The council-manager government is one of two main variations of representative municipal government in the United States. Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This system of government is used in the majority of American cities with populations over 12,000. (for contrast, see mayor-council government). The Mayor-Council government system sometimes called the Mayor-Commission government system is one of two variations of Government used for the most part in modern The system is also used in the Republic of Ireland, both for city councils and county councils. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. A city council is a form of Local government, usually covering a City or other Urban area, such as a Town. A County council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a County.
In the council-manager form of government, an elected city council (typically between five and 11 people) is responsible for making policy, passing ordinances, voting appropriations, and having overall supervisory authority in the city government. A policy is a deliberate plan of action to guide decisions and achieve rational outcome(s In such a government, the mayor (or equivalent executive) will perform strictly ceremonial duties or will act as a member and presiding officer of the council, similar to a chairman. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. The council will appoint a city manager or administrator who will be responsible for supervising government operations and implementing the policies adopted by the council. A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a City, in a council-manager form of city government The manager serves the council, usually with a contract that specifies duties and responsibilities. A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law Ideally, the manager is apolitical, but this is often difficult. Technocracy: A form of government in which scientists and technical experts are in control "technocracy is described as that society in which those who govern justify themselves
Municipal governments are usually administratively divided into several departments, depending on the size of the city. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or Though cities differ in the division of responsibility, the typical arrangement is to have the following departments handle the following roles:
The council-manager system can be seen to place all power into the hands of the legislative branch. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation However, a city manager can be seen as a similar role to that of corporate chief executive officer (CEO) in providing professional management to an organization. A chief executive officer ( CEO) or chief executive is typically the highest-ranking corporate officer ( executive) or administrator Council-manager government is much like a publicly-traded corporation. A public company usually refers to a company that is permitted to offer its registered securities ( Stock, bonds, etc In a corporation, the board of directors appoints a CEO, makes major decisions and wields representative power on behalf of shareholders. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business In council-manager government, the city council appoints a city manager, makes major decisions, and wields representative power on behalf of the citizens.
The International City/County Management Association (ICMA) is a professional organization for city managers. A professional body or professional organization also known as a professional association or professional society is an organization usually Non-profit, that exists It was founded in 1914, and has more than 8000 members worldwide.
In New England, where municipal government is often invested in an incorporated town, the city manager may be called town manager, and the council can often be referred to its traditional name of board of selectmen. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the A town is a type of settlement ranging from a few to several thousand (occasionally hundreds of thousands inhabitants although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan The Board of Selectmen is commonly the executive arm of Town Governments in the New England region of the United States.
Sumter, South Carolina has the distinction of being the first city in the United States to successfully implement this form of government, known as council-manager government.
The progressive-inspired city-manager system of government was designed to remove politics from municipal administration.
Following the turmoil of the first world war 1914-1918, 1916 rising, Irish War of Independence 1919-1921 and Irish Civil War 1921-1923. The Irish War of Independence (or Tan War, or Anglo-Irish War, Irish: Cogadh na Saoirse) from January 1919 to July 1921 was a guerrilla The Irish Civil War ( June 28 1922 &ndash May 24 1923) pitted supporters of the Anglo-Irish Treaty against its opponents The Irish Government found it necessary to remove the members of several local authorities and replace them temporarily by paid commissioners.
Both Dublin and Cork city councils were so removed . In both cities there was a body of opinion that the services provided by the councils were delivered more efficiently and fairly under the commissioners that under the previous system where the executive function was in effect vested in the Councils and their committees.
In 1926 a committee of commercial and industrial interests in Cork came together to consider a scheme of city government and having regard to the city's experience of commissioners and recent experience in the United states a council-manager plan of city government woas proposed. After discussion between the Minister for Local Government and local representatives, the Minister, Richard Mulcahy, introduced as a Government measure The Cork City Management Bill, 1929 and it became law despite opposition. The Minister proposed and the Oireachtas enacted similar provision for Dublin City in 1930. Similar laws were passed for Limerick in 1934 and Waterford in 1939 under the Fianna Fáil Government
Under the County (Management) Act, 1940, which was brought into operation in August 1942 A County Manager is manager of every borough or town in that county but has since the 1990s has power to delegate these functions to any officer of thet Borough or Town Council
The system was also modified in subsequent legislation particularly The City and County Management (Amendment) Act, 1955, which made some adjustments to give greater power to the council members and the Local Government (reorganization act)1985 which provided for the Council- manager system in Galway City on its being detached for Local Government purposes from Galway County
Note the above acts are now replaced (in substantially the same form) by the Local Government Act 2001