The council house is a form of public or social housing in the United Kingdom. Beighton ward &mdashwhich includes the districts of Beighton, Hackenthorpe, Owlthorpe, and Sothall &mdashis one of the 28 electoral Divisions and environs South Yorkshire is divided into four local government districts they are the City of Sheffield, the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster Public housing is a form of Housing tenure in which the property is owned by a Government authority which may be central or local The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Council houses were built and operated by local councils to supply uncrowded, well built homes on secure tenancies at affordable (below market) rents to the local population. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or As of 2005, approximately 20 per cent of the country's housing stock is owned by local councils or by housing associations. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Housing associations in the United Kingdom are independent not-for-profit bodies that provide low-cost "social housing" for people in housing
The Republic of Ireland has a similar public housing system, Local Authority Accommodation. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Local Authority Accommodation has been provided in Ireland by the various County Councils and City Corporations along with Urban District Councils
The documented history of social housing in Britain starts with Almshouses which were established from the 10th century, to provide a place of residence for "poor, old and distressed folk". Sherborne is an affluent Market town in north west Dorset, England, situated on the River Yeo Dorset ( (or archaically, Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast Almshouses are charitable Housing provided to enable people (typically elderly people who can no longer work to earn enough to pay The first recorded Almshouse was founded in York by King Athelstan, and the oldest still in existence is the Hospital of St. Cross in Winchester, dating to circa 990.
The pressure for decent housing increased from overcrowding in the large cities during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, and many social commentators (such as Octavia Hill) reported on the squalor, sickness and perceived immorality that arose. Chatteris is one of four market towns in the Fenland district of Cambridgeshire, situated in The Fens between Whittlesey, March The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Octavia Hill ( 3 December 1838 – 13 August 1912) was an English social reformer particularly concerned with the welfare of Some philanthropists had begun to provide housing in tenement blocks, while some factory owners built entire villages for their workers such as Saltaire (1853), Bournville (1879), Port Sunlight, Stewartby, and Silver End as late as 1925. Philanthropy is the act of donating money goods services time and/or effort to support a socially beneficial cause with a defined objective and with no financial or material Saltaire is the name of a Victorian era Model village in the City of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England, by the River Aire Bournville is a Model village on the south side of Birmingham, England, best known for its connections with the Cadbury family and Chocolate Port Sunlight is a Model village on the Wirral Peninsula, Merseyside, England. Stewartby is a Model village and Civil parish in Bedfordshire, originally built for the workers in of The London Brick Company. Silver End is a small village in Essex between Braintree and Witham.
It was not until 1885, when a Royal Commission was held, that the state took an interest. The term Royal Commission may also be used in the United Kingdom to describe the group of Lords Commissioners who may act in the stead of the This led to the Housing of the Working Classes Act 1890, which encouraged local authorities to improve the housing in their areas. As a consequence the London County Council opened the Boundary Estate in 1900, and many local councils began building flats and houses in the early 20th century. London County Council (LCC was the principal local government body for the County of London, throughout its 1889-1965 existence and the first London-wide general municipal The Boundary Estate is a housing development formally opened in 1900 in the East End of London, England. Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The First World War indirectly provided a new impetus, when the poor physical health and condition of many urban recruits to the army was noted with shock and alarm. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. This led to a campaign known as Homes fit for heroes and in 1919 the Government first required councils to provide housing, helping them to do so through the provision of subsidies, under the Housing Act 1919. The government was no doubt encouraged by the increasing influence of the Labour party and the widespread strikes and mutinies which characterized Britain in 1919. Many houses were built in cottage estates as in Downham Estate as well as in blocks of flats. The Downham Estate is a housing estate in Downham, south east London.
While new council housing had been built, little had been done to resolve the problem of inner city slums. A slum, as defined by the United Nations agency UN-HABITAT, is a run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security This was to change with the Housing Act 1930, which required councils to prepare slum clearance plans, and some progress was made before the Second World War intervened. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
During the Second World War nearly four million British homes were destroyed or damaged, and afterwards there was a major boom in council house construction. Rastrick is a Village in the County of West Yorkshire, England, near Halifax. The Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale is a Metropolitan borough of the Metropolitan county of West Yorkshire, England, through which the The Blitz was the sustained bombing of Britain by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 10 May 1941 in World War II.  As well as this, slum clearance programmes were promoted.
In the immediate post-War years and well into the 1950s council house provision was shaped by the New Towns Act 1946 and the Town and Country Planning Act 1947. The New Towns Act 1946 (9 & 10 Geo VI c 68 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which allowed the government to designate areas as new towns The Town and Country Planning Act 1947 (10 & 11 Geo VI c 51 was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom passed by the post-war Labour government Houses were typically semi-detached or in small terraces. Semi-Detached (1998 was Therapy? 's last album for A&M Records. In Architecture and City planning, a terrace(d or row house or townhouse (though the latter term can also refer to Patio houses A three-bedroom semi-detached council house was typically built on a 7 by 7 yd (6. 4 by 6. 4 m) grid and at a density of no more than 12 houses per acre (337 m² per house), meaning that most houses had generous space around them. The new towns and many existing towns had countless estates built to this basic model. A new town, planned community or planned city is a City, Town, or Community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically
For many working class people, this housing model provided the first experience of private garden space (usually front and rear) and the first private and indoor toilets and bathrooms. Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types A garden is a planned space usually outdoors set aside for the display cultivation and enjoyment of Plants and other forms of Nature. A toilet is a Plumbing fixture and disposal system primarily intended for the disposal of the bodily wastes: Urine and fecal matter. A bathroom is a room that may have different functions depending on the cultural context The quality of these houses, and in particular the existence of small gardens, compared very favourably with social housing being built on the European continent in this period.
Towards the end of the 1950s the influence of modernist architecture and the development of new construction techniques such as system building (a form of prefabrication) led to this model being abandoned in Britain's inner city areas. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a Structure in a Factory or other Manufacturing site and Transporting complete The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The inner city is the central area of a major city or metropolis Instead tower blocks became the preferred model. A tower block, block of flats, or apartment block, is a multi-unit High-rise Apartment building. The argument was that more dwellings could be provided this way (a claim that research at the LSE has cast serious doubt on. The London School of Economics and Political Science, more commonly referred to as The London School of Economics or LSE, is a specialist college of the ). 
Central government (under both the Conservative and Labour parties) saw the provision of housing as a major part of its policy, and provided subsidies for local authorities to build such housing. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the System building proved to have serious flaws and flats - which were initially very popular due to their generous space standards - suffered many problems, especially poor protection from damp, weather ingress, but also more serious design defects.
The problem associated with tower blocks were brought into sharp focus after the partial collapse of Ronan Point, a tower block in Newham, east London, as a consequence of a gas explosion, on 16 May 1968. Ronan Point was a 23-storey Tower block in Newham, East London, which suffered a fatal partial collapse due to a Natural gas explosion 16 The London Borough of Newham ( is a London borough in East London, within Greater London. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Becontree in Dagenham is the largest area of council housing in the UK with a population of over 100,000. Seacroft is an outer-city Council estate covering an extensive area of east Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. Leeds ( is located on the River Aire in West Yorkshire, England Southampton ( IPA /ˌsaʊθˈhæmptən/ is the largest city in the county of Hampshire, on the south coast of England Wetherby is a Market town in the City of Leeds Metropolitan borough, West Yorkshire, England West Yorkshire is a Metropolitan county within the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England with a population of Becontree is a place in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham in East London, east north-east of Charing Cross. Building started in the 1920s and took 11 years to finish. There is only a small part of Dagenham that is not Becontree, and some do not consider Becontree to be an estate but really just the bulk of a town. Otherwise, the largest estates are Wythenshawe in the south of Manchester and Bransholme in the north-east of Hull. Wythenshawe (pop 66000 is a district in the south of the City of Manchester in North West England. Bransholme is an area or housing estate situated on the north-eastern side of Kingston upon Hull, England. Arron Way in Corby was a large estate, although the majority of the housing became derelict and the area is now undergoing regeneration. Corby is an industrial town and a local government district located 13km north of Kettering in Northamptonshire, England. Other large estates across London include the Aylesbury Estate, South Oxhey, a vast series of estates in Gospel Oak and the Ferrier Estate. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The Aylesbury Estate is a Housing estate located in Walworth in south east London, England. South Oxhey is a small town in the Watford Rural parish of the Three Rivers district of Hertfordshire, England. for the EP by Sinéad O'Connor, see Gospel Oak EP Gospel Oak is an inner urban area of north London in the The Ferrier Estate in Kidbrooke, south-east London, is a typical example of system built Social housing in the United Kingdom from the 1950s
There are also numerous large council estates in the West Midlands. The West Midlands is a Metropolitan county in western central England with a population of 2591300 These include Castle Vale in Birmingham, Low Hill in Wolverhampton, Hateley Heath in West Bromwich, Blakenall Heath in Walsall, Priory Estate in Dudley, Tanhouse in Halesowen and Chapel Street Estate in Brierley Hill. Castle Vale is an area of the City of Birmingham, in England, originally created as an Overspill estate in the 1960s Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um Low Hill is a housing estate in Wolverhampton, West Midlands, England. Hateley Heath is a residential area of West Bromwich in the West Midlands of England. West Bromwich ( is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell, in the West Midlands, England Blakenall Heath is a neighbourhood in Walsall, West Midlands, England. Walsall ( is a large industrial town in the West Midlands of England. The Priory Estate is a Housing estate in Dudley, West Midlands, England. Dudley ( is a large town in the West Midlands, England, with a population of 194919. Tanhouse is a residential area of Halesowen in the West Midlands of England. Halesowen is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley, in the West Midlands, England. Chapel Street Estate is a residential area of Brierley Hill, West Midlands, England. Brierley Hill is a Town and electoral ward of the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley, West Midlands, England.
Large estates in Scotland include Drumchapel, Easterhouse, Castlemilk and Pollok in Glasgow. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Drumchapel ( Druim a' Chapaill in Gaelic (known to locals and residents as 'The Drum' is part of the city of Glasgow having been annexed from Dunbartonshire in 1938 Easterhouse is a post-war suburb to the north-east of the Scottish city of Glasgow. Castlemilk ( Caisteal Mheilc in Gaelic is a huge district of Glasgow, Scotland. Pollok is a large district on the south-western side of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom
Greater Manchester was another city extensively developed for council housing, most notably the Hattersley overspill housing estate, which was originally part of neighbouring town, Hyde. Greater Manchester is a Metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2 Hattersley is a residential area within the Metropolitan Borough of Tameside, in Greater Manchester, England. Hyde is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Tameside, in Greater Manchester, England.
Wales also has many large council estates. These include Caia Park in Wrexham, Bettws in Newport and Ely in Cardiff. Formerly Queens Park Caia Park is a large council-owned estate in Wrexham, north-east Wales. Wrexham (Wrecsam is a town and principal area in Wales. It is the largest town in North Wales and lies to the east of the region Betws or Bettws could refer to one of several communities in Wales, or one in England. Newport (Casnewydd is a city and principal area in Wales, in the United Kingdom. Ely ( Welsh Trelai tref town + Elai River Ely) is a Suburb primarily dominated by Council housing in western Cardiff ( 'kɑːdɪf) is the Capital and the largest city and county in Wales.
There were also many large council estates in Yorkshire. Yorkshire is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in Great Britain. These include the village of Grimethorpe (which at one stage almost entirely consisted of council housing), and the Chickenley estate in Dewsbury which was unusually constructed without including a church. Grimethorpe is a large Village which is part of the metropolitan borough of Barnsley in South Yorkshire, England. Chickenley is a large Council estate in the east of Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, England. Dewsbury is a Market town within the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, in West Yorkshire, England. Estates in Leeds, West Yorkshire include Seacroft and Halton Moor. Leeds ( is located on the River Aire in West Yorkshire, England West Yorkshire is a Metropolitan county within the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England with a population of Seacroft is an outer-city Council estate covering an extensive area of east Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. Halton Moor is a district of east Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. Bransholme in North East Hull is the largest in Yorkshire. Bransholme is an area or housing estate situated on the north-eastern side of Kingston upon Hull, England. Kingston upon Hull ( almost invariably referred
The Red Road flats in Glasgow were once the tallest residential buildings in Europe, but are now earmarked for demolition in local council regeneration plans. The Red Road flat complex lies in the districts of Balornock and Barmulloch in the Springburn area of the City of Glasgow Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom Cottingley Towers and Cottingley Heights in Cottingley, Leeds are also particularly notable in their considerable height. Cottingley is an urban area in the south-west of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. Leeds ( is located on the River Aire in West Yorkshire, England
New towns built across Britain in the 20 or so years following the end of the Second World War were predominantly made up of council housing, but many of these have since been further developed to see private housing become the most frequent accommodation. A new town, planned community or planned city is a City, Town, or Community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Many commuter towns around London have large areas of Council Housing. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom.
Perhaps (although it is disputed) the earliest council flats were at Quarry Hill in Leeds. Quarry Hill is the name of several places in the world Quarry Hill, Leeds, England Quarry Hill, Kowloon, This was a large complex built in the 1930s and demolished throughout most of the 1980s. The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. The flats were apparently modeled on Karl Marx Hof flats in Vienna and built by Leeds City Council.  It was in these flats where sitcom Queenie's Castle was filmed. Queenie's Castle was a British Sitcom set in early 70's Leeds, West Yorkshire that aired on ITV from 1970 to 1972 At the time they were considered revolutionary, each flat had a motorized rubbish shoot which lead to a central incinerator. The complex had its own offices, shops and gas works. This is a historical article For current information see Syngas. There is now no evidence of their existence. The DWP and BBC now have their regional headquarters on the site, alongside the West Yorkshire Playhouse. The West Yorkshire Playhouse in Leeds, England is a theatre which opened in March 1990 as part of the regeneration of the Quarry Hill
Council housing was generally typified by houses with generously sized rooms (compared to the bottom end of the private sector), particularly those built in the 1970s after the Parker Morris standards were introduced. The London Borough of Haringey (ˈhærɪŋgeɪ) is a Borough of North London, classified by some definitions as part of Inner London, and by The Parker Morris Committee drew up an influential 1961 report on housing space standards in Public housing in the United Kingdom titled Homes for Today and Tomorrow However they also tended to be unimaginatively designed, and rigid council rules often forbade tenants "personalising" their houses. Council tenants also faced problems of mobility, finding it hard to move from one property to another as their families grew or shrank, or to seek work. Despite the building there was a constant demand for housing, and 'waiting lists' are maintained with preference being given to those in greatest need.
The original council houses from the early 1920s were among the first houses in the country to feature electricity, running water, bathrooms, indoor toilets and front/rear gardens. The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada Many of these houses were built on estates with an open spaced layout that gave a pleasant environment to residents who had previously lived in dilapidated inner city slums. These new houses had two, three, four or five bedrooms.
Flats and bungalows were first built by local councils during the interwar years, but in relatively low volumes. It was not until the 1950s that this type of property became a common sight. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive It was also around this time that councils started building garages on new housing developments, although these were usually in separate blocks to houses.
The first tower block flats in Britain were built during the early 1950s, reaching a peak in the 1960s. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 But these flats quickly became unpopular due to poor insulation and structural defects, with construction of high-rise flats being effectively ended during the 1970s. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. The first few tower blocks were demolished during the later part of the 1980s, but clearance programmes accelerated during the 1990s and are still ongoing in the 2000s. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 The most notable regeneration programme featuring tower blocks was that of the Castle Vale estate in Birmingham. Castle Vale is an area of the City of Birmingham, in England, originally created as an Overspill estate in the 1960s Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um 32 of the estate's 34 tower blocks were cleared between 1995 and 2003, with the remaining two being refurbished and re-opened as "vertical warden-controlled schemes". Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. All of the estate's 27 maisonette blocks were also cleared, as were more than 100 bungalows. The remaining low-rise stock, however, was retained. A similar regeneration had taken place around the end of the 1980s and start of the 1990s on Smethwick's Galton Village estate, known locally as the Concrete Jungle. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 Smethwick (pronounced 'Smethick' is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell, in the West Midlands of England. Galton Village is a residential area of Smethwick, Birmingham, West Midlands, England.
Many of the older interwar council houses have been demolished, mostly due to subsidence or decay. Much of this regeneration has been concentrated in the West Midlands since the early 1990s. The West Midlands is a Metropolitan county in western central England with a population of 2591300 The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 Areas that have been regenerated include Pype Hayes and Stockfield in Birmingham, parts of The Lunt estate in Bilston, the Poet's Estate at Harden in Walsall and the Harrowby Road Estate in Darlaston. Pype Hayes is an area in the north of the Erdington district of Birmingham in the West Midlands, England. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um The Lunt is a residential area of Bilston within the city of Wolverhampton and is part of the West Midlands conurbation in England. Bilston is a town in England 's West Midlands region ( Wolverhampton) Harden is an area to the north of Walsall and borders with Bloxwich, Blakenall Heath, Coalpool, Goscote and Rushall. Walsall ( is a large industrial town in the West Midlands of England. Darlaston is a Town in the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall in the West Midlands of England. Several other estates are currently earmarked for a similar regeneration in the future. These include the Goscote Estate in Walsall, parts of the Priory Estate in Dudley and parts of the Tibbington Estate in Tipton. Goscote is a residential area of Walsall in the West Midlands of England. Walsall ( is a large industrial town in the West Midlands of England. The Priory Estate is a Housing estate in Dudley, West Midlands, England. Dudley ( is a large town in the West Midlands, England, with a population of 194919. Tibbington is a residential area of Tipton, a town in the West Midlands of England. Tipton is a town in the Sandwell borough of the West Midlands, England, with a population of around 47000
Social policy economists, such as Culyer and Barr, have been critical of the role that council housing plays in attempts to help the poor. One large criticism is that it hurts labour mobility with its system of allocating housing to those in the local area. Working-class people thus face a disincentive for moving across district lines, when they would be further down the waiting list for council housing in the new districts. When Britain witnessed mass immigration after the Second World War, new immigrants did not initially qualify for council houses and this led to racial segregation in housing. This has changed over time; most large cities have council estates with large Asian and Black communities. The division remains most marked in Dewsbury and Bradford, which both have large Asian communities that remain concentrated outside the council estates. Dewsbury is a Market town within the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, in West Yorkshire, England. Bradford ( lies at the heart of the City of Bradford, a Metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, England.
Another criticism is that the system favours those who have already secured tenancy, even after they are no longer in dire need. The combination of security of tenure and affordable rent gives little incentive to tenants to downsize from family accommodation after their children have moved out. Meanwhile, those who are on the waiting list are often in much greater need of this welfare, yet they cannot have it; once a council house has been granted to a tenant, they cannot be evicted except for anti-social behaviour or serious breach of the tenancy conditions, such as rent arrears.
Council housing declined sharply in the Thatcher era, as the Conservative government encouraged aspiration toward home ownership. Hockwell Ring is a 1950s and 1960s built Council estate in the Leagrave area of Luton, Bedfordshire. Luton ( is a large town in the east of England, 32 miles (51 kilometres north of London. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom.
Laws restricted councils' investment in housing, preventing them subsidising it from local taxes, but more importantly, council tenants were given the "right to buy" in the 1980's Housing Act offering a discount price on their council house. The Right to Buy Scheme allowed tenants to buy their home with a discount of up to 60% of the market price for houses and 70% for flats, depending on the time they had lived there. The Right to buy scheme is a policy in the United Kingdom which gives tenants of Council housing the right to buy the home they are living in Councils were prevented from reinvesting the proceeds of these sales in new housing, and the total available stock, particularly of more desirable homes, declined.
The "right-to-buy" was popular with many former Labour voters and, although the Labour government of Tony Blair tightened the rules (reducing the maximum discount in areas of most housing need), it did not end the right-to-buy. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to Labour did relax the policy forbidding reinvestment of sales proceeds.
Some councils have now transferred their housing stock to not-for-profit housing associations, who are now also the providers of most new public sector housing. Elsewhere, referendums on changing ownership, in Birmingham for example, have been won by opponents of government policy. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita
The current position is that council housing is a more and more residualised and stigmatised sector, with the term 'council' increasingly used as a pejorative. Whereas in its early years, council housing was an acceptable option for much of the population, it is now increasingly an option only for those reliant on social security. Social security primarily refers to a Social insurance program providing social protection or protection against socially recognized conditions including poverty old
In some parts of the country, especially northern Britain, some council housing is virtually unlettable. Council housing stock has sometimes been used to house those seeking refugee status ('asylum seekers'), who have no choice in their accommodation. According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race In the south and in London in particular, demand still massively outstrips supply.
The Wakefield district council found itself unable to maintain its supply of council housing and transferred it all to a housing association, in 2004; this represented the second largest stock transfer in British history. Wakefield lies at the heart of the City of Wakefield, a Metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, England. Housing rented from the council accounted for about 28% of the district and around 40% of the actual city of Wakefield.
Other than Wakefield, districts that maintain large amounts of council housing include most inner London boroughs with Southwark, Hackney, Camden and Lambeth having the highest proportions/amounts. Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the interior part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. Southwark or The Borough is an area of south-east London in the London Borough of Southwark, situated 1 The London Borough of Hackney ( is a London borough in North-East London and forms part of Inner London. The London Borough of Camden ( is a borough of London, England, which forms part of Inner London. Lambeth is a place in the London Borough of Lambeth, although the area is now more commonly known as Waterloo, after the railway station whose viaduct separates the Also, Barnsley, Corby, Easington, Hull, Leeds, Manchester, Nottingham and Sheffield. Barnsley is a town in South Yorkshire, England. It lies on the River Dearne, north of the city of Sheffield, and west of Doncaster Corby is an industrial town and a local government district located 13km north of Kettering in Northamptonshire, England. Easington is a local government district and in eastern County Durham, England. Kingston upon Hull ( almost invariably referred Leeds ( is located on the River Aire in West Yorkshire, England Nottingham ( is a city in the Ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire, England. Sheffield ( is a city and Metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England Many districts of the country have less than 10% of housing rented from the council; the national average stands at 14%. - more statistics are available as of the 2001 census although some have transferred to housing associations since then. A nationwide Census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001
Council estate have often been stereotyped as a source of high crime rates, though similar problems can occur in areas of private housing.
As mentioned earlier, many council housing estates have already undergone partial or total redevelopment, while more schemes are in the pipeline.
These include North Peckham in London, Castle Vale in Birmingham, Cantril Farm in Liverpool, Blakenhall Gardens in Wolverhampton, Harden in Walsall, Galton Village in Smethwick and Hateley Heath in West Bromwich. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Castle Vale is an area of the City of Birmingham, in England, originally created as an Overspill estate in the 1960s Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um For Cantril Farm see also Stockbridge Village. Description Cantril Farm is the name of a Housing estate in Knowsley, on the outskirts Liverpool ( is a City and Metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary Blakenhall is a ward in Wolverhampton, England. It was developed during the late 19th century just south of the town centre with hundreds of Terraced Harden is an area to the north of Walsall and borders with Bloxwich, Blakenall Heath, Coalpool, Goscote and Rushall. Walsall ( is a large industrial town in the West Midlands of England. Galton Village is a residential area of Smethwick, Birmingham, West Midlands, England. Smethwick (pronounced 'Smethick' is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell, in the West Midlands of England. Hateley Heath is a residential area of West Bromwich in the West Midlands of England. West Bromwich ( is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell, in the West Midlands, England
The legal status and management of council houses, and the social housing sector, has been subject to lobbying and change in recent years. De Beauvoir Town bō-vwär' toun is a district of the London Borough of Hackney, in North London. East London is the name commonly given to the north eastern part of London, England on the north side of the River Thames. Local Authorities now have new legal powers to enable them to deal with anti-social behaviour and the misuse of council houses by organised gangs. Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State. An example is when a gang turns a council house into a crack house. Anti-social behaviour orders (ASBOs) were created by the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, ASBOs were created by amendments to the Housing Act 1996, enacted by the Anti-social Behaviour Act 2003. The Crime and Disorder Act 1998 is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament. The Anti-social Behaviour Act 2003 is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament (citation 2003 c The proposed Housing Act 2006 will radically alter the way that all social housing is managed. Tony Blair launched the Respect Agenda in 2005, aimed at instilling core values in the tenants of council houses. The Respect agenda was launched in September 2005 by Tony Blair in the United Kingdom. Recently bodies such as the Social Housing Law Association -  have been formed to discuss the impact of legislation in the social housing sector and to provide training and lobbying facilities for those who work in that area.