|Coriander leaves, raw|
Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for 5 oz)
|Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ|
|Percentages are relative to US|
recommendations for adults. Vitamin C or L-ascorbate is an Essential nutrient for a large number of higher primate species a small number of other Mammalian Reference Daily Intake (or Recommended Daily Intake ( RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient which was considered (at the time they were defined to be sufficient
Coriander, Coriandrum sativum is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Botanically an annual plant is a Plant that usually germinates, Flowers and dies in one Year. A(n herb (ˈhɝb or /ˈɝb/ see pronunciation differences) is a plant that is valued for qualities such as medicinal properties flavor scent or the like The name 'coriander' in a culinary context may refer to either the seeds of the plant (used as a spice), or to its leaves (used as a herb); however, in North American countries, for example, the name Cilantro is given to the leaves. Coriander is native to southwestern Asia and west to north Africa. It is a soft, hairless plant growing to 50 cm [20 in. ] tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. The flowers are borne in small umbels, white or very pale pink, asymmetrical, and with the petals that point away from the centre of the umbel being longer (5-6 mm) than those pointing to the middle of the umbel (only 1-3 mm long). A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also An umbel is an Inflorescence which consists of a number of short Flower stalks (called pedicels) which are equal in length and spread from a common The fruit is a globular dry schizocarp 3-5 mm diameter. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. A schizocarp is a dry Fruit that develops from multiple Carpels When mature it splits up into one-seeded mericarps.
The name coriander derives from French coriandre through Latin coriandrum in turn from Greek “κορίαννον”. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly  John Chadwick notes the Mycenaean Greek form of the word, koriadnon, "has a pattern curiously similar to the name of Minos' daughter Ariadne, and it is plain how this might be corrupted later to koriannon or koriandron. In Greek mythology, Minos ( Ancient Greek:) was a mythical king of Crete son of Zeus and Europa. Ariadne, in Greek mythology (Latin Arianna French Arianne was daughter of King Minos of Crete and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter "
All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the most commonly used in cooking. Coriander is commonly used in Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Indian, South Asian, Latin American, Chinese, African and Southeast Asian cuisine. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
The leaves are variously referred to as coriander leaves in Britain; cilantro (from the Spanish name for the plant) in the United States, and dhania in the Indian subcontinent. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia For geopolitical treatments see South Asia. The leaves, and especially the stems, have a very different taste from the seeds, similar to parsley but "juicier" and with citrus-like overtones. Parsley ( Petroselinum crispum) is a bright Green, biennial Herb, also used as Spice. Citrus is a common term and Genus of Flowering plants in the family Rutaceae, originating in tropical and subtropical southeast regions of Some people instead perceive an unpleasant "soapy" taste and/or a rank smell. This is believed to be a result of an enzyme that changes the way they taste coriander leaves, a genetic trait, but has yet to be fully researched. Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is 
The fresh leaves and stems are an essential ingredient in many Vietnamese foods, Asian chutneys, Mexican salsas and guacamole, and occasionally is used in sushi rolls. The Vietnamese people (người Việt or vi ''người Kinh'' are an Ethnic group originating from what is now northern Vietnam and southern China. Chutney ( Hindi: चटनी Urdu: چٹنی) (British spelling or chatni is a term for a variety of sweet and spicy Condiments, usually Salsa is the Spanish, Arabic, and Italian word that can refer to any type of Sauce. Guacamole (called guacamol in Central America and Cuba) is an Avocado -based Relish or dip. Chopped coriander leaves are also used as a garnish on cooked dishes such as dal and many curries. Dal (also spelled dahl, dhal or daal) ( Devanagari दाल Telugu పప్పు Bangla দ্দাল is a preparation Curry is the English description of any of a general variety of spicy dishes best known in Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan As heat diminishes their flavor quickly, coriander leaves are often used raw or added to the dish right before serving. In some Indian and Central Asian recipes, coriander leaves are used in huge amounts and cooked till they dissolve into sauce and their flavour mellows.  Another factor that dictates the quality of flavor is the time when coriander is harvested. If its roots consistently stay at a temperature above 75 degrees Fahrenheit, the herb will quickly bolt, causing its leaves and stems to yield a bitter flavor and become quite chewy. At this point, made evident by the thinner and finer leaves, it is practical to harvest only the coriander seeds, since the stems and leaves are no longer usable as food.
Coriander leaves were formerly common in European cuisine but nearly disappeared before the modern period. European cuisine, or alternatively Western cuisine is a generalized term collectively referring to the Cuisines of Europe and other Western countries Today Europeans usually eat the leaves and stems only in dishes that originated in foreign cuisines; in Portugal, however, it is still an essential ingredient in many traditional dishes. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. To use the stems, separate cilantro leaves from stems. Chop stems finely and add them to your dish a minute or two before serving, just giving them time to warm up and disperse their flavor. The leaves will remain beautiful and fresh if you use them to garnish individual plates.
The fresh coriander herb is best stored in the refrigerator in airtight containers, after chopping off the roots. The leaves do not keep well and should be eaten quickly, as they lose their aroma when dried or frozen.
The dry fruits are known as coriander seeds or coriandi seeds. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. In some regions, the use of the word coriander in food preparation always refers to these seeds (as a spice), rather than to the plant itself. The seeds have a lemony citrus flavour when crushed, due to the presence of the terpenes linalool and pinene. The lemon ( Citrus × limon) is a hybrid in cultivated wild plants Terpenes are a large and varied class of Hydrocarbons, produced primarily by a wide variety of plants particularly Conifers though also by some insects such Linalool (lɪˈnæloʊɒl is a naturally-occurring Terpene Alcohol chemical found in many Flowers and Spice plants with many commercial The Chemical compound pinene is a bicyclic Terpene (C10H16 136 It is also described as warm, nutty, spicy, and orange-flavoured. They are usually dried but can be eaten green.
If the fruit is obtained in its natural form, it can later be dried in the sun. Most commonly, it is bought as whole dried seeds, but it can also be found as a powder. When grinding at home, it can be roasted or heated on a dry pan briefly to enhance the aroma before grinding it in an electric grinder or with a mortar and pestle; ground coriander seeds lose their flavour quickly in storage and are best ground as only needed. A pestle and mortar is a Tool used to crush grind and mix substances For optimum flavour, whole coriander seed should be used within six months, or stored for no more than a year in a tightly sealed container away from sunlight and heat.
Coriander seed is a key spice (Hindi name: धनिया dhania) in garam masala and Indian curries, which often employ the ground fruits in generous amounts together with cumin. Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is Garam masala, whose literal meaning is 'hot spice' (in the meaning of high temperature as opposed to spiciness is a basic blend of ground Spices to be used alone or with other Curry is the English description of any of a general variety of spicy dishes best known in Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan It also acts as a thickener. Roasted coriander seeds, called dhana dal, are also eaten as a snack. It is also the main ingredient of the two south Indian gravies: sambhar and rasam. Rasam, ( Tamil: Rasam; Kannada: Saaru; Telugu: Chaaru; sanskrit: Rasam) is a South Indian
Outside of Asia, coriander seed is an important spice for sausages in Germany and South Africa (see boerewors). Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Boerewors is a Sausage dish popular in South African cuisine and Limburgish cuisine In Russia and Central Europe coriander seed is an occasional ingredient in rye bread as an alternative to caraway. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Rye ( Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop Bread is a Staple food prepared by Baking a Dough of Flour and Water. Caraway or Persian cumin ( Carum carvi) is a Biennial plant in the family Apiaceae, native to Europe and western Asia Apart from the uses just noted, coriander seeds are rarely used in European cuisine today, though they were more important in former centuries. European cuisine, or alternatively Western cuisine is a generalized term collectively referring to the Cuisines of Europe and other Western countries
Coriander seeds are also used in brewing certain styles of beer, particularly some Belgian wheat beers. Wheat beer is a Beer that is brewed with a significant proportion of Wheat. The coriander seeds are typically used in conjunction with orange peel to add a sultry citrus character to these styles of beer.
Coriander grows wild over a wide area of the Near East and southern Europe, which forced Zohary and Hopf to admit that "it is hard to define exactly where this plant is wild and where it only recently established itself. Michael Zohary (1898-1983 (מיכאל זהרי was a pioneering Israeli Botanist who published the monumental Geobotanical Foundations of the Middle East " Fifteen desiccated mericarps were found in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B level of the Nahal Hemel Cave in Israel, which may be the oldest archeological find of coriander. A schizocarp is a dry Fruit that develops from multiple Carpels When mature it splits up into one-seeded mericarps. Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB is a division of the Neolithic developed by Dame Kathleen Kenyon during her Archaeological excavations at Jericho For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. About half a litre of coriander mericarps were recovered from the tomb of Tutankhamun, and because this plant does not grow wild in Egypt, Zohary and Hopf interpret this find as proof that coriander was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now  The Bible mentions coriander in Exodus 16:31: "And the house of Israel began to call its name Manna: and it was white like coriander seed, and its taste was like that of flat cakes made with honey. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin These plants are mentioned in The Bible. Some gardens are planted with them to make a garden with a Biblical theme - a Biblical garden. Exodus ( Greek: έξοδος eksodos = "departure" is the second book of the Jewish Torah and of the Christian Old Testament. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Manna (sometimes or archaically spelt mana) ( Hebrew: מָן) is the name of a Food which according to the Bible, was eaten by Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the "
Coriander seems to have been cultivated in Greece since at least the second millennium BC. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία One of the Linear B tablets recovered from Pylos refers to the species as being cultivated for the manufacture of perfumes, and it appears that it was used in two forms: as a spice for its seeds and as a herb for the flavour of its leaves. Linear B is a script that was used for writing Mycenaean, an early form of Greek. This article is about the Greek geographical feature and town  This appears to be confirmed by archaeological evidence from the same period: the large quantities of the species retrieved from an Early Bronze Age layer at Sitagroi in Macedonia could point to cultivation of the species at that time . The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Sitagroi (Σιταγροί is a municipality in the Drama Prefecture, Greece. Macedonia is a Geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe whose area was re-defined in the early 20th century Coriander is thought to have been introduced to Britain by the Romans as a meat preserver.
Coriander seed and leaf was very widely used in medieval cuisine. Medieval Cuisine includes the Foods eating habits and Cooking methods of various European cultures during the Middle Ages, a period Even today, coriander seed is an important ingredient in many sausage products. A sausage is a prepared Food, usually made from Ground meat, animal fat salt and Spices (sometimes with other ingredients such as herbs typically packed
Coriander was brought to the British colonies in North America in 1670 and was one of the first spices cultivated by early settlers.
Coriander has been used as a folk medicine for the relief of anxiety and insomnia in Iranian folk medicine. The term traditional medicine ( Indigenous medicine or folk medicine) describes medical knowledge systems which developed over centuries within various societies Experiments in mice support its use as an anxiolytic. An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of Symptoms of Anxiety.  Coriander seeds are also used in traditional Indian medicine as a diuretic by boiling equal amounts of coriander seeds and cumin seeds, then cooling and consuming the resulting liquid. A diuretic is any Drug that elevates the rate of urination ( Diuresis)  In holistic and some traditional medicine, it is used as a carminative and for general digestive aid. A carminative, also known as carminativum ( Plural carminativa) is a medicinal drug with Antispasmodic activity that is used against