|Operas by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart|
Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebotes (1767)
Così fan tutte, ossia La scuola degli amanti (Thus Do They All, or The School For Lovers) K. Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebotes (The Obligation of the First and Foremost Commandment K Bastien und Bastienne (Bastien and Bastienne is a one-act Singspiel, comic Opera, with German libretto by Friedrich Wilhelm Weiskern La finta semplice ( The Pretended Simpleton) K 51 (46a is an Opera buffa in three acts for soloists and orchestra composed in 1769 Mitridate re di Ponto ( Mithridates, King of Pontus) K 87 (74a, is an early Opera seria in three acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Ascanio in Alba, K 111, is a Pastoral Opera in two parts ( Festa teatrale in due atti) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Il sogno di Scipione, K 126, is a dramatic serenade in one act ( Azione teatrale) composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to Lucio Silla (K135 is an Italian Opera in three acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. La finta giardiniera ("The Pretended Garden-Girl" K 196 is an Italian Opera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Il re pastore ( The Shepherd King) is an Opera, K 208 written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to an Italian Libretto Thamos König in Ägypten ( Thamos King of Egypt, or King Thamos, in English is a play by Tobias Philipp baron von Gebler for which between 1773 Zaide is an unfinished Opera, K 344 written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1780 Idomeneo re di Creta ossia Ilia e Idamante ( Italian: Idomeneo King of Crete or Ilia and Idamante; usually referred to simply as Idomeneo Die Entführung aus dem Serail ( K 384; The Abduction from the Seraglio; also known as Il Seraglio) is an Opera Singspiel L'oca del Cairo is an Opera buffa in three acts K 422 begun by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in July 1783 but abandoned in October Lo sposo deluso ossia La rivalità di tre donne per un solo amante ( The Deluded Bridegroom or The Rivalry of Three Women for One Lover) is a two act Opera buffa Der Schauspieldirektor ( The Impresario) K 486 is a comic Singspiel written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German Le nozze di Figaro ossia la folle giornata (Trans The Marriage of Figaro or the Day of Madness) K Don Giovanni ( K527; complete title Il dissoluto punito ossia il Don Giovanni, literally "The Rake Punish'd or Don Giovanni La clemenza di Tito (The Clemency of Titus K 621 is an Opera seria composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with text after Metastasio The Magic Flute (German Die Zauberflöte, K 620 is an Opera in two acts composed in 1791 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 588, is an opera buffa by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The term Opera buffa (plural Opere buffe) was at first used as an informal description of Italian Comic operas variously classified by their authors as The libretto was written by Lorenzo da Ponte. A libretto is the text used in an extended Musical work such as an Opera, Operetta, Masque, sacred or secular Oratorio and This article is about the librettist Lorenzo da Ponte For the Bishop of the same name see Vittorio Veneto.
Così is one of the three Mozart operas for which da Ponte wrote the libretto. (The title is often shortened to Così in the English-speaking world. ) The other two da Ponte-Mozart collaborations were Le nozze di Figaro and Don Giovanni. Le nozze di Figaro ossia la folle giornata (Trans The Marriage of Figaro or the Day of Madness) K Don Giovanni ( K527; complete title Il dissoluto punito ossia il Don Giovanni, literally "The Rake Punish'd or Don Giovanni
Così was written and composed at the suggestion of the Emperor Joseph II. Heir and co-regent Joseph was born in the midst of the early upheavals of the War of the Austrian Succession. The libretto was originally intended to be set to music by Mozart's contemporary Antonio Salieri but Salieri only completed parts of the first act and then broke off work on the opera. A libretto is the text used in an extended Musical work such as an Opera, Operetta, Masque, sacred or secular Oratorio and Antonio Salieri ( 18 August 1750 &ndash 7 May 1825) was an Italian Composer and conductor.
The title, Così fan tutte, literally means "Thus do all [women]" but it is often translated as "Women are like that". The words are sung by the three men in Act II, Scene xiii, just before the finale. Da Ponte had used the line "Così fan tutte le belle" earlier in Le nozze di Figaro (in Act I, Scene vii).
The first performance of Mozart's setting took place at the Burgtheater in Vienna on January 26, 1790. The Burgtheater ( en: (Imperial Court Theatre originally known as K Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France. Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
The subject matter (see synopsis below) did not offend Viennese sensibilities of the time, but throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries it was considered risqué. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The opera was rarely performed, and when it did appear it was presented in one of several bowdlerised libretti. Thomas Bowdler ( IPA /ˈbaʊdlə/ ( July 11, 1754 &ndash February 24, 1825) was an English Physician who published
After World War II, it regained its place in the standard operatic repertoire. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including It is frequently performed and appears as number fifteen on Opera America's list of the 20 most-performed operas in North America. Opera America, officially OPERA America, is a service organization in North America promoting the creation presentation and enjoyment of Opera.
|Role||Voice type||Premiere Cast, January 26, 1790|
(Conductor: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart)
|Fiordiligi||dramatic coloratura soprano||Adriana Ferrarese|
|Dorabella, ladies from Ferrara and sisters, living in Naples||lyric mezzo-soprano||Louise (Luisa) Villeneuve|
|Guglielmo||lyric baritone||Francesco Benucci|
|Ferrando||tenore di grazia||Vincenzo Calvesi|
|Despina, a maid||soubrette||Dorotea Bussani|
|Don Alfonso, an old philosopher||basso buffo||Francesco Bussani|
|Chorus: soldiers, servants, sailors|
While the use of modern fach titles and categories has become customary, it should be noted that Mozart was far more general in his own descriptions of voice type: Fiordiligi (soprano), Dorabella (soprano), Guglielmo (bass), Ferrando (tenor), Despina (soprano), Don Alfonso (Bass). This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. Adriana Ferrarese del Bene (born c 1755 in Ferrara - died after 1804 in Venice) was an Italian operatic Soprano. This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. Tenore di grazia, also called tenore leggero, is a lightweight flexible Tenor type of voice Soubrette is a term referring to a type of female role&mdashspecifically a Stock character &mdashin Opera and Theatre. 
Mozart and Da Ponte took as a theme "fiancée swapping" which dates back to the 13th century, with notable earlier versions being those of Boccaccio's Decameron and Shakespeare's play Cymbeline. The Decameron (subtitle Prencipe Galeotto) is a collection of 100 Novellas by Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio, probably begun in William Shakespeare ( baptised This article is about Shakespeare's play For the mythical British king see Cunobelinus. Elements from Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew are also present. William Shakespeare ( baptised The Taming of the Shrew is an early comedy by William Shakespeare believed to have been written between 1590 and 1594 Furthermore, it incorporates elements of the myth of Procris as found in Ovid's Metamorphoses, vii. In Greek mythology, Procris was the daughter of Erechtheus, king of Athens and his wife Praxithea. Publius Ovidius Naso ( March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD was a Roman poet known to the English -speaking world as Ovid who wrote on many topics including
In a coffee shop, Ferrando and Guglielmo (two officers) claim that their fiancées (Dorabella and Fiordiligi, respectively) will be eternally faithful. Don Alfonso joins the discussion and lays a wager with the two officers, claiming he can prove in a day's time that these two women (like all women) are fickle. The wager is accepted: the two officers will pretend to have been called off to war; soon thereafter they shall return in disguise and attempt to seduce each other's lover. The scene shifts to the two women (they are sisters) who are praising their men. Alfonso arrives to announce the bad news: the officers have been called off to war. Ferrando and Guglielmo arrive, brokenhearted, and bid farewell (quintet: Sento, o Dio, che questo piedo è restio—"I feel, oh God, that my foot is reluctant"). As the boat with the men sails off to sea, Alfonso and the sisters wish them safe travel (trio: Soave sia il vento—"May the wind be gentle"), then Alfonso, left alone, rails against the fickleness of women (arioso: Oh, poverini, per femmina giocar cento zecchini?—"Oh, poor little ones, to wager 100 sequins on a woman"). Sequin ( zecchino in Italian) is a Gold coin weighed 35 grams of.
The scene shifts to a room in the sisters' home. Despina, their maid, arrives and asks what is wrong. Maid is also a shortened form of " Maiden " an archaic word for an unmarried woman or a Virgin. Dorabella bemoans the torment of having been left alone (aria: Smanie implacabili—"Torments implacable"). Despina mocks the sisters, advising them to consider new lovers over old lovers (aria: In uomini, in soldati, sperare fedeltà?—"In men, in soldiers, you hope for faithfulness?"). After they depart, Alfonso arrives upon the scene. He fears Despina will recognize the men through their disguises, so he bribes her into helping him win the bet. The two men then arrive, dressed as mustachioed Albanians. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. The sisters enter and are alarmed by the presence of strange men in their home. The Albanians attempt to win over the sisters, Guglielmo going so far as to point out all of his manly attributes (aria: Non siate ritrosi—"Don't be shy"), but to no avail (aria: Come scoglio—"Like a rock"). Ferrando, left alone and sensing victory, praises his love (aria: Un'aura amorosa—"A loving breath").
The scene shifts to a garden, with the sisters still pining. But Despina has asked Don Alfonso to let her take over the seduction plan—and suddenly, the Albanians burst in the scene and threaten to poison themselves if they are not allowed the chance to woo the sisters. As Alfonso tries to calm them, they drink the poison and pass out. Soon thereafter, a doctor arrives on the scene (Despina in disguise), who, through use of a large magnet (see animal magnetism), is able to revive the Albanians. The term's most common usage today refers to a person's sexual attractiveness or raw Charisma. The revived men, hallucinating, demand a kiss of the goddesses who stand before them. A hallucination, in the broadest sense is a Perception in the absence of a stimulus. A goddess is a Female Deity. Many Cultures have goddesses Often deities are part of a polytheistic system that includes several deities The sisters refuse, even as Alfonso and the doctor (Despina) urge them to acquiesce.
The act opens in the sisters' bedroom, with Despina urging them to succumb to the Albanians' overtures (aria: Una donna a quindici anni—"A fifteen year old woman"). After she leaves, Dorabella confesses to Fiordiligi that she is tempted, and the two agree that a mere flirtation will do no harm and will help them pass the time while they wait for their lovers to return (duet: Prenderò quel brunettino"—"I will take the dark one").
The scene shifts to the garden, where Dorabella and the disguised Guglielmo pair off, as do the other two. The conversation is haltingly uncomfortable, and Ferrando departs with Fiordiligi. Now alone, Guglielmo attempts to woo Dorabella. She does not resist strongly, and soon she has given him a medallion (with Ferrando's portrait inside) in exchange for a heart-shaped locket (duet: Il core vi dono—"I give you my heart"). A locket is a Pendant that opens to reveal a space used for storing a Photograph or other small item such as a curl of hair Ferrando is less successful with Fiordiligi (Ferrando's aria: Ah, lo veggio—"Ah, I see it," and Fiordiligi's aria: Per pietà, ben mio, perdona—"Please, my beloved, forgive"), so he is enraged when he later finds out from Guglielmo that the medallion with his portrait has been so quickly given away to a new lover. Guglielmo at first sympathises with Ferrando (aria: Donne mie, la fate a tanti—"My ladies, you do it to so many") but then gloats, because his betrothed is faithful.
The scene changes to the sister's room, where Dorabella admits her indiscretion to Fiordiligi (È amore un ladroncello—"Love is a little thief"). Fiordiligi, upset by this development, decides to go to the army and find her betrothed. Before she can leave, though, Ferrando arrives and continues his attempted seduction. Fiordiligi finally succumbs and falls into his arms (duet: Fra gli amplessi—"In the embraces"). Guglielmo is distraught while Ferrando turns Guglielmo's earlier gloating back on him. Alfonso, winner of the wager, tells the men to forgive their fiancées. After all: Così fan tutte—"All women are like that. "
The final scene begins as a double wedding for the sisters and their Albanian grooms. Despina, in disguise as a notary, presents the marriage contract, which all sign. A notary public is an officer who can administer Oaths and Statutory Declarations Witness and authenticate documents Directly thereafter, military music is heard in the distance, indicating the return of the officers. Alfonso confirms the sisters' fears: Ferrando and Guglielmo are on their way to the house. The Albanians hurry off to hide (actually, to change out of their disguises). They return as the officers, professing their love. Alfonso drops the marriage contract in front of the officers, and, when they read it, they become enraged. They then depart and return moments later, half in Albanian disguise, half as officers. Despina has been revealed to be the notary, and the sisters realize they have been duped. All is ultimately forgiven, as the entire group praises the ability to accept life's unavoidable good times and bad times.
(Plot taken from The Opera Goer's Complete Guide by Leo Melitz, 1921 version. Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar )
(Fiordiligi, Dorabella, Despina, Ferrando, Guglielmo, Alfonso)
|Opera House and Orchestra,|
|Glyndebourne Festival Chorus and Orchestra, Fritz Busch||Audio CD: Naxos Records|
|Metropolitan Opera Chorus and Orchestra, Fritz Stiedry||Audio CD: Columbia Records|
|Philarmonia Orchestra and Chorus, Herbert Von Karajan||Audio CD: EMI Classics|
|1955||Lisa della Casa,|
|Vienna State Opera Chorus and Orchestra, Karl Bohm||Audio CD: Decca|
|Philarmonia Orchestra and Chorus, Karl Bohm||Audio CD: EMI Classics|
|Così fan tutte act II - No. 19 aria - una donna a quindici anni|
|Performed by the Skidmore College Orchestra. Heddle Nash (b 1894 d 14 August 1961 was an English Tenor from London Willi Domgraf-Fassbaender ( February 19, 1897, Aachen - February 13, 1978, Nuremberg) was a German Baritone, John Brownlee may refer to John Edward Brownlee politician and former Premier of Alberta Canada John Brownlee (baritone famous opera singer This article is about the Glyndebourne opera festival See Glyndebourne for details of the Country house and opera house Glyndebourne Festival Fritz Busch ( 13 March 1890 - 14 September 1951) was a German conductor. Naxos Records is a Record label for classical music Compact discs and DVDs Founded in 1987 by Klaus Heymann, a WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Eleanor Steber ( 17 July 1914, Wheeling West Virginia - Blanche Thebom ( September 19, 1918 - Monessen, Pennsylvania) is an American mezzo-soprano who sang with the Metropolitan Opera in New York City Roberta Peters ( May 4, 1930) is an American Coloratura Soprano who enjoyed a long and distinguished career at the Metropolitan Opera Richard Tucker ( August 28, 1913 &ndash January 8, 1975) was an American operatic Tenor. Frank Guarrera ( December 3, 1923 - November 23, 2007) was an Italian-American lyric Baritone who enjoyed a long and distinguished The Metropolitan Opera Association of New York City, founded in April 1880 is a major presenter of all types of opera including Grand Opera. Fritz Stiedry (born October 11th 1883 in Vienna, died August 8 1968 in Zurich) was an Austrian conductor. Columbia Records is an American Record label founded in 1888 Columbia is the oldest surviving Brand name in pre-recorded sound being the first record company Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, DBE ( December 9, 1915 &ndash August 3, 2006) was a German -born Austrian British Nan Merriman (April 28 1920-) is an American operatic Mezzo-soprano, born in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania. Lisa Otto ( 14 November, 1919, Dresden) is a German Operatic Soprano, particularly associated with Soubrette and Léopold Simoneau ( May 3, 1916 - August 24, 2006) was a French-Canadian Lyric Tenor, one of the outstanding Rolando Panerai (born on October 17, 1924) italian baritoneparticularly associated with the Italian repertory he enjoyed a long and distinguished career in both Sesto Bruscantini ( December 10, 1919 - May 4, 2003) was an Italian Bass-baritone, one of the greatest Buffo singer of the WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Herbert von Karajan ( April 5 Artists Composers Thomas Adès Karl Jenkins Sir Paul McCartney Ian Anderson Lisa Della Casa (born in Burgdorf on February 2, 1919) is a Swiss Soprano who was famous for her interpretation of works by Mozart Christa Ludwig (born March 16, 1928) is a German retired Mezzo-soprano, distinguished for her performances of Opera and Lieder Emmy Loose ( January 22, 1914, Usti nad Labem - October 14, 1987, Vienna) was an Austrian operatic Soprano of Kammersänger Anton Dermota ( June 4, 1910 &ndash June 22, 1989) was a Slovene Tenor. Erich Kunz ( May 20, 1909, Vienna - September 8, 1995, Vienna) was an Austrian operatic Baritone, particularly Paul Schöffler ( September 15, 1897 - November 21, 1977) was a German operatic Baritone, particularly associated with Mozart The Vienna State Opera ( Wiener Staatsoper) located in Vienna, Austria, is one of the most important Opera houses - and opera companies - in WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Karl August Leopold Böhm ( August 28, 1894 &ndash Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, DBE ( December 9, 1915 &ndash August 3, 2006) was a German -born Austrian British Christa Ludwig (born March 16, 1928) is a German retired Mezzo-soprano, distinguished for her performances of Opera and Lieder WikipediaWikiProject Opera#Infoboxes --> Alfredo Kraus Trujillo (24 September 1927 – 10 September 1999 was a distinguished Giuseppe Taddei (born June 26, 1916) is an Italian Baritone who enjoyed a long and distinguished career particularly in operas by Wolfgang Walter Berry may refer to Walter Berry (opera singer, an Austrian opera singer Walter Berry (basketball, a former professional basketball WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Karl August Leopold Böhm ( August 28, 1894 &ndash Artists Composers Thomas Adès Karl Jenkins Sir Paul McCartney Ian Anderson Courtesy of Musopen|
|Così fan tutte Act II - No. 26 aria - Donne mie la fate a tanti|
|Baritone and keyboard reduction|