with the increased popularity of the internet. Several web sites appeared that posted user-written short stories that dealt with sex, drugs and violence. The following features are considered most popular topics for the works:
As with pornography, Russian counterculture has blurred borders and is hard to define. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Xenophobia is an intense and/or irrational dislike and sometimes fear of people from other countries BenPhelpsJPG|thumb|right|Westboro Baptist Church picket signs with Ben Phelps grandson of Fred Phelps Pornography or porn is the explicit depiction of Sexual subject matter with the sole intention of sexually exciting the viewer Generally, any content posted on a number of counterculture sites, like Udaff, Litprom or Fuck. Udaffcom (удавком or the resource (ресурс is a Russian Counter-culture site devoted to publishing short stories ru (No longer available) is considered counterculture, although some of the stories there have nothing to do with all of the above apart from being counterculture-inspired. Although seen as outcasts by conventional media, some of the countercultural authors have become extremely popular in modern Russia. People like Sergei Minayev (aka Amiga), Andrei Orlov (aka orlusha), Rustem Samigullin (aka Shchikotillo) and Yekaterina Temirgaliyeva (aka Кошки 2 шт. ) are widely considered as icons of popular culture, art and literature, are frequently interviewed by press, radio and television, being recognised on the street and asked for autographs like movie or rock stars. The impact of Litprom on off-line Russian media has become a real shock for the closed and snobbish official Russian ;culture'. Having hit the shelves midsummer of 2006, Minayev's premiere book Духless has become the national mega-bestseller with the current print run of over 500 000 copies, while a sharp pooooooooop and ironic obscene poem ЗА-Е-БА-ЛО! by orlusha has topped the list of downloaded ring-tones, leaving the most popular pop- and rock tunes far behind. Much to a surprise of the Moscow authorities, graffiti like ЛИТПРОМ ФОРЕВА (Litprom forever) and УДАВ СОСЁТ (udaff sucks) have outnumbered such previous hits like ЦОЙ ЖИВ (Tsoi is alive) and ОТСОСИ У КРАСНО-СИНИХ (suck the red-blue army dick) in the Moscow public toilets and elevators. It is also really hard to overestimate the influence of Dr. Samigullin's (Щикатиллло) extreme promiscuity and outrageous sexual practices on everyday life of both married and single house-wives over 42 y. o. The ROFL-esque works of Renson (preved renad) & Raider (voffka the crazy drummer), the core and hard-standing members of the Russian countercultural movement, have also become quite some benchmarks for many a reader of aforementioned counterculture sites.
The interesting aspect is the influence of the contra-cultural developments on the Russian pop culture. In addition to traditional Russian styles of music like songs with jail-related lyrics, new music styles with explicit language were developed samiie lieben jesse
In the recent past Dr. Sebastian Kappen, an Indian theologian, has tried to redefine counterculture in the Asian context. Sebastian Kappen ( January 4, 1924 - November 30, 1993) was a renowned Jesuit Theologian from Kerala, India In March 1990, at a seminar in Bangalore, he presented his countercultural perspectives (Chapter 4 in S. Kappen, Tradition Modernity Counterculture, Visthar, Bangalore, 1994). Dr. Kappen envisages counterculture as a new culture that has to negate the two opposing cultural phenomena in Asian Countries: (1) invasion by Western capitalist culture, and (2) the emergence of revivalist movements. Kappen writes, “Were we to succumb to the first, we should be losing our identity; if to the second, ours would be a false, obsolete identity in a mental universe of dead symbols and delayed myths".