Cotton is a soft, staple fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant (Gossypium sp. Fiber or fibre is a class of Materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces similar to lengths of thread. For information on cotton production industry history and applications see Cotton. ), a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, India and Africa. A shrub or Bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of Woody plant, distinguished from a Tree The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The fiber most often is spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile, which is the most widely used natural-fiber cloth in clothing today. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. The English name which began to be used circa 1400, derives from the Arabic (al) qutn قُطْن, meaning cotton. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language  In the 1800s and 1900s cotton was called "King Cotton" because of the great power it had in the economy.
Cotton fiber, once it has been processed to remove seeds (ginning) and traces of honeydew (a secretion from aphids), protein, vegetable matter, and other impurities, consists of nearly pure cellulose, a natural polymer. Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 A polymer is a large Molecule ( Macromolecule) composed of repeating Structural units typically connected by Covalent Chemical bonds Cotton production is very efficient, in the sense that only ten percent or less of the weight is lost in subsequent processing to convert the raw cotton bolls (seed cases) into pure fiber. The cellulose is arranged in a way that gives cotton fibers a high degree of strength, durability, and absorbency. Each fiber is made up of twenty to thirty layers of cellulose coiled in a neat series of natural springs. When the cotton boll is opened, the fibers dry into flat, twisted, ribbon-like shapes and become kinked together and interlocked. This interlocked form is ideal for spinning into a fine yarn. Spinning is an ancient textile art in which plant, animal or synthetic Fibers are twisted together to form Yarn (or thread This article is about the fiber product For the type of joke see Shaggy dog story.
As of 2007, the ten largest producers of cotton in the world are (1) China, (2) India, (3) the United States, (4) Pakistan, (5) Brazil, (6) Uzbekistan, (7) Turkey, (8) Greece, (9) Turkmenistan, and (10) Syria. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Turkmenistan ( Türkmenistan; also known as Turkmenia) is a Turkic country in Central Asia. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية 
The five leading exporters of cotton are (1) the United States, (2) Uzbekistan, (3) India, (4) Brazil, and (5) Burkina Faso. In Economics, an export is any good or Commodity, Transported from one country to another country in a Legitimate fashion The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Burkina Faso (bɚˌkiːnəˈfɑːsoʊ burr-KEE-na FAH-soh) also known by its short-form name Burkina, is a Landlocked nation in West Africa The largest non-producing importers are Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thailand, Russia, and Taiwan. In Economics, an import is any good (eg a Commodity) or Service brought into one country from another country in a legitimate fashion ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia.
In India, the states of Maharashtra (26. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Maharashtra ( Marathi: mahārāṣṭra, IPA) is a state located on the western coast of India. 63 %), Gujarat (17. Gujarat (ગુજરાત Gujǎrāt, pronounced) is a state in western India. 96 %) and Andhra Pradesh (13. 75 %) are the leading cotton producing states , these states have a predominantly tropical wet and dry climate. In the United States, the state of Texas leads in total production while the state of California has the highest yield per acre in the world. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. In Agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output" is not only a measure of the Yield of cereal per unit area of land under cultivation
Successful cultivation of cotton requires a long frost-free period, plenty of sunshine, and a moderate rainfall, usually from 600 to 1200mm (24 to 48 inches). Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Frost is the solid deposition of Water vapor from saturated air Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. Soils usually need to be fairly heavy, although the level of nutrients does not need to be exceptional. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel A nutrient is food or chemicals that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organism's metabolism which must be taken in from its environment In general, these conditions are met within the seasonally dry tropics and subtropics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, but a large proportion of the cotton grown today is cultivated in areas with less rainfall that obtain the water from irrigation. Production of the crop for a given year usually starts soon after harvesting the preceding autumn. Planting time in spring in the Northern hemisphere varies from the beginning of February to the beginning of June. The area of the United States known as the South Plains is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The South Plains is a region in West Texas comprising the area north of the Caprock Escarpment on the Llano Estacado, and extending north into the It is heavily dependent on irrigation water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer. Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops The Ogallala Aquifer, also known as the High Plains Aquifer, is a vast yet shallow underground Water table Aquifer located beneath the Great Plains
Cotton is a thirsty crop, and as water resources get tighter around the world, economies that rely on it face difficulties and conflict, as well as potential environmental problems. Water resources are sources of Water that are useful or potentially useful to Humans Uses of water include Agricultural, industrial, Household For example, cotton has led to desertification in areas of Uzbekistan, where it is a major export. Desertification is the degradation of land in arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting primarily from human activities and influenced by climatic variations Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly In the days of the Soviet Union, the Aral Sea was tapped for agricultural irrigation, largely of cotton, and now salination is widespread. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Aral Sea ( Kazakh: Арал Теңізі Aral Tengizi, Orol dengizi Russian: Аральскοе мοре Tajik / Persian: Daryocha-i Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil Salt affected soils are caused by excess accumulation of salts typically most pronounced at the soil surface
Genetically modified (GM) cotton was developed to reduce the heavy reliance on pesticides. Genetic engineering, Recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct Genetically modified cotton is widely used throughout the world with claims of requiring up to 80% less pesticide than ordinary cotton as typically grown commercially. A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. However, researchers have recently published the first documented case of in-field pest resistance to GM cotton.  The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA) said that, worldwide, GM cotton was planted on an area of 67,000 km² in 2002. This is 20% of the worldwide total area planted in cotton. The U. S. cotton crop was 73% GM in 2003.
The initial introduction of GM cotton proved to be a commercial and ecological disaster in Australia - the yields were far lower than predicted, and the cotton plants were cross-pollinated with other varieties of cotton. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. However, the introduction of a second variety of GM cotton led to 15% of Australian cotton being GM in 2003. 80% of the crop was genetically modified in 2004, when the original GM variety was banned.
GM cotton acreage in India continues to grow at a rapid rate increasing from 50,000 hectares in 2002 to 3. 8 million hectares in 2006. The total cotton area in India is about 9. 0 million hectares (the largest in the world or, about 25% of world cotton area) so GM cotton is now grown on 42% of the cotton area. This makes India the country with the largest area of GM cotton in the world, surpassing China (3. 5 million hectares in 2006). The major reasons for this increase is a combination of increased farm income ($225/ha) and a reduction in pesticide use to control the Cotton Bollworm.
Evidence of the use of cotton in the form of thread has been found in Pakistan, dating to about 6,000 B. " Jehan de Mandeville " translated as " Sir John Mandeville " is the name claimed by the compiler of a singular book of supposed travels written in Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and P. , although it is not clear whether the thread derived from cultivation or from wild cotton. Cultivation was underway by the time of the Harappan civilization, which was exporting cotton to Mesopotamia during the 3rd millennium BC. The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding  Cotton was soon known to the Egyptians (although linen was their primary fiber source) as well as becoming a prized trading item from Nubia and Meroë. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Linen is a Textile made from the Fibers of the Flax plant Linum usitatissimum. This article is about the region in Africa for other uses see Nubia (disambiguation. Meroë ( Meroitic: Medewi or Bedewi; Arabic: ar مرواه ar-Latn Meruwah) is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the The famous Greek historian Herodotus also wrote about Indian cotton: "There are trees which grow wild there, the fruit of which is a wool exceeding in beauty and goodness that of sheep. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species The Indians make their clothes of this tree wool. " (Book III. 106)
According to the The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition:
"Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Hundreds of years before the Christian era cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In the 1st cent. Arab traders brought fine muslin and calico to Italy and Spain. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Moors introduced the cultivation of cotton into Spain in the 9th cent. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Fustians and dimities were woven there and in the 14th cent. in Venice and Milan, at first with a linen warp. Little cotton cloth was imported to England before the 15th cent. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland , although small amounts were obtained chiefly for candlewicks. By the 17th cent. the East India Company was bringing rare fabrics from India. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Native Americans skillfully spun and wove cotton into fine garments and dyed tapestries. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Cotton fabrics found in Peruvian tombs are said to belong to a pre-Inca culture. In color and texture the ancient Peruvian and Mexican textiles resemble those found in Egyptian tombs. "
The earliest cultivation of cotton discovered thus far in the Americas occurred in Mexico, some 5,000 years ago. The indigenous species was Gossypium hirsutum which is today the most widely planted species of cotton in the world, constituting about 90% of all production worldwide. Gossypium hirsutum, known as Upland Cotton or Mexican Cotton, is the most widely planted species of cotton in the United States constituting The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. 
In Peru, cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures such as the Norte Chico, Moche and Nazca. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Pima cotton ( Gossypium barbadense) also known as Extra Long Staple South American Creole Sea Island cotton Egyptian Algodon pais and West Indische katoen The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization) was a complex Pre-Columbian society that included as many as 30 major population centers The Moche civilization (alternately the Mochica culture Early Chimu Pre-Chimu Proto-Chimu etc For the archaeological site see Nazca Lines. For the culture it belonged to see Nazca culture. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets and traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish. The Spanish who came to Mexico in the early 1500s found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
During the late medieval period, cotton became known as an imported fiber in northern Europe, without any knowledge of how it was derived, other than that it was a plant; noting its similarities to wool, people in the region could only imagine that cotton must be produced by plant-borne sheep. International trade is exchange of Capital, Goods, and Services across International borders or Territories. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. John Mandeville, writing in 1350, stated as fact the now-preposterous belief: "There grew there [India] a wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the endes of its branches. " Jehan de Mandeville " translated as " Sir John Mandeville " is the name claimed by the compiler of a singular book of supposed travels written in These branches were so pliable that they bent down to allow the lambs to feed when they are hungrie. " (See Vegetable Lamb of Tartary. The Vegetable Lamb of Tartary ( Latin: Agnus scythicus or Planta Tartarica Barometz) is a semi- Legendary plant of central Asia ) This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in many European languages, such as German Baumwolle, which translates as "tree wool" (Baum means "tree"; Wolle means "wool"). The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. By the end of the 16th century, cotton was cultivated throughout the warmer regions in Asia and the Americas. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America
India's cotton-processing sector gradually declined during British expansion in India and the establishment of colonial rule during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The Vegetable Lamb of Tartary ( Latin: Agnus scythicus or Planta Tartarica Barometz) is a semi- Legendary plant of central Asia The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British This was largely due to the East India Company's de-industrialization of India, which forced the closing of cotton processing and manufacturing workshops in India, to ensure that Indian markets supplied only raw materials and were obliged to purchase manufactured textiles from Britain. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or
The advent of the Industrial Revolution in Britain provided a great boost to cotton manufacture, as textiles emerged as Britain's leading export. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the In 1738 Lewis Paul and John Wyatt, of Birmingham England, patented the Roller Spinning machine, and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing cotton to a more even thickness using two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds. Year 1738 ( MDCCXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Lewis Paul (d 1759 was the original inventor of roller spinning the basis of the Water frame for spinning Cotton in a Cotton mill. John Franklin Wyatt jr ( April 19, 1935 – April 6, 1998) was a Relief pitcher in Major League Baseball Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um Later, the invention of the spinning jenny in 1764 and Richard Arkwright's spinning frame (based on the Roller Spinning Machine) in 1769 enabled British weavers to produce cotton yarn and cloth at much higher rates. The spinning jenny is a multi- Spool Spinning wheel. It was invented circa 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, near Blackburn Year 1764 ( MDCCLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Sir Richard Arkwright ( Old Style 23 December 1732 / New Style 3 January 1733 – 3 August The spinning frame was an Invention developed during the 18th century British Industrial Revolution. Year 1769 ( MDCCLXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a From the late eighteenth century onwards, the British city of Manchester acquired the nickname "cottonopolis" due to the cotton industry's omnipresence within the city, and Manchester's role as the heart of the global cotton trade. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Cottonopolis is a name given to the city of Manchester, in England. Production capacity was further improved by the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793. A Cotton Gin' (short for cotton engine) is a machine that quickly and easily separates the Cotton fibers from the seedpods and the sometimes sticky seeds a job Year 1793 ( MDCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Improving technology and increasing control of world markets allowed British traders to develop a commercial chain in which raw cotton fibers were (at first) purchased from colonial plantations, processed into cotton cloth in the mills of Lancashire, and then re-exported on British ships to captive colonial markets in West Africa, India, and China (via Shanghai and Hong Kong). A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea British West Africa was the collective name for British colonies in West Africa during the Colonial period, either in the general geographical sense or For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders
By the 1840s, India was no longer capable of supplying the vast quantities of cotton fibers needed by mechanised British factories, while shipping bulky, low-price cotton from India to Britain was time-consuming and expensive. Year 1840 ( MDCCCXL) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year This, coupled with the emergence of American cotton as a superior type (due to the longer, stronger fibers of the two domesticated native American species, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense), encouraged British traders to purchase cotton from plantations in the United States and the Caribbean. Gossypium hirsutum, known as Upland Cotton or Mexican Cotton, is the most widely planted species of cotton in the United States constituting Pima cotton ( Gossypium barbadense) also known as Extra Long Staple South American Creole Sea Island cotton Egyptian Algodon pais and West Indische katoen The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting This was also much cheaper as it was produced by unpaid slaves. Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth By the mid 19th century, "King Cotton" had become the backbone of the southern American economy. King Cotton was a Phrase used in the Southern United States mainly by Southern Politicians and authors who wanted to illustrate the importance of the In the United States, cultivating and harvesting cotton became the leading occupation of slaves. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth
During the American Civil War, American cotton exports slumped due to a Union blockade on Southern ports, also because of a strategic decision by the Confederate Government to cut exports, hoping to force Britain to recognize the Confederacy or enter the war, prompting the main purchasers of cotton, Britain and France, to turn to Egyptian cotton. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies Troops information or aid from reaching an opposing force The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. British and French traders invested heavily in cotton plantations and the Egyptian government of Viceroy Isma'il took out substantial loans from European bankers and stock exchanges. Isma'il Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent (إسماعيل باشا ( December 31, 1830 &ndash March 2, 1895) was Wāli After the American Civil War ended in 1865, British and French traders abandoned Egyptian cotton and returned to cheap American exports, sending Egypt into a deficit spiral that led to the country declaring bankruptcy in 1876, a key factor behind Egypt's annexation by the British Empire in 1882. A budget deficit occurs when an Entity (often a Government) spends more Money than it takes in Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against Year 1876 ( MDCCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
During this time cotton cultivation in the British Empire, especially India, greatly increased to replace the lost production of the American South. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Through tariffs and other restrictions the British government discouraged the production of cotton cloth in India; rather the raw fiber was sent to England for processing. The Indian patriot Gandhi described the process:
In the United States, Southern cotton provided capital for the continuing development of the North. The " Trusty system " was a strict system of discipline and security made compulsory under Mississippi state law as the method of controlling and working inmates at The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The cotton produced by enslaved African Americans, not only helped the South, but also enriched northern merchants. Much of the southern cotton were transhipped through the northern ports. Profits from the cotton shipping provided some of the funds for the Francis Cabot Lowell's Lowell Mills. In another example, a merchant named Anson Phelps invested his profits from cotton shipping into iron mines in Pennsylvania and metalworks in Connecticut. Much of the development of northern industry was made possible by the cotton provided by the enslaved African Americans of the South. It also fostered the market revolution.
Cotton remained a key crop in the southern economy after emancipation and the end of the civil war in 1865. The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Across the South, sharecropping evolved, in which free black farmers worked on white-owned cotton plantations in return for a share of the profits. Sharecropping is a system of agriculture or agricultural production in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land (e Cotton plantations required vast labor forces to hand-pick cotton fibers, and it was not until the 1950s that reliable harvesting machinery was introduced into the South (prior to this, cotton-harvesting machinery had been too clumsy to pick cotton without shredding the fibers). During the early twentieth century, employment in the cotton industry fell as machines began to replace laborers, and as the South's rural labor force dwindled during the First and Second World Wars. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Today, cotton remains a major export of the southern United States, and a majority of the world's annual cotton crop is of the long-staple American variety. 
The cotton industry relies heavily on chemicals such as fertilizers and insecticides, although a very small number of farmers are moving toward an organic model of production and organic cotton products are now available for purchase at limited locations. This article is a list of diseases of Cotton ( Gossypium spp Bacterial diseases Fungal diseases Cercosporella Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant An insecticide is a Pesticide used against Insects in all developmental forms Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on Crop rotation, Green manure, Compost, Biological pest control, and mechanical Cultivation These are popular for baby clothes and diapers. "Nappy" redirects here For other uses see Nappy (disambiguation and Diaper (disambiguation. Under most definitions, organic products do not use genetic engineering. Genetic engineering, Recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct
Historically, in North America, one of the most economically destructive pests in cotton production has been the boll weevil. The boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis) is a Beetle measuring an average length of six Millimeters which feeds on Cotton buds and flowers Due to the US Department of Agriculture's highly successful Boll Weevil Eradication Program (BWEP), this pest has been eliminated from cotton in most of the United States. The Boll Weevil Eradication Program is a program sponsored by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA that has sought to eradicate the Boll weevil in the This program, along with the introduction of genetically engineered "Bt cotton" (which contains a bacteria gene that codes for a plant-produced protein that is toxic to a number of pests such as tobacco budworm, cotton bollworm, and pink bollworm), has allowed a reduction in the use of synthetic insecticides. Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil dwelling Bacterium of the Genus Bacillus.
Most cotton in the United States, Europe, and Australia is harvested mechanically, either by a cotton picker, a machine that removes the cotton from the boll without damaging the cotton plant, or by a cotton stripper, which strips the entire boll off the plant. The mechanical cotton picker is a Machine that automates Cotton Harvesting It was first invented in the 1920s but was not made practical until the Cotton strippers are used in regions where it is too windy to grow picker varieties of cotton, and usually after application of a chemical defoliant or the natural defoliation that occurs after a freeze. A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause its leaves to fall off Cotton is a perennial crop in the tropics and without defoliation or freezing, the plant will continue to grow.
Cotton continues to be picked by hand in developing countries such as Uzbekistan. Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly 
The era of manufactured fibers began with the development of rayon in France in the 1890s. Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic Fiber. Rayon is produced from naturally occurring Polymers and therefore it is not a truly Rayon is derived from a natural cellulose and can not be considered synthetic, but is requires extensive processing in a manufacturing process and led the less expensive replacement of more naturally derived materials. A succession of new synthetic fibers were introduced by the chemicals industry in the following decades. Acetate in fiber form was developed in 1924. An acetate, or ethanoate, is either a salt or Ester of Acetic acid. Nylon the first fiber synthesized entirely from petrochemicals, was introduced as a sewing thread by DuPont in 1936, followed by Dupont's acrylic in 1944. Overview Nylon is a Thermoplastic silky material first used commercially in a nylon- Bristled Toothbrush (1938 followed more famously by Acrylic fibers are Synthetic fibers made from a polymer ( Polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100000 Some garments were created from fabrics based on these fibers, such as women's hosiery from nylon, but it was not until the introduction of polyester into the fiber marketplace in the early 1950s that the market for cotton came under threat. Hosiery is knitted coverings for the legs and feet Also referred to as legwear hosiery describes garments worn directly on the feet and Legs The term Polyester is a category of Polymers which contain the Ester Functional group in their main chain  The rapid uptake of polyester garments in the 1960s caused economic hardship in cotton exporting economies, especially in Central American countries such as Nicaragua where cotton production had boomed tenfold between 1950 and 1965 with the advent of cheap chemical pesticides. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America Cotton production recovered in the 1970s, but crashed to pre-1960 levels in the early 1990s. 
Beginning as a self-help program in the mid-1960s, the Cotton Research & Promotion Program was organized by U. S. cotton producers in response to cotton's steady decline in market share. At that time, producers voted to set up a per-bale assessment system to fund the program, with built-in safeguards to protect their investments. With the passage of the Cotton Research & Promotion Act of 1966, the program joined forces and began battling synthetic competitors and re-establishing markets for cotton. Today, the success of this program has made cotton the best-selling fiber in the U. S. and one of the best-selling fibers in the world.
Administered by the Cotton Board and conducted by Cotton Incorporated, the Cotton Research & Promotion Program works to greatly increase the demand for and profitability of cotton through various research and promotion activities. It is funded by U. S. cotton producers and importers.
Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. These include terrycloth, used to make highly absorbent bath towels and robes; denim, used to make blue jeans; chambray, popularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts (from which we get the term "blue-collar"); and corduroy, seersucker, and cotton twill. Terrycloth, terry cloth, terry towelling, terry, or simply towelling is a fabric with loops that can absorb large amounts of A towel is a piece of absorbent fabric or Paper used for drying or wiping A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment. A robe is distinguished from a Cape or Cloak by the fact that it usually has Sleeves The English Denim is a rugged Cotton Twill Textile, in which the Weft passes under two ( twi- "double" or more warp fibers Jeans are Trousers made from Denim. Mainly designed for work, they became popular among Teenagers starting in the 1950s. Cambric or chambray is a lightweight Cotton cloth used as fabric for Lace and Needlework. Corduroy is a Textile composed of twisted fibers that when woven lie parallel (similar to Twill) to one another to form the cloth's distinct pattern a "cord Seersucker is a thin all- Cotton fabric, commonly striped used to make clothing for spring and summer wear Twill is a type of fabric woven with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs Socks, underwear, and most T-shirts are made from cotton. A sock is a knitted or Woven type of Hosiery garment for enclosing the human foot Undergarments are clothes worn under other clothes often next to the skin A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a Shirt which is pulled on over the head to cover most of a person's Torso. Bed sheets often are made from cotton. Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting. Crochet (kroʊˈʃeɪ is a process of creating fabric from Yarn or thread using a Crochet hook. "Knit" redirects here See also KNIT and Knitted fabric. Fabric also can be made from recycled or recovered cotton that otherwise would be thrown away during the spinning, weaving, or cutting process. While many fabrics are made completely of cotton, some materials blend cotton with other fibers, including rayon and synthetic fibers such as polyester. Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic Fiber. Rayon is produced from naturally occurring Polymers and therefore it is not a truly Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by Scientists to improve upon naturally occurring Animal and plant Polyester is a category of Polymers which contain the Ester Functional group in their main chain
In addition to the textile industry, cotton is used in fishnets, coffee filters, tents, gunpowder (see Nitrocellulose), cotton paper, and in bookbinding. The Textile industry (also known in the United Kingdom and Australia as the Rag Trade) is a term used for industries primarily concerned with the design In the field of Textiles, fishnet is a material with an open diamond shaped Knit. A coffee filter is a Coffee -brewing utensil, usually made of disposable paper but recently Stainless steel. A tent is a shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over or attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes Nitrocellulose (also cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by Nitrating Cellulose through exposure to Cotton paper is made from 100% Cotton fibers Cotton paper is superior in both strength and durability to wood pulp-based Papers which may contain high concentrations Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a Book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of Paper or other material The first Chinese paper was made of cotton fiber. Papermaking is the process of making Paper, a material which is used ubiquitously today for writing and packaging Fire hoses were once made of cotton.
The cottonseed which remains after the cotton is ginned is used to produce cottonseed oil, which, after refining, can be consumed by humans like any other vegetable oil. Cottonseed oil is a Vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the Cotton plant after the Cotton has been removed The cottonseed meal that is left generally is fed to livestock. Cottonseed meal is the Byproduct remaining after Cotton is ginned and the seeds crushed and the oil extracted During slavery, cotton root bark was used as an abortifacient, that is, a folk remedy to provoke abortion. An abortifacient is a substance that induces Abortion. Abortifacients for Animals that have mated undesirably are known as Mismating shots A home remedy is a treatment to cure a Disease or ailment that employs certain spices vegetables or other common items
Cotton linters are fine, silky fibers which adhere to the seeds of the cotton plant after ginning. These curly fibers typically are less than 1/8 in, 3mm, long. The term also may apply to the longer textile fiber staple lint as well as the shorter fuzzy fibers from some upland species. Linters are traditionally used in the manufacture of paper and as a raw material in the manufacture of cellulose. Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4
Shiny cotton is a processed version of the fiber that can be made into cloth resembling satin for shirts and suits. Satin is a Cloth that typically has a glossy surface and a dull back However, its hydrophobic property of not easily taking up water makes it unfit for the purpose of bath and dish towels (although examples of these made from shiny cotton are seen).
The term Egyptian cotton refers to the extra long staple cotton grown in Egypt and favored for the luxury and upmarket brands worldwide. During the U. S. Civil War, with heavy European investments, Egyptian-grown cotton became a major alternate source for British textile mills. Egyptian cotton is more durable and softer than American Pima cotton, which is why it is more expensive. Pima cotton is American cotton that is grown in the south western states of the U. S.
In South Asia, cotton is widely used in mattresses, which are the most common type of mattress used in that region.
The United States, with sales of $4. 9 billion, and Africa, with sales of $2. 1 billion, are the largest exporters of raw cotton. Total international trade is $12 billion. Africa's share of the cotton trade has doubled since 1980. Neither area has a significant domestic textile industry, textile manufacturing having moved to developing nations in Eastern and South Asia such as India and China. In Africa cotton is grown by numerous small holders. Dunavant Enterprises, based in Memphis, Tennessee, is the leading cotton broker in Africa with hundreds of purchasing agents. Memphis is a City in the southwest corner of Tennessee, and the County seat of Shelby County. It operates cotton gins in Uganda, Mozambique, and Zambia. A Cotton Gin' (short for cotton engine) is a machine that quickly and easily separates the Cotton fibers from the seedpods and the sometimes sticky seeds a job In Zambia it often offers loans for seed and expenses to the 180,000 small farmers who grow cotton for it, as well as advice on farming methods. Cargill also purchases cotton in Africa for export. Cargill Incorporated is a privately held, Multinational corporation, and is based in the state of Minnesota in the United States.
The 25,000 cotton growers in the United States are heavily subsidized at the rate of $2 billion per year. In Economics, a subsidy (also known as a subvention is a form of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector The future of these subsidies is uncertain and has led to anticipatory expansion of cotton brokers' operations in Africa. Dunavant expanded in Africa by buying out local operations. This is only possible in former British colonies and Mozambique; former French colonies continue to maintain tight monopolies, inherited from their former colonialist masters, on cotton purchases at low fixed prices. 
Cotton is an enormously important commodity throughout the world. Fair trade is an organized Social movement and market-based approach to empowering developing country producers and promoting sustainability However, many farmers in developing countries receive a low price for their produce, or find it difficult to compete with developed countries.
This has led to an international dispute:
On 27 September 2002 Brazil requested consultations with the US regarding prohibited and actionable subsidies provided to US producers, users and/or exporters of upland cotton, as well as legislation, regulations, statutory instruments and amendments thereto providing such subsidies (including export credits), grants, and any other assistance to the US producers, users and exporters of upland cotton. Gossypium hirsutum, known as Upland Cotton or Mexican Cotton, is the most widely planted species of cotton in the United States constituting In Economics, a subsidy (also known as a subvention is a form of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector 
On 8 September 2004, the Panel Report recommended that the United States "withdraw" export credit guarantees and payments to domestic user and exporters, and "take appropriate steps to remove the adverse effects or withdraw" the mandatory price-contingent subsidy measures. Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " 
In addition to concerns over subsidies, the cotton industries of some countries are criticized for employing child labor and damaging workers' health by exposure to pesticides used in production. For example, cotton production in Uzbekistan has been described as one of the most exploitative industries in the world. Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly  The international production and trade situation has led to 'fair trade' cotton clothing and footwear, joining a rapidly growing market for organic clothing, fair fashion or so-called 'ethical fashion'. Fair trade is an organized Social movement and market-based approach to empowering developing country producers and promoting sustainability The fair trade system was initiated in 2005 with producers from Cameroon, Mali and Senegal. The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central and western Africa. Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali is a Landlocked nation in Western Africa. Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. 
Organic cotton is cotton that is grown without insecticide or pesticide. Organic cotton is Cotton that is grown without Pesticides from plants which are not genetically modified. Worldwide, cotton is a pesticide-intensive crop, using approximately 25% of the world's insecticides and 10% of the world's pesticides.  According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 20,000 deaths occur each year from pesticide poisoning in developing countries, many of these from cotton farming. Organic agriculture uses methods that are ecological, economical, and socially sustainable and denies the use of agrochemicals and artificial fertilizers. Instead, organic agriculture uses crop rotation, the growing of different crops than cotton in alternative years. The use of insecticides is prohibited; organic agriculture uses natural enemies to suppress harmful insects. The production of organic cotton is more expensive than the production of conventional cotton. Although toxic pollution from synthetic chemicals is eliminated, other pollution-like problems may remain, particularly run-off. Organic cotton is produced in organic agricultural systems that produce food and fiber according to clearly established standards. Organic agriculture prohibits the use of toxic and persistent chemical pesticides and fertilizers, as well as genetically modified organisms. It seeks to build biologically diverse agricultural systems, replenish and maintain soil fertility, and promote a healthy environment.
Cotton dries out, becomes hard and brittle and loses all elasticity at temperatures above 25°C (77°F). The fire point of a Fuel is the temperature at which it will continue to burn after ignition for at least 5 seconds The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere without an external The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere without an external Extended exposure to light causes similar problems.
A temperature range of 25 °C (77 °F) to 35 °C (95°F) is the optimal range for mold development. At temperatures below 0°C (32 °F), rotting of wet cotton stops. Damaged cotton is sometimes stored at these temperatures to prevent further deterioration. 
|Shape||Fairly uniform in width, 12-20 micrometers; length varies from 1 cm to 6 cm (½ to 2½ inches); typical length is 2. 2 cm to 3. 2 cm (8 ⅞ to 1¼ inches).|
3. 0-5. 0 g/d
3. 3-6. 0 g/d
|Density||1. 54-1. 56 g/cm³|
8. 5-10. 3%
damage, weaken fibers
resistant; no harmful effects
high resistance to most
Prolonged exposure weakens fibers.
Mildew and rot-producing bacteria damage fibers.
Silverfish damage fibers.
|Decomposes after prolonged exposure to temperatures of 150˚C or over. |