|Council of Chalcedon|
|Accepted by||Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Lutheranism, and most Protestant denomincations|
|Previous council||First Council of Ephesus|
|Next council||Second Council of Constantinople|
|Convoked by||Emperor Marcian|
|Presided by||Anatolius of Constantinople|
Pope Leo I (through papal legates Bishops Paschasinus and Lucentius)
|Attendance||500 to 600|
|Topics of discussion||Eutychian monophysitism, divine and human nature of Jesus, the judgments issued at the Second Council of Ephesus in 449|
|Documents and statements||Chalcedonian Creed, condemnations of Eutyches and Dioscorus, 28 canons|
|Chronological list of Ecumenical councils|
The Council of Chalcedon was the fourth ecumenical council. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther This article covers the Ecumenical council of 431 For the council of 449 see Second Council of Ephesus. The Fifth Ecumenical Council (the Second Council of Constantinople was a Christian Ecumenical Council that was held at Constantinople (5 May-2 June Flavius Marcianus, known in English as Marcian, (396 &ndash January 457 was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 450 until his death Saint Anatolius was Patriarch of Constantinople ( 449 - July 3, 458) Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461. Eutyches ( c 380— c 456 was a Presbyter and Archimandrite at Constantinople. Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one alone' and physis meaning 'nature' or Monophysiticism is the Christological position that Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) The Second Council of Ephesus was a church synod in 449 AD. It was convoked by Emperor Theodosius II as an Ecumenical council but because of the controversial The Confession of Chalcedon (also Definition or Creed of Chalcedon) also known as the "Doctrine of the Hypostatic Union" or the "2-Nature Doctrine" Eutyches ( c 380— c 456 was a Presbyter and Archimandrite at Constantinople. Pope Dioscorus I of Alexandria ( Coptic:, Arabic: البابا ديسقوروس was the 25th Pope of Alexandria (444 AD&ndash454 AD/ Patriarch of This is a general introduction to ecumenical councils For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. This is a general introduction to ecumenical councils For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. It was held from 8 October to 1 November 451 at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today the district of Kadıköy on the Asian side of the Bosphorus, incorporated into the city of Istanbul. Events 314 - Roman Emperor Licinius is defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and loses Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Events By Place Western Roman Empire April 7 — The Huns sack Metz. For the Ecumenical Council of 451 see Council of Chalcedon; For the religious/political organization see Chalcedon Foundation. Description Several major cities sat on the fertile shores of the Propontis (which is now known as Sea of Marmara) Nicomedia, Chalcedon, Cius Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black See Kadikoi for the village on the Crimean peninsula in Ukraine. The Bosporus or Bosphorus, also known as the Istanbul Strait, (İstanbul Boğazı (Βόσπορος is a Strait that forms the boundary between the Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey
In 325, the first ecumenical council (First Council of Nicaea) established that Christ was God, "consubstantial" with the Father, against Arius's contention that he was a created being. The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine This was reaffirmed at the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus. The Second Ecumenical Council the first held in Constantinople was called by Theodosius I in 381 which confirmed the Nicene Creed and dealt with other matters such This article covers the Ecumenical council of 431 For the council of 449 see Second Council of Ephesus. In 449 the Second Council of Ephesus, which is not considered one of the ecumenical councils, implicitly upheld the teaching of Eutyches, that the Son had only one nature, divine and not human. Events By Place Europe Vortigern forms an alliance with Hengest and Horsa, by tradition chieftains of the Jutes The Second Council of Ephesus was a church synod in 449 AD. It was convoked by Emperor Theodosius II as an Ecumenical council but because of the controversial Eutyches ( c 380— c 456 was a Presbyter and Archimandrite at Constantinople. Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one alone' and physis meaning 'nature' or Monophysiticism is the Christological position that The Council of Chalcedon convened to address this dispute. It set aside the findings of 449, and repudiated the idea that Jesus' mortal nature amounted to nothing. The Chalcedonian Creed describes the "full humanity and full divinity" of Jesus, the second person of the Holy Trinity. The Confession of Chalcedon (also Definition or Creed of Chalcedon) also known as the "Doctrine of the Hypostatic Union" or the "2-Nature Doctrine" Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных
The council issued 27 disciplinary canons governing church administration and authority. In the famous 28th canon passed by the council, the bishops sought to raise the See of Constantinople (New Rome) in stature, claiming that Constantinople enjoyed honor and authority similar to that of the See of (older) Rome. Pope Leo's legate opposed the canon and in 453, Pope Leo eventually confirmed all the canons, except for 28th.
The Council of Chalcedon is the fourth of the first seven Ecumenical Councils in Christianity, and is therefore recognized as infallible in its dogmatic definitions by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches (then one church under the Byzantine Empire). Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Infallibility, from Latin origin ('in' not + 'fallere' to deceive is a term with a variety of meanings related to knowing Truth with Certainty. In Catholicism, a dogmatic definition is an extraordinary infallible statement published by a Pope or an Ecumenical council concerning a matter The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world The Trinity as defined by these councils is also taken as orthodox among most Protestants. However, the Council resulted in a major schism, with those who refused to accept its teaching, now known as Oriental Orthodoxy, being accused of monophysitism. Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one alone' and physis meaning 'nature' or Monophysiticism is the Christological position that
After the Council of Ephesus had condemned Nestorianism, there remained a conflict between patriarchs John of Antioch and Cyril of Alexandria. This article covers the Ecumenical council of 431 For the council of 449 see Second Council of Ephesus. Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a Pater familias over an extended family John of Antioch was Patriarch of Antioch (429-441 and led a group of moderate Eastern bishops during the Nestorian controversy Cyril of Alexandria (ca 378 - 444 was the Pope of Alexandria when the city was at its height of influence and power within the Roman Empire. Cyril claimed that John remained Nestorian in outlook, while John claimed that Cyril held to the Apollinarian heresy. The two settled their differences under the mediation of the bishop of Beroea, Acacius, on April 12, 433. Acacius of Beroea, a Syrian by birth lived in a monastery near Antioch, and for his active defense of the Church against Arianism, was made Bishop of Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. For the John Cage composition see 4′33″. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Petronius Maximus becomes Consul In the following year, Theodoret of Cyrrhus assented to this formula as well, apparently putting a rest to Nestorianism forever within the Roman Empire. Theodoret (c 393 &ndash c 457 was an influential author theologian and Christian Bishop of Cyrrhus Syria (423-457 This article is about the city in ancient Syria for the city in ancient Macedon see Cyrrhus Macedonia Cyrrhus, Cyrrus, or Kyrros
However, the works of two long dead Antiochean theologians, Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia were at this time translated into Syriac. Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also Diodore of Tarsus ( Greek Διόδωρος (d ca 390 was a Christian Bishop, a monastic reformer and a theologian. Theodore the Interpreter (ca 350 - 428 was bishop of Mopsuestia, a city in what is now Turkey which has since declined into a village which is now known as See Syriac (disambiguation for other uses Syriac (syr ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ leššānā Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language By the intervention of Archbishop Proclus of Constantinople, the two theologians were condemned throughout the East, but this situation would later provide the material for the Second Council of Constantinople some hundred years later. Saint Proclus (died July 446 or 447 was an Archbishop of Constantinople. The Fifth Ecumenical Council (the Second Council of Constantinople was a Christian Ecumenical Council that was held at Constantinople (5 May-2 June
About two years after Cyril of Alexandria's death in 444, an aged monk from Constantinople named Eutyches began teaching a subtle variation on the traditional Christology in an attempt (as he described in a letter to Pope Leo I in 448) to stop a new outbreak of Nestorianism. Cyril of Alexandria (ca 378 - 444 was the Pope of Alexandria when the city was at its height of influence and power within the Roman Empire. MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective Eutyches ( c 380— c 456 was a Presbyter and Archimandrite at Constantinople. Christology (from Christ and Greek grc -λογία -logia) is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461. Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern He claimed to be a faithful follower of Cyril's teaching, which was declared orthodox in the Union of 432.
Cyril had taught that "There is only one physis, since it is the Incarnation, of God the Word. " Cyril had apparently understood the Greek word physis to mean approximately what the Latin word persona (person) means, while most Greek theologians would have interpreted that word to mean natura (nature). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Thus, many understood Eutyches to be advocating Docetism, a sort of reversal of Arianism -- where Arius had denied the divine nature of Jesus, Eutyches seemed to be denying his human nature. In Christianity, Docetism (from the Greek, "to seem" is the belief that Jesus ' physical body was an illusion as was his Crucifixion Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) (Cyril's orthodoxy was not called into question, since the Union of 433 had explicitly spoken of two physeis in this context. )
Pope Leo I, from Rome, wrote that Eutyches' error seemed to be more from a lack of skill on the matters than from malice. Further, his side of the controversy tended not to enter into arguments with their opponents, which prevented the misunderstanding from being uncovered. Nonetheless, due to the high regard in which Eutyches was held (second only to the Patriarch of Constantinople in the East), his teaching spread rapidly throughout the east.
In November 447, during a local synod in Constantinople, Eutyches was denounced as a heretic by the bishop of Dorylaeum, Eusebius, with the demand that he be removed from his office. A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church convened to decide an issue of doctrine administration or application Dorylaeum was an ancient city in Anatolia. It is now in ruins near the city of Eskişehir, Turkey. The then archbishop, Flavian of Constantinople, did not wish to consider the matter as a result of the great prestige that Eutyches enjoyed, but finally relented, and so Eutyches was condemned as a heretic by the synod. Saint Flavian or Phlabianus (died August 11, 449) was Archbishop of Constantinople from 446 to 449 However, the emperor Theodosius II and the Patriarch of Alexandria, Dioscorus, did not accept the decision of the synod because Eutyches had repented and confessed his orthodoxy. Flavius Theodosius ( 10 April, 401 – July 28, 450) called the Calligrapher, known in English as Theodosius II, was Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Pope Dioscorus I of Alexandria ( Coptic:, Arabic: البابا ديسقوروس was the 25th Pope of Alexandria (444 AD&ndash454 AD/ Patriarch of Dioscorus held his own synod reinstating Eutyches, and the emperor called a council to be held in Ephesus in 449, inviting Pope Leo I, who agreed to be represented by four legates (though one died en route). Ephesus ( Hittite Apasa; Ancient Greek; Turkish Efes) was a city of ancient Anatolia. Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461.
By this time, the pope had received communications from Flavian, and had himself determined that Eutyches was in the wrong and that the deposition in 447 was just. He wrote to the council, telling them that they must accept his judgment on the matter, but he left the punishment of Eutyches open for discussion. It appears Pope Leo I was unaware of the confession made to Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria.
The Second Council of Ephesus convened on August 8, 449, with some 130 bishops in attendance. The Second Council of Ephesus was a church synod in 449 AD. It was convoked by Emperor Theodosius II as an Ecumenical council but because of the controversial Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Events By Place Europe Vortigern forms an alliance with Hengest and Horsa, by tradition chieftains of the Jutes Dioscorus presided by command of the emperor. The emperor denied the vote to any bishop who had voted in Eutyches' deposition two years earlier. As a result, there was a near-unanimous support for Eutyches, and Flavian was himself deposed and exiled. He died shortly thereafter. The papal legates left with a letter for the pope from Flavian, and in a second session, without papal representation, several more bishops were deposed, including Ibas of Edessa, Irenaeus of Tyre (a close personal friend of Nestorius), Domnus of Antioch, and Theodoret.
The decisions of this council threatened schism between the East and the West, since they went plainly against the papal declaration, although it was never read. The word schism (ˈsɪzəm or /ˈskɪzəm/ from the Greek σχίσμα skhísma (from σχίζω skhízō, "to tear to split" The pope dubbed this council a "synod of robbers" — Latrocinium — and refused to accept its pronouncements. Latrocinium (from Latin latrone, ultimately from Greek latron, "pay" hire which meant primarily a mercenary or hired soldier had His letter was not read at the council and the papal legates left with it as well and it is for this reason that he called it so.
The situation continued to deteriorate, with the pope demanding the convocation of a new council and the emperor refusing to budge, all the while appointing bishops in agreement with Dioscorus. All this changed dramatically with the death of Theodosius II and the elevation of Marcian to the imperial throne, for Marcian was a defender of the doctrine of Flavian and Leo. Flavius Marcianus, known in English as Marcian, (396 &ndash January 457 was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 450 until his death
Marcian announced his intention to hold a new council, but not in Italy, as the pope had requested, but rather in the East. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The council was called to meet at Nicaea, but was then moved at the last moment to Chalcedon, where the council opened on October 8, 451. For the Ecumenical Council of 451 see Council of Chalcedon; For the religious/political organization see Chalcedon Foundation. Events 314 - Roman Emperor Licinius is defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and loses Events By Place Western Roman Empire April 7 — The Huns sack Metz. Marcian had the exiled bishops returned to their dioceses and had the body of Flavian brought to the capital to be buried honorably.
The emperor asked the pope to preside over the council, but Pope Leo sent his legates instead--Bishops Pachasinus of Lilybaeum and Julian of Cos and two priests Boniface and Basil--to preside over the council in his name, condemn the work of the Latrocinium, and profess the correct doctrine about the Incarnation as described in his previous letter to Flavian (the Tome).
Attendance at this council was very high, from about 500 to 600 bishops. Paschasinus refused to give Dioscorus (who had carried out an excommunication of the pope in the period leading up to the council) a seat at the council, and as a result, he was moved to the nave of the church. Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community Paschasinus further ordered the reinstatement of Theodoret and that he be given a seat, but this move caused such an uproar among the council fathers, that Theodoret also sat in the nave, though he was given a vote in the proceedings, which began with a trial of Dioscorus.
Marcian wished to bring proceedings to a speedy end, and asked the council to make a pronouncement on the doctrine of the Incarnation before continuing the trial. The council fathers, however, felt that no new creed was necessary, and that the doctrine had been laid out clearly in Leo's letter to Flavian, by then called the Tome . The second day of the council ended with shouts from the bishops, "It is Peter who says this through Leo. This is what we all of us believe. This is the faith of the Apostles. Leo and Cyril teach the same thing. "
The council continued with Dioscorus' trial, but he refused to appear before the assembly. As a result, he was condemned but by an underwhelming amount (more than half the bishops present for the previous sessions did not attend his condemnation), and all of his decrees were declared null. Marcian responded by exiling Dioscorus. All of the bishops were then asked to sign their assent to the Tome, but a group of thirteen Egyptians refused, saying that they would assent to "the traditional faith". As a result, the emperor's commissioners decided that a creed would indeed be necessary and presented a text to the fathers. No consensus was reached, and indeed the text has not survived to the present.
Paschasinus threatened to return to Rome to reassemble the council in Italy. Marcian agreed, saying that if a clause were not added to the creed supporting Leo's doctrine, the bishops would have to relocate. The bishops relented and added a clause, saying that, according to the decision of Leo, in Christ there are two natures united, inconvertible [natures], inseparable [natures].
The Confession of Chalcedon provides a clear statement on the human and divine nature of Christ:
|“||Following the holy Fathers, we unanimously teach and confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ: the same perfect in divinity and perfect in humanity, the same truly God and truly man, composed of rational soul and body; consubstantial with the Father as to his divinity and consubstantial with us as to his humanity; "like us in all things but sin. " He was begotten from the Father before all ages as to his divinity and in these last days, for us and for our salvation, was born as to his humanity of the virgin Mary, the Mother of God. |
We confess that one and the same Christ, Lord, and only-begotten Son, is to be acknowledged in two natures without confusion, change, division, or separation (in duabus naturis inconfuse, immutabiliter, indivise, inseparabilter). The distinction between natures was never abolished by their union, but rather the character proper to each of the two natures was preserved as they came together in one person (prosopon) and one hypostasis.
Interestingly enough, this goes against the teaching of Cyril from the previous council stating that it is incorrect to speak of Christ as existing in two natures after the union. The reasoning adopted by the Eastern Orthodox Church is that further clarification of Cyril's position was required.
The work of the council was completed by a series of 27 disciplinary canons. Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches 
Canon 28 grants equal privileges (isa presbeia) to Constantinople as of Rome because Constantinople is the New Rome as renewed by canon 36 of the Quinisext Council. The term " New Rome " has been used in the following contexts The Quinisext Council was a church council held in 692 at Constantinople under Justinian II. The papal legates were not present for the vote on this canon, and protested it afterwards, and was not ratified by Pope Leo in Rome. A Papal Legate – from the Latin authentic Roman title Legatus – is a personal representative of the Pope to Foreign nations or to some part of the Catholic
According to some ancient Greek collections, canons 29 and 30 are attributed to the council: canon 29, which states that an unworthy bishop cannot be demoted but can be removed, is an extract from the minutes of the 19th session; canon 30, which grants the Coptic Orthodox time to consider their rejection of Leo's Tome, is an extract from the minutes of the fourth session. History of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Apostolic foundation Egypt is identified in the Bible as the place of refuge that the 
In all likelihood an official record of the proceedings was made either during the council itself or shortly afterwards. The assembled bishops informed the pope that a copy of all the "Acta" would be transmitted to him; in March, 453, Pope Leo commissioned Julian of Cos, then at Constantinople, to make a collection of all the Acts and translate them into Latin. Most of the documents, chiefly the minutes of the sessions, were written in Greek; others, e. g. the imperial letters, were issued in both languages; others, again, e. g. the papal letters, were written in Latin. Eventually nearly all of them were translated into both languages.
With the passage of the 28th canon, the council fathers at Chalcedon elevated the stature of the See of Constantinople (New Rome). Originally, Constantinople was not counted among the pentarchy—that is the five patriarchal sees founded by the apostles. Nonetheless, over time, the Eastern bishops repeatedly asserted the pre-eminence of the bishop of Constantinople, although always second to the Bishop of Rome. For example, the third canon of the Second Ecumenical Council at Constantinople (381 AD) states that "the bishop of Constantinople. . . shall have the prerogative of honor after the Bishop of Rome; because Constantinople is New Rome. " It is possible that for the Eastern bishops Constantinople's preeminence was a fait accompli and that the 28th canon was a culmination of ongoing ecclesiological development. Or perhaps, as one commentator has noted, the claims of the Church in Rome regarding her preeminence "excited jealousy of her rival of the East. "
In making their case, the council fathers argued that tradition had accorded "prerogatives" to the see of older Rome because it was an imperial city. Accordingly, “moved by the same purposes” the fathers “apportioned equal prerogatives to the most holy see of new Rome” because “the city which is honored by the imperial power and senate and enjoying privileges equaling older imperial Rome should also be elevated to her level in ecclesiastical affairs and take second place after her. ” The framework for allocating ecclseiastical authority advocated by the council fathers mirrored the allocation of imperial authority in the later period of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial This position could be characterized as being pragmatic (or perhaps political) in nature, as opposed to a doctrinal view.
The papal legates at Chalcedon (and certainly the Pope) regarded this framework as upsetting to the traditional primacy of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch as well as a direct challenge to the importance of apostolic foundation in determining ecclesial rank. Since Nicaea, the councils had respected the ordering and rights of the ancient sees, but Rome perceived the Eastern bishops continued insistance on promoting Constantinople as a usurpation and inconsistent with much of what the prior councils' had decreed.
With the papal legates opposing the canon, Emperor Marcian and Anatolius, the patriarch of Constantinople, sought the pope's approval of the council in separate letters. Anatolius in particular defended canon 28 in his letter, but Pope Leo remained unmoved and would to withhold his support. In a later letter to the Emperor, Leo says that Anatolius should behave more modestly since he owes his enthronement to the pope's consent. Furthermore, Leo tells the Emperor that he has "abstained from annulling this ordination" because of his desire to preserve peace and unity within the Church.  However, growing concerned that withholding his approval would be interpreted as a rejection of the entire council, in 453 he confirmed the council’s canons except for the controversial 28th canon.
The near-immediate result of the council was a major schism. The bishops that were uneasy with the language of Pope Leo's Tome repudiated the council, saying that the acceptance of two physes was tantamount to Nestorianism. Dioscorus, the Patriarch of Alexandria, advocated miaphysitism and had dominated the Council of Ephesus.  Churches that rejected Chalcedon in favor of Ephesus broke off from the rest of the Church in a schism. These churches compose Oriental Orthodoxy, with the Church of Alexandria as their spiritual leader. Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the
Recent years have brought about a degree of rapprochement between Chalcedonian Christians and the Oriental Orthodox. Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the Agreement on doctrine has been declared between Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, for instance, although communion between these families of churches has not been restored. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world