Cooking is the act of preparing food for eating by the application of heat. Food is any substance usually composed primarily of Carbohydrates Fats water and/or Proteins that can be eaten or drunk by an In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature It encompasses a vast range of methods, tools and combinations of ingredients to alter the flavor or digestibility of food. This article is about ingredients in general There is also an American soul and R&B group called The Main Ingredient. Flavor or flavour is the sensory impression of a Food or other substance, and is determined Digestion is the breaking down of chemicals in the body into a form that can be absorbed It is the general preparation process of selecting, measuring and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the desired result. Factors affecting the final outcome include the variability of ingredients, ambient conditions, tools, and the skill of the individual doing the actual cooking. A broader definition of a tool is an entity used to interface between two or more domains that facilitates more effective action of one domain upon the other
The diversity of cooking worldwide is a reflection of the myriad nutritional, aesthetic, agricultural, economic, cultural, social and religious considerations that impact upon it.
Applying heat to a food usually, though not always, chemically transforms it, thus changing its flavor, texture, consistency, appearance, and nutritional properties. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties There is archaeological evidence of roasted foodstuffs, both animal and vegetable, in human (Homo erectus) campsites dating from the earliest known use of fire, some 800,000 years ago. Homo erectus ( Latin: "upright man" is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. Other methods of cooking that involve the boiling of liquid in a receptacle have been practiced at least since the 10th millennium BC, with the introduction of pottery. Liquid is one of the principal States of matter. A liquid is a Fluid that has the particles loose and can freely form a distinct surface at the boundaries of Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware
Edible animal material, including muscle, offal, milk and egg white, contains substantial amounts of protein. Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse" is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the Offal is the Entrails and Internal organs of a Butchered Animal. Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. Albumen redirects here For other uses see Albumen (disambiguation. Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Almost all vegetable matter (in particular legumes and seeds) also includes proteins, although generally in smaller amounts. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however A legume is a Plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae or a Fruit of these specific plants A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored These may also be a source of essential amino acids. An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an Amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to When proteins are heated they become de-natured and change texture. Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl In many cases, this causes the structure of the material to become softer or more friable - meat becomes cooked. Friability means the ability to reduce a Solid substance into smaller pieces with little effort In some cases, proteins can form more rigid structures, such as the coagulation of albumen in egg whites. Albumen redirects here For other uses see Albumen (disambiguation. The formation of a relatively rigid but flexible matrix from egg white provides an important component of much cake cookery, and also underpins many desserts based on meringue. Cake is a form of Food that is usually sweet and often baked. Meringue is a type of Dessert made from whipped Egg whites and caster sugar.
Cooking often involves water which is frequently present as other liquids, both added in order to immerse the substances being cooked (typically water, stock or wine), and released from the foods themselves. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Liquid is one of the principal States of matter. A liquid is a Fluid that has the particles loose and can freely form a distinct surface at the boundaries of Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Stock is a flavoured liquid It forms the basis of many dishes particularly Soups and Sauces Stock is prepared by simmering various ingredients in water including Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Liquids are so important to cooking that the name of the cooking method used may be based on how the liquid is combined with the food, as in steaming, simmering, boiling, braising and blanching. Uses A Steam engine uses the expansion of steam in order to drive a Piston or Turbine to perform Mechanical work. Simmering is a Cooking technique in which Foods are cooked in hot liquids kept at or just barely below the boiling point of Water (at average sea level Boiling (also called ebullition) a type of Phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a Liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid Braised_Baby_Artichokesjpg#file|thumb|right|100px|Braised baby artichokes]] Braising (from the French “braiser” is a combination cooking method using both moist and Blanching (also spelled blenching) is a cooking term that describes a process of Food preparation wherein the food substance usually a vegetable or fruit is plunged Heating liquid in an open container results in rapidly increased evaporation, which concentrates the remaining flavor and ingredients - this is a critical component of both stewing and sauce making. Evaporation is the process by which Molecules in a Liquid state (e A concentrate is a form of Substance which has had the majority of its base component (in the case of a liquid the Solvent) removed Flavor or flavour is the sensory impression of a Food or other substance, and is determined A stew is a combination of Solid Food Ingredients that have been Cooked in Water or other water-based liquid typically by Simmering
Fats and oils come from both animal and plant sources. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water Cooking oil is purified Fat of Plant or Animal origin which is liquid at room temperature In cooking, fats provide tastes and textures. When used as the principal cooking medium (rather than water), they also allow the cook access to a wide range of cooking temperatures. Common oil-cooking techniques include sauteing, stir-frying, and deep-frying. Sautéing is a method of Cooking Food that uses a small amount of Fat in a shallow pan over relatively high heat Stir frying is an Umbrella term used to describe two fast Chinese cooking techniques chǎo ( 炒) and bào ( 爆) Deep frying is a Cooking method in which food is submerged in hot oil or Fat. Commonly used fats and oils include butter; olive oil; vegetable oils such as sunflower oil, corn oil, and safflower oil; animal fats such as lard, schmaltz, and beef fat (both dripping and tallow); and seed oils such as rapeseed oil (Canola or mustard oil), sesame oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. Butter is a Dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented Cream or Milk. Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) seeds Corn oil is Oil extracted from the germ of corn ( Maize) Its main use is in cooking where its high Smoke point makes it a valuable Frying Safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L) is a highly branched Herbaceous, Thistle -like annual usually with many long sharp spines on the leaves Lard is pig Fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms Lard was commonly used in many cuisines as a Cooking fat or Shortening Schmaltz or schmalz is rendered Pig, Chicken, or Goose Fat used for frying or as a spread on bread especially in Dripping, also known as beef or pork dripping, is an Animal fat produced from the fatty or otherwise unusable parts of Cow or Pig carcasses Tallow is a rendered form of Beef or Mutton Fat, processed from Suet. Rapeseed ( Brassica napus) also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rapaseed and (in the case of one particular group of Canola is a type of Edible oil derived from plants initially bred in Canada by Keith Downey and Baldur Stefansson in the 1970s The term mustard oil is used for two different oils that are made from Mustard seeds a fatty Vegetable oil resulting from pressing the seeds Sesame oil (also known as "gingelly oil" or "til oil" is an edible Vegetable oil derived from Sesame seeds Besides being used as a Cooking Peanut oil ( arachis oil is an organic oil derived from Peanuts noted to have the slight aroma and taste of its parent Legume. The inclusion of fats tends to add flavour to cooked food, even though the taste of the oil on its own is often unpleasant. This fact has encouraged the popularity of high fat foods, many of which are classified as junk food. Junk food is a broad term that is used to describe a variety of Food products from Sweets that contain little to no Nutritional value to products used in
Cooking include simple sugars such as glucose (from table sugar) and fructose (from fruit), and starches from sources such as cereal flour, rice, arrowroot, potato. Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing Sugar ( Monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many Arrowroot, or obedience plant ( Maranta arundinacea) is a large perennial Herb of genus Maranta found in Rainforest The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae The interaction of heat and carbohydrate is complex.
Long-chain sugars such as starch tend to break down into more simple sugars when cooked, while simple sugars can form syrups. Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single sacchar: sugar are the most basic unit of Carbohydrates They consist of one sugar and In Cooking, a syrup (from Arabic' ar شراب sharab, beverage via Latin siropus) is a thick Viscous Liquid If sugars are heated so that all water of crystallisation is driven off, then caramelisation starts, with the sugar undergoing thermal decomposition with the formation of carbon, and other breakdown products producing caramel. Crystallization is the (natural or artificial process of formation of solid Crystals precipitating from a homogeneous --> identical Solution Caramelization or caramelisation is the Oxidation of Sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting nutty flavor and brown color Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Caramel (pronounced /ˈkærəmɛl/ or /ˈkɑrməl/ refers to a range of confections that are Beige to dark brown in Color, derived from the Similarly, the heating of sugars and proteins elicits the Maillard reaction, a basic flavor-enhancing technique. The Maillard reaction is a Chemical reaction between an Amino acid and a Reducing sugar, usually requiring Heat.
An emulsion of starch with fat or water can, when gently heated, provide thickening to the dish being cooked. An emulsion ( IPA: /ɪˈmʌlʃən/ is a mixture of two Immiscible (unblendable liquids Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water In European cooking, a mixture of butter and flour called a roux is used to thicken liquids to make stews or sauces. Butter is a Dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented Cream or Milk. Flour is a powder made of Cereal grains It is the key ingredient of Bread, which is a staple food in many countries and therefore the availability Roux (ˈruː (pronounced somewhat like the English word "rue" is a mixture of wheat Flour and Fat, traditionally butter In Asian cooking, a similar effect is obtained from a mixture of rice or corn starch and water. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica These techniques rely on the properties of starches to create simpler mucilaginous saccharides during cooking, which causes the familiar thickening of sauces. In Cooking, a sauce is Liquid or sometimes semi- Solid food served on or used in preparing other Foods Sauces are not consumed by themselves This thickening will break down, however, under additional heat.
If heat is used in the preparation of food, this can kill or inactivate potentially harmful organisms including bacteria and viruses. Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling preparation, and storage of Food in ways that prevent Foodborne illness. The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have A virus (from the Latin virus meaning Toxin or Poison) is a sub-microscopic infectious agent that is unable The effect will depend on temperature, cooking time, and technique used. The temperature range from 41°F to 135°F (5°C to 57°C) is the "food danger zone. " Between these temperatures bacteria can grow rapidly. Under optimal conditions, E. coli, for example, can double in number every twenty minutes. The food may not appear any different or spoiled but can be harmful to anyone who eats it. Meat, poultry, dairy products, and other prepared food must be kept outside of the "food danger zone" to remain safe to eat. In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer Poultry is the category of Domesticated Birds which some humans keep for the purpose of collecting their eggs, or kill for their Meat and/or Refrigeration and freezing do not kill bacteria, but only slow their growth. Refrigeration is the process of removing Heat from an enclosed space or from a substance and moving it to a place where it is unobjectionable When cooling hot food, it shouldn't be left on the side or in a blast chiller (an appliance used to quickly cool food) for more than 90 minutes.
Cutting boards are a potential breeding ground for bacteria, and can be quite hazardous unless safety precautions are taken. A cutting board is a durable board used to place material on to be cut The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have Plastic cutting boards are less porous than wood and have conventionally been assumed to be far less likely to harbor bacteria.  This has been debated, and some research have shown wooden boards are far better.  Washing and sanitizing cutting boards is highly recommended, especially after use with raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Disinfectants are Antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy Microorganisms, the process of which is known as disinfection. Hot water and soap followed by a rinse with an antibacterial cleaner (dilute bleach is common in a mixture of 1 tablespoon per gallon of water, as at that dilution it is considered food safe, though some professionals choose not to use this method because they believe it could taint some foods), or a trip through a dishwasher with a "sanitize" cycle, are effective methods for reducing the risk of illness due to contaminated cooking implements. A tablespoon is a type of Spoon used for serving Measure of volume It is also a measure of Volume used in cooking A gallon is a measure of Volume. It is in current use in the United States and still has limited use in many other English-speaking countries 
The application of scientific knowledge to cooking and gastronomy has become known as molecular gastronomy. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between Culture and Food. Molecular gastronomy is a scientific discipline involving the study of physical and chemical processes that occur in cooking This is a subdiscipline of food science. Food science is a discipline concerned with all technical aspects of Food, beginning with Harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its Cooking Important contributions have been made by scientists, chefs and authors such as Herve This (chemist), Nicholas Kurti (physicist), Peter Barham (physicist), Harold McGee (author), Shirley Corriher (biochemist, author), Heston Blumenthal (chef), Ferran Adria (chef), Robert Wolke (chemist, author) and Pierre Gagnaire (chef). Hervé This (tis born 1955 in Suresnes) is a French physical chemist who works at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. Professor Nicholas Kurti (Kürti Miklós FRS ( 14 May 1908 - 24 November 1998) was a Hungarian -born Physicist who lived Professor Peter Barham is a Professorial Teaching Fellow in Physics at the University of Bristol, UK and visiting Professor of Molecular Gastronomy at the Harold McGee is an American author who writes about the Chemistry, technique and history of food and cooking and has written two books on kitchen science Shirley O Corriher (born 1935 is a Biochemist and author of CookWise The Hows and Whys of Successful Cooking, winner of a James Beard Foundation award Heston Blumenthal OBE (born May 27, 1966 in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire) is the Chef and owner of The Fat Duck Ferran Adrià Acosta is a Chef born on May 14, 1962 in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain. Robert L Wolke is a Professor emeritus of Chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh. Pierre Gagnaire ( 9 April 1950 in Apinac) is a well known French chef and is the Head Chef and owner of the eponymous Pierre Gagnaire restaurant
The culinary triangle is a concept thought up by Claude Lévi-Strauss involving three types of cooking; these are boiling, roasting, and smoking, usually done to meats. Claude Lévi-Strauss (klod levi stʁos born 28 November 1908 is a French Anthropologist. Boiling (also called ebullition) a type of Phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a Liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid Smoking is the process of flavoring, Cooking, or preserving Food by exposing it to the Smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer 
The boiling of meat is looked at as a cultural way of cooking because it uses a receptacle to hold water, therefore it is not completely natural. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. It is also the most preferred way to cook because neither any of the meat or its juices are lost. In most cultures, this form of cooking is most represented by women and is served domestically to small closed groups, such as families. Roasting of meat is a natural way of cooking because it uses no receptacle. It is done by directly exposing the meat to the fire. Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. It is most commonly offered to guests and is associated with men in many cultures. As opposed to boiling, meat can lose some parts, thus it is also associated with destruction and loss. Smoking meat is also a natural way of cooking. It is also done without a receptacle and in the same way as roasting. It is a slower method of roasting, however, which makes it somewhat like boiling.