|República de Costa Rica|
Republic of Costa Rica
|Anthem: Noble patria, tu hermosa bandera (Spanish)|
"Noble homeland, your beautiful flag"
(and largest city)
|-||Vice President||Laura Chinchilla|
|-||from Spain (via Guatemala)||September 15, 1821|
|-||from the UPCA||1838|
|-||Total||51,100 km² (128th)|
19,730 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||0. The Flag of Costa Rica was officially adopted on November 27, 1906. The Coat of Arms of Costa Rica depicts an essential simplification of the nation A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's "Himno Nacional de Costa Rica" ( Spanish language, Costa Rican National Anthem is the National anthem of Costa Rica. In 2005 Costa Rica had an estimated population of 4016173 persons San José ( Spanish: San José; ˌsɑːn hɒˈsɛː is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica, and is at the heart of the sprawling Gran Area Metropolitana An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. History In ancient times history of India Greece, and Rome had governments similar to constitutional democracies A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature The following table contains a list of the Presidents and heads of state of Costa Rica since Central American independence from Spain and Óscar Rafael de Jesús Arias Sánchez (born 13 September 1940) is the current President of Costa Rica, and won the Nobel Peace Prize __FORCETOC__ For the Vice President of the United States, their roles and other information see Vice President of the United States. __FORCETOC__ For the Vice President of the United States, their roles and other information see Vice President of the United States. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest Events 668 - Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II is assassinated in his bath at Syracuse Italy. Year 1821 ( MDCCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year The Federal Republic of Central America, also known as the United Central Provinces of America, was a short-lived American State in Central America Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions  Areas between 10000 km² and 100000 km² are listed here This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 7|
|-||July 2007 estimate||4,133,884 (119th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2006 estimate|
|-||Total||$56. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 777 billion (84th)|
|-||Per capita||$12,000 (62nd)|
|Gini (2001)||49. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 9 (high)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 846 (high) (48th)|
|Currency||Costa Rican colón (|
Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica (Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica, Spanish pronunciation: [reˈpuβlika ðe ˈkosta ˈrika]), is a republic in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the east-southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea to the east. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is Colón was also the name of El Salvador 's currency until 2001 ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions For the region see Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea (kəˈrɪbiən or /ˌkærɨˈbiːən/ is a tropical Sea in the Western Hemisphere Costa Rica was the first country in the world to constitutionally abolish its army. On December 1, 1948, President José Figueres Ferrer of Costa Rica abolished the country's army after victory in the civil war in  Among Latin American countries, Costa Rica ranks 4th in terms of the 2007 Human Development Index, and 48th worldwide. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP  Costa Rica is ranked 5th in the world in terms of the 2008 Environmental Performance Index, up from the 15th place in 2006. The Environmental Performance Index (EPI is a method of quantifying and numerically benchmarking the environmental performance of a country's policies  In 2007 the government of Costa Rica stated that they want to be the first country to become carbon neutral by 2021. Being carbon neutral, or carbon neutrality, refers to achieving net zero carbon emissions by balancing a measured amount of carbon released with an equivalent amount sequestered 
In Pre-Columbian times the indigenous people, in what is now known as Costa Rica, were part of the international Intermediate Area located between the Mesoamerican and Andean cultural regions. In Pre-Columbian times the Native Americans in what is now Costa Rica were part of a cultural complex known as the "Intermediate Area" between the Mesoamerican The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. The Intermediate Area is an archaeological Geographical area of The Americas that was defined in its clearest form by Gordon R Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Mesoamérica is a Region extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, defined The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. This has recently been updated to include the influence of the Isthmo-Colombian area. The Isthmo-Colombian area (a portion of what has previously been termed the Intermediate Area) was defined in a chapter by John W It was the point where the Mesoamerican and South American native cultures met.
The northwest of the country, the Nicoya Peninsula, was the southernmost point of Nahuatl (named after Nitin) cultural influence when the Spanish conquerors (conquistadores) came in the sixteenth century. The Nicoya Peninsula (Península de Nicoya is a Peninsula on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and lies in the Guanacaste Province in the Nahuatl ( is a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan or Nahuan branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador The central and southern portions of the country had Chibcha influences. Chibcha, also known as Muisca or Mosca, is "officially" an extinct Chibchan language of Colombia, formerly spoken by However, the indigenous people have influenced modern Costa Rican culture to a relatively small degree, as most of these died from diseases such as smallpox and mistreatment by the Spaniards. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor.
The first European to reach what is now Costa Rica was Christopher Columbus in 1502. Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer  During Spanish Colonial times, the principal city in Central America was Guatemala City. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries Guatemala City (in full La Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción; locally known as Guatemala or Guate) is the Capital and largest city of the Costa Rica's distance from this hub led to difficulty in establishing trade routes and was one of the reasons that Costa Ricans developed in relative isolation and with little oversight from the Spanish Monarchy ("The Crown"). This is a list of Spanish Monarchs &mdashthat is rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word While this isolation allowed the colony to develop free of intervention by The Crown, it also contributed to its failure to share in the prosperity of the Colonies, making Costa Rica the poorest Spanish Colony in Central America. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation.  Costa Rica was described as "the poorest and most miserable Spanish colony in all Americas" by a Spanish governor in 1719. 
Another contributing factor to this poverty was lack of indigenous peoples to use for forced labor. The encomienda system is a Trusteeship labor system that was employed by the Spanish crown during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the While many Spaniards in the other colonies had tribal members to work their land, most of the Costa Rican settlers had to work their own land. For all these reasons, Costa Rica was by and large unappreciated and overlooked by the Crown and left to develop on its own. Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516-1700 when this country was ruled by the Habsburg dynasty (also associated to It is believed that the circumstances during this period led to the formation of many of the idiosyncrasies that Costa Rica has become known for, while at the same time setting the stage for Costa Rica's development as a more egalitarian society than the rest of its neighbors. Costa Rica became a "rural democracy" with no oppressed mestizo or indigenous class. It was not long before Spanish settlers turned to the hills, where they found rich volcanic soil and a climate that was milder than that of the lowlands. Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of 
Costa Rica joined other Central American provinces in 1821 in a joint declaration of independence from Spain. After a brief time in the Mexican Empire of Agustín de Iturbide Costa Rica became a state in the Federal Republic of Central America from 1823 to 1839. Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu ( September 27, 1783 &ndash July 19, 1824) was Emperor of Mexico as Augustin The Federal Republic of Central America, also known as the United Central Provinces of America, was a short-lived American State in Central America In 1824 the capital was moved to San José, but due to an intense rivalry with Cartago, violence briefly ensued. San José ( Spanish: San José; ˌsɑːn hɒˈsɛː is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica, and is at the heart of the sprawling Gran Area Metropolitana Cartago is a City in Costa Rica, about 25 km (15 miles east of the capital San José. Although the newly independent provinces formed a Federation, border disputes broke out among them, adding to the region's turbulent history and conditions.
Costa Rica's membership in the newly formed Federal Republic of Central America, now free of Spanish rule, was short lived; in 1838, long after the Central American Federation ceased to function in practice, Costa Rica formally withdrew and proclaimed itself sovereign. The distance from Guatemala City to the Central Valley of Costa Rica, where most of the population lived and still lives, was great. The local population had little allegiance to the government in Guatemala City, in part because of the history of isolation during Colonial times. Costa Rica's disinterest in participating as a province in a greater Central American government was one of the deciding factors in the break-up of the fledgling federation into independent states, which still exist today. A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. However, all of the Central American nations still celebrate September 15th as their independence day, which pertains to the independence of Central America from Spain. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
Most Afro-Costa Ricans, who constitute about 3% of the country's population, descend from Jamaican immigrants who arrived during the 1880s to work in the construction of railways connecting the urban populations of the Central Plateau to the port of Limón on the Caribbean coast. Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term In the fields of Architecture and Civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the Building or assembling of Infrastructure "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Limón, also known as Puerto Limón, is the capital of Limón Province in Costa Rica.  U.S. convicts and Chinese immigrants also participated in the construction project, conducted by US businessman Minor C. Keith. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A convict is "a person found guilty of a Crime and sentenced by a court" or "a person serving a sentence in prison" sometimes referred to in Slang The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the People's Republic of China (including Hong Minor Cooper Keith ( January 19, 1848 &ndash June 14, 1929) was a U In exchange for completing the railroad, the Costa Rican government granted Keith large tracts of land and a lease on the train route, which he used to produce bananas and export them to the United States. For the fruit see Banana. For other meanings see Banana (disambiguation. As a result, bananas came to rival coffee as the principal Costa Rican export, while foreign-owned corporations (including the United Fruit Company) began to hold a major role in the national economy. In Economics, an export is any good or Commodity, Transported from one country to another country in a Legitimate fashion A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business The United Fruit Company was a major United States Corporation that traded tropical Fruit (primarily Bananas and Pineapples grown
Historically, Costa Rica has generally enjoyed greater peace and more consistent political stability compared with many of its fellow Latin American nations. Peace, in the modern usage is a concept defined by the ideal state of relationship as absence of hostility at the international level that of a War. Since the late nineteenth century, however, Costa Rica has experienced two significant periods of violence. Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes In 1917-19, Federico Tinoco Granados ruled as a dictator until he was overthrown and forced into exile. Exile means to be away from one's home (ie city state or country while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return Again in 1948, José Figueres Ferrer led an armed uprising in the wake of a disputed presidential election. José María Hipólito Figueres Ferrer ( 25 September 1906 &ndash 8 June 1990) served as President of Costa Rica With more than 2,000 dead, the resulting 44-day Costa Rica Civil War was the bloodiest event in Costa Rican history during the twentieth-century. The Costa Rican Civil War was the bloodiest event in 20th century Costa Rican history Afterwards, the new, victorious government junta, led by the opposition, abolished the military and oversaw the drafting of a new constitution by a democratically-elected assembly. A committee (some of which are titled instead as a "Commission" or other terms discussed below in) is a type of small Deliberative assembly that is usually intended Having enacted these reforms, the regime finally relinquished its power on 8 November 1949 to the new democratic government. Events 1519 - Hernán Cortés enters Tenochtitlán and Aztec ruler Moctezuma welcomes him with great a Celebration Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. After the coup d'etat, Figueres became a national hero, winning the country's first democratic election under the new constitution in 1953. Since then, Costa Rica has held 12 presidential elections, the latest being in 2006. All of them have been widely regarded by the international community as peaceful, transparent, and relatively smooth transitions.
Costa Rica is located on the Central American isthmus, 10° North of the equator and 84° West of the Prime Meridian. See also Lists of volcanoes This is a list of active and extinct Volcanoes in Costa Islands of Costa Rica Isla Calero (1516 km² Isla Brava (444 km² Isla de Chira (43 km² Isla Penitencia An isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the The Prime Meridian is the meridian (line of Longitude) at which longitude is defined to be 0° It borders both the Caribbean Sea (to the east) and the North Pacific Ocean (to the west), with a total of 1,290 kilometers (802 mi) of coastline (212 km / 132 mi on the Caribbean coast and 1,016 km / 631 mi on the Pacific). The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions It is about the size of West Virginia and shares that state's reputation for excellent whitewater kayaking/rafting opportunities. West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by
Two of the country's most renowned rivers in that regard are the Rio Pacuare and the Rio Reventazon located near the city of Turrialba about two hours east of San Jose. The Pacuare River, or the Río Pacuare, in Costa Rica has its source in the Cordillera de Talamanca and flows approximately 108 km to the Caribbean The Reventazón River or Rio Reventazón, also called the Parismina River or Rio Parismina, is a river in Costa Rica, it is 145 km long and flows Other notable whitewater areas are the Sarapiqui Valley area, several Pacific coast rivers near Quepos, and the southern Pacific drainage area around San Isidro de General.
Costa Rica also borders Nicaragua to the north (309 km / 192 mi of border) and Panama to the south-southeast (639 km / 397 mi of border). In total, Costa Rica comprises 51,100 square kilometers (19,730 sq. mi) plus 589. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 000 square kilometers of territorial waters. Territorial waters, or a territorial sea, as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most
The highest point in the country is Cerro Chirripó, at 3,810 metres (12,500 ft), and is the fifth highest peak in Central America. }} Cerro Chirripó is the highest Mountain in Costa Rica, with an Altitude of 3820 Metres It is located in the Chirripó National Park The highest volcano in the country is the Irazú Volcano (3,431 m / 11,257 ft). The Irazú Volcano ( Volcán Irazú) is an Active volcano in Costa Rica, situated in the Cordillera Central close to the city of Cartago The largest lake in Costa Rica is Lake Arenal. Lake Arenal is a Reservoir in Costa Rica, formed by enlarging an existing small Lake of the same name by the completion of a Dam in 1979
Costa Rica also comprises several islands. Cocos Island stands out because of its distance from continental landmass (24 km² / 9. Cocos Island (Isla del Coco is an Island located off the shore of Costa Rica. 25 sq mi, 500 km or 300 mi (480 km) from Puntarenas coast), but Calero Island is the largest island of the country (151. Puntarenas, which means "Sandy Point" in Spanish is the capital and largest City in the province Puntarenas, Costa Rica, at the Pacific 6 km² / 58. 5 sq mi).
Costa Rica protects 23% of its national territory within the Protected Areas system. List of SINAC Conservation Areas of Costa Rica Conservation Areas Guanacaste Conservation Area, including Santa Rosa, It also possesses the greatest density of species in the world. 
Costa Rica is a democratic republic with a strong constitution. The politics of Costa Rica take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Costa Rica On December 1, 1948, President José Figueres Ferrer of Costa Rica abolished the country's army after victory in the civil war in A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity Although there are claims that the country has had more than 115 years of uninterrupted democracy, their presidential election history shows otherwise (see List of Presidents of Costa Rica). An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office The following table contains a list of the Presidents and heads of state of Costa Rica since Central American independence from Spain and Nonetheless, the country has had at least fifty-nine years of uninterrupted democracy, making it one of the most stable countries in the region. Costa Rica has been able to successfully avoid the widespread violence that has plagued most of Central America. Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes
Costa Rica is a republic with three powers: executive responsibilities are vested in a president, legislative power is vested on the Legislative Assembly, and Judicial power is vested on the Supreme Court. The following table contains a list of the Presidents and heads of state of Costa Rica since Central American independence from Spain and The Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa is the unicameral legislative branch of the Government of Costa Rica. There also are two vice presidents as well as a cabinet designated by the president. __FORCETOC__ For the Vice President of the United States, their roles and other information see Vice President of the United States. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. The president, vice presidents, and fifty-seven Legislative Assembly delegates are elected for four-year terms. The Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa is the unicameral legislative branch of the Government of Costa Rica. A delegate is a member of a group representing an organization (e A constitutional amendment approved in 1969 limited presidents and delegates to one term, although delegates were allowed to run again for an Assembly seat after sitting out a term.
The Supreme Electoral Body, the Office of the Comptroller General, the Office of the Procurator General of the Republic and the Office of the Ombudsman also enjoy a lot of independence.
The Supreme Court is divided into 4 chambers, one dealing with Constitutional Law, one dealing with Criminal Law and two dealing with Civil Law, Merchant Law and the like.
In April 2003, the constitutional constitutional amendment ban on presidential re-election was reversed, allowing Óscar Arias (Nobel Peace Prize laureate, 1987) to run for President for a second term. Óscar Rafael de Jesús Arias Sánchez (born 13 September 1940) is the current President of Costa Rica, and won the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor In 2006, Óscar Arias was re-elected in a tight and highly contested election, running on a platform of promoting free trade. Óscar Rafael de Jesús Arias Sánchez (born 13 September 1940) is the current President of Costa Rica, and won the Nobel Peace Prize Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions He took office on May 8, 2006. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen
Certain autonomous state agencies enjoy considerable operational independence; they include the telecommunications and electrical power monopoly, the nationalized commercial banks, the state insurance monopoly, and the social security agency. Electric power is defined as the rate at which Electrical energy is transferred by an Electric circuit. In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient A commercial bank is a type of Financial intermediary and a type of Bank. Insurance, in Law and Economics, is a form of Risk management primarily used to hedge against the Risk of a contingent loss Social security primarily refers to a Social insurance program providing social protection or protection against socially recognized conditions including poverty old Costa Rica has no military by constitution but maintains domestic police forces for internal security. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force Security is the condition of being protected against danger loss and criminals These include the Guardia Civil and the Guardia Rural.
Costa Rica is composed of seven provinces, which in turn are divided into 81 cantons ("cantón" in Spanish, plural "cantones"), each directed by a mayor. Costa Rica consists of seven Provinces ( provincias |||}The provinces of Costa Rica are subdivided into 81 cantons The cantons are listed below (population figures are from Costa Rican Census 2000 Mayors are chosen democratically every four years by each canton's people. There are no provincial legislatures. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation
According to the CIA World Factbook, Costa Rica's GDP per capita is US$13,500 (2007 estimate); however, this developing country still faces the fourth highest inflation rate in Latin America, lack of maintenance and new investment in infrastructure, over 16% of the people were below the poverty line (2006 estimate) and a 5. The economy of Costa Rica heavily depends on Tourism, Agriculture, and Electronics exports The World Factbook ( ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 5% unemployment rate (2007 estimate). Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.  The Costa Rican economy grew nearly 5% in 2006 after experiencing 4 years of slow economic growth. 
The central government offers tax exemptions for those who are willing to invest in the country. A tax exemption is an exemption from all or certain Taxes of a state or nation in which part of the taxes that would normally be collected from an individual or an organization Several global high tech corporations have already started developing in the area exporting goods including chip manufacturer Intel, pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline, and consumer products company Procter & Gamble. International trade is exchange of Capital, Goods, and Services across International borders or Territories. GlaxoSmithKline plc () is a United Kingdom -based pharmaceutical, biological and Healthcare Company. Procter & Gamble Co ( P&G,) is a Fortune 500, American global corporation based in Cincinnati Ohio, that manufactures a wide In 2006 Intel's microprocessor facility alone was responsible for 20% of Costa Rican exports and 4. 9% of the country's GDP.  Trade with South East Asia and Russia has boomed during 2004 and 2005, and the country is expected to obtain full Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC) membership by 2007 (the country became an observer in 2004). Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
For the fiscal year 2005, the country showed a government deficit of 2. A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is a period used for calculating annual ("yearly" Financial statements in Businesses A budget deficit occurs when an Entity (often a Government) spends more Money than it takes in 1%, internal revenue increased an 18%, and exports increased a 12. The 8%. Revised economic figures released by the Central Bank indicate that economic growth stood at 5%, nevertheless the country faced high inflation (14%) and a trade deficit of 5. A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is the entity responsible for the Monetary policy of a country or of a group of member states Economic growth is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time The balance of trade (or net exports, sometimes symbolized as NX) is the difference between the monetary value of Exports and imports in an 2%. As of 2007, Costa Rica's inflation rate stands at 9. 30%, Latin Americas 4th highest inflation rate. 
In recent times electronics, pharmaceuticals, financial outsourcing, software development, and ecotourism have become the prime industries in Costa Rica's economy. Electronics refers to the flow of charge (moving Electrons through Nonmetal conductors (mainly Semiconductors, whereas electrical A drug, broadly speaking is any chemical substance that when absorbed into the body Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of Tourism that appeals to ecologically and socially conscious individuals An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area High levels of education among its residents make the country an attractive investing location. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Investment or investing is a term with several closely-related meanings in Business management, Finance and Economics, related to saving
The unit of currency is the colón (CRC), which trades around 495  to the U.S. dollar; currently about 800 to the euro. A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is Colón was also the name of El Salvador 's currency until 2001 The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e On October 16, 2006, a new currency exchange system was introduced, allowing the value of the CRC colón to float between two bands as done previously by Chile. Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The foreign exchange ( currency or forex or FX) market refers to the market for currencies. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the The idea is that by doing so the Central Bank will be able to better tackle inflation and discourage the use of US dollars. Since that time, the value of the colón against the dollar has stabilized.
Costa Rica's location provides easy access to American markets as it has the same time zone as the central part of the United States and direct ocean access to Europe and Asia. A country wide referendum has approved a free trade agreement with the United States. In the referendum on October 7, 2007, the voters of Costa Rica narrowly backed the free trade agreement, with 51. Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 6 percent of "Yes" votes. 
With a $1. Tourism in Costa Rica is one of the fastest growing economic sectors of the country and by 1995 became the largest foreign exchange earner 9-billion-a-year tourism industry, Costa Rica stands as the most visited nation in the Central American region, with 1. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel 9 million foreign visitors in 2007, which translates into a relatively high expenditure per tourist of $1000 per trip, and a rate of foreign tourists per capita of 0. 46, one of the highest in the Caribbean Basin. Most of the tourists come from the U. S. (54%) and the E. U. (14%). In 2005, tourism contributed with 8. 1% of the country's GNP and represented 13. 3% of direct and indirect employment.  Tourism now earns more foreign exchange than bananas and coffee combined. 
Ecotourism is extremely popular with the many tourists visiting the extensive national parks and protected areas around the country. Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of Tourism that appeals to ecologically and socially conscious individuals A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution Protected areas are locations which receive protection because of their environmental cultural or similar value Costa Rica was a pioneer in this type of tourism and the country is recognized as one of the few with real ecotourism.  In terms of 2008 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index, Costa Rica reached the 44th place in the world ranking, being the first among Latin American countries. The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report was first published in 2007 by the World Economic Forum.  Just considering the subindex measuring human, cultural, and natural resources, Costa Rica ranks in the 24th place at a worldwide level, and ranks 7th when considering only the natural resources pillar.
Costa Rica is an active member of the United Nations and the Organization of American States. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Organization of American States ( OAS, or as it is known in the three other official languages OEA) is an International organization, headquartered The Inter-American Court of Human Rights and the United Nations University of Peace are based in Costa Rica. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights is an autonomous judicial institution based in the city of San José, Costa Rica. The University for Peace ( UPEACE) was established in Costa Rica in 1980 "to provide humanity with an international institution of higher education The Costa Rican State is also a member of many other international organizations related to human rights and democracy. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system
Costa Rica's main foreign policy objective is to foster human rights and sustainable development as a way to secure stability and growth. Foreign Policy is a bimonthly American Magazine founded in 1970 by Samuel P
Costa Rica is also a member of the International Criminal Court, without a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US-military (as covered under Article 98). The International Criminal Court ( ICC or ICCt) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for Genocide, crimes against Positions in the United States concerning the International Criminal Court (ICC vary widely The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the Treaty
Costa Rica also has had a lifelong battle with Nicaragua, it's neighboring country over the San Juan River (rio San Juan) which denotes the border between these two countries;although it geographically is within the borders of Nicaragua Costa Ricans like to claim it as their own.
On June 1, 2007, Costa Rica broke ties with the Republic of China in Taiwan, switching to the People's Republic of China in mainland China. Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction 
Costa Rica is home to a rich variety of plants and animals. Costa Rica supports an enormous variety of wildlife, due in large part to its geographic position between the North and South American continents its Neotropical Although Costa Rica is a small country it is in the bird-rich Neotropical region and has a huge number of species for its area Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. While the country has only about 0. 1% of the world's landmass, it contains 5% of the world's biodiversity. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth.  Around 25% of the country's land area is in protected national parks and protected areas, the largest percentual of protected areas in the world. A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution Protected areas are locations which receive protection because of their environmental cultural or similar value 
One national park that is internationally-renowned among ecologists for its biodiversity (including big cats and tapirs) and where visitors can expect to see an abundance of wildlife is the Corcovado National Park. A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. The term big cat is used to distinguish the larger cat species from smaller ones Tapirs (ˈteɪpɚ as in "taper" or /təˈpɪər/ as "ta-pier" are large browsing Mammals, roughly pig-like in shape with short Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants animals and other organisms Corcovado National Park (Parque Nacional Corcovado is a National Park on the Osa Peninsula in the South West of Costa Rica (9° North 83° West which 
Tortuguero National Park – the name Tortuguero can be translated as "Full of Turtles" – is home to spider, howler and white-throated Capuchin monkeys, the three-toed sloth, 320 species of birds (including eight species of parrots), a variety of reptiles, but is mostly recognized for the annual nesting of the endangered green turtle and is considered the most important nesting site for this species. Tortuguero National Park is a National Park within the Tortuguero Conservation Area. Spider monkeys are New World monkeys of the family Atelidae, subfamily Atelinae. Howler monkeys ( Genus Alouatta monotypic in Subfamily Alouattinae) are among the largest of the New World monkeys The White-headed Capuchin ( Cebus capucinus) also known as the White-faced Capuchin or White-throated Capuchin, is a medium-sized New World monkey The three-toed sloths are the only members of the Bradypus genus and the Bradypodidae family Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Parrots are birds of the roughly 350 Species in 85 genera comprising the order Psittaciformes, found in most warm and tropical regions Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers "Chelonia" redirects here It is also the name of the Superorder uniting turtles tortoises and terrapins ( Testudines) with the "proto-turtle" Giant leatherback, hawksbill, and loggerhead turtles also nest here. The leatherback turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea) is the largest of all living turtles The hawksbill turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata) is a Critically endangered Sea turtle belonging to the family Cheloniidae. The Loggerhead Sea Turtle ( Caretta caretta) is a Sea turtle and the only member of the genus Caretta. Turtles are Reptiles of the Order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the Crown group Chelonia) most of
The Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve is home to about 2,000 plant species, including numerous orchids. Monteverde Costa Rica ( Spanish for 'green mountain' is a small town near Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. Over four hundred types of birds can be found here, and over one hundred species of mammals. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands  As a whole, around eight hundred species of birds have been identified in Costa Rica. The Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBIO) is allowed to collect royalties on any biological discoveries of medical importance.
According to the CIA World Factbook, Costa Rica has a population of 4,133,884 of which 94% are white (including) Mestizo, 3% black, 1% Amerindian, 1% Chinese and 1% other. In 2005 Costa Rica had an estimated population of 4016173 persons The World Factbook ( ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the White Latin Americans are the white population of Latin America. Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin An Afro-Latin American (also Afro-Latino) is a Latin American person of at least partial Black African ancestry the term may also refer to historical For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States.  The exact amount, however, is not known because the Costa Rican census combines mestizos and whites in one category. The white population is primarily of Spanish ancestry with significant numbers of Costa Ricans of Italian, German, Jewish and Polish descent. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland In contrast to its neighboring countries' populations, less mixing of the Spanish settlers and the indigenous populations occurred. Therefore, a vast majority of Costa Ricans are either of Spanish or of mixed mestizo heritage.
Just under 3% of the population is of black African descent. The majority of the afro Costa Ricans are Creole English-speaking descendants of nineteenth century black Jamaican immigrant workers, as well as slaves who were brought during the Atlantic slave trade. An English-based creole language, or English creole for short is a Creole language that was significantly influenced by the English language. Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. The Atlantic Slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the Colonies of the New World The influential remainder of the population vary in ethnic groups from mulattoes who make up 5%. Mulatto is a term used to describe a person with one white parent and one black parent or a person whose Ancestry is a mixture of black and white
The indigenous or Amerindian population numbers around 1%, or over 41,000 individuals. In the Guanacaste Province a significant portion of the population descends from a bi-racial mix of local Amerindians and Spaniards. Guanacaste is a province of Costa Rica. Geography Guanacaste is located in the northwestern part of the country along the coast of the Pacific There is also an expatriate community of people of all ages from the United States, Canada, Germany, Netherlands, Britain, and other countries. An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Population of Canada: 31612895 (2006 Census Provinces and territories Metropolitan areas Cities The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as The Dutch people ( Dutch:) are the dominant Ethnic group of the Netherlands. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
Costa Rica hosts many refugees, mainly from Colombia and Nicaragua. According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America As a result, an estimated 10% to 15% of the Costa Rican population is made up of Nicaraguans, most of whom migrate for seasonal work opportunities and then return to their country. Nicaraguans ( Spanish: Nicaragüense; also Nica, Nicoya and Pinolero) are people inhabiting in originating or having significant heritage Human migration denotes any movement by Humans from one locality to another sometimes over long distances or There is also a growing number of Peruvian refugees. Moreover, Costa Rica took in many refugees from a range of other Latin American countries fleeing civil wars and dictatorships during the 1970s and 80s - notably from Chile and Argentina, as well as those from El Salvador who fled from guerrillas and government death squads. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. El Salvador ( República de El Salvador,) is a country in Central America. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc A death squad is an armed Squad that kills civilians terrorists or guerillas 
Christianity is the predominant religion in Costa Rica, and Roman Catholicism is the official state religion as guaranteed by the Constitution of 1949. The most recent nationwide survey of religion in Costa Rica, conducted in 2006 by the University of Costa Rica, found that 47 Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity Some 92% of Costa Ricans are Christian  and like many other parts of Latin America, Protestant denominations have been experiencing rapid growth. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. However, three in four Costa Ricans still adhere to Roman Catholicism. Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in 
Due to the recent small but continuous immigration of communities from Asia, the Middle East, and other places, other religions have grown, the most popular being Buddhism (because of an increasing Chinese community of 40,000), and smaller numbers of Jewish, Muslim, Bahá’í and Hindu adherents. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical
There is a Jewish synagogue, the B'nei Israel Congregation, in San José, near the La Sabana Metropolitan Park. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ A synagogue (from Greek: grc συναγωγή transliterated synagogē, "assembly" he בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of San José ( Spanish: San José; ˌsɑːn hɒˈsɛː is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica, and is at the heart of the sprawling Gran Area Metropolitana Several homes in the neighborhood east of La Sabana Metropolitan Park are festooned with the Star of David and other recognizable Jewish symbols. The Star of David or Shield of David ( Magen David in Hebrew with nikkud or מגן דוד without academically transcribed Māḡēn Dāwīḏ by PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ 
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has seen modest growth in Costa Rica in the last 40 years and has built one of only two temples in Central America in the San Antonio de Belen region of Heredia. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known In the 
The only official language is Spanish. The official and predominant language of Costa Rica is Spanish; the variety spoken there is a form of Central American Spanish. Central American Spanish ( Spanish: español centroamericano) is the general name of the Spanish language Dialects spoken in the Central America There are two main accents native to Costa Rica, the standard Costa Rican and the Nicoyan. The Nicoyan accent is very similar to the standard Nicaraguan accent due, in part, to its vicinity. A notable Costa Rican pronunciation difference includes a soft initial and double [r] phoneme that is not trilled as is normal in the Spanish speaking world. .
Jamaican immigrants in the 19th Century brought with them a dialect of English that has evolved into the Mekatelyu creole dialect.
Because Roman Catholicism is the official state religion, only that church's marriages are legally recognized by the government. Any persons wishing to wed outside of the Catholic church must hire a lawyer who will perform and then register their civil wedding for them. Legal age for marriage in Costa Rica is 18. The age of consent is 15.
Costa Ricans often refer to themselves as tico (masculine) or tica (feminine). Costa Rican culture is heavily influenced by Spaniard culture with the exception of Limon predominantly Black Jamaicans and the Cordillera de Talamanca Tico is a colloquial term for a native of Costa Rica The plural form is ticos. "Tico" comes from the popular local usage of "tico" and "tica" as diminutive suffixes (e. g. , "momentico" instead of "momentito"). The phrase "Pura Vida!" (approximately translatable to "This is living!", literal meaning "Pure Life!" as in "Distilled life!") is a ubiquitous motto in Costa Rica. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group Some youth use mae, a contraction of "maje" (mae means "guy/dude"), to refer to each other, although this might be perceived as insulting to those of an older generation; maje was a synonym for "tonto" (stupid).
Costa Rica boasts a varied history. Costa Rica was the point where the Mesoamerican and South American native cultures met. Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Mesoamérica is a Region extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, defined The northwest of the country, the Nicoya peninsula, was the southernmost point of Nahuatl cultural influence when the Spanish conquerors (conquistadores) came in the sixteenth century. Nahuatl ( is a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan or Nahuan branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador The center and southern portions of the country had Chibcha influences. Chibcha, also known as Muisca or Mosca, is "officially" an extinct Chibchan language of Colombia, formerly spoken by
The Atlantic coast, meanwhile, was populated with African workers during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Most afro Costa Ricans, however, derive from nineteenth-century Jamaican workers, brought in to work on the construction of railroads between the urban populations of the Central Plateau and the port of Limon on the Caribbean coast. Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. Italian and Chinese immigrants also arrived at this time to work on railroad construction.
Costa Rican popular music genres include: American and British rock and roll, pop and reggaeton are popular and common among the youth (especially urban youth) while dance-oriented genres like soca, salsa, bachata, merengue , cumbia and Costa Rican swing The guitar is a popular instrument especially as an accompaniment to Folk dances. Reggaeton (also spelled reggaetón, and known as reguetón and reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of urban music which became popular Salsa music is a diverse and predominantly Latin American Caribbean genre that is popular across Latin America and among Latinos abroad Bachata, a form of Music and Dance that originated in the countryside and the rural neighborhoods of the Dominican Republic. Cumbia is originally a Colombian Folk dance and Dance music and is Colombia 's representative national dance and music along with Vallenato
See Costa Rican cuisine entry. Food Costa Rican cuisine is known for being tasty yet fairly mild with high reliance on fresh Fruits and Vegetables The main staple known
The literacy rate in Costa Rica is of 96% (CIA World Factbook, February 2007), one of the highest in Latin America. The education system in Costa Rica consists of three main levels Elementary and high schools are found throughout the country in practically every community. See also Primary education An elementary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory education known as elementary High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution Universal public education is guaranteed in the Constitution. Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the Government, whether national regional or local provided by an institution Primary education is obligatory, and both preschool and high school are free. There are both state and private universities.
There are only a few schools in Costa Rica that go beyond the 12th grade. Those schools that finish at 11th grade receive a Costa Rican Bachillerato Diploma accredited by the Costa Rican Ministry of Education.
|Index (Year)||Author / Editor / Source||Year of|
L. A. (2)
|Environmental Performance (2008)||Yale University||149||5|
|Human Poverty, HPI-1 (2005)(3)||United Nations (UNDP)||108||5|
|Poverty below $2 a day (1990-2005)(4)||United Nations (UNDP)||71||8|
|Press Freedom (2007)||Reporters Without Borders||169||21|
|Democracy (2006)||The Economist||167||25|
|Global Peace (2008)||The Economist||140||34|
|Quality-of-life (2005)||The Economist||111||35|
|Travel and Tourism Competitiveness (2008)||World Economic Forum||130||44|
|Human Development (2005)||United Nations (UNDP)||177||48|
|Economic Freedom (2008)||The Wall Street Journal||162||49|
|Corruption Perception (2006)||Transparency International||163||55|
|Global Competitiveness (2007)||World Economic Forum||131||63|
|Income inequality (1989-2007)(5)||United Nations (UNDP)||126||100|