|Convention on Psychotropic Substances|
|Opened for signature||February 21, 1971 in Vienna|
|Entered into force||August 16, 1976|
|Conditions for entry into force||40 ratifications|
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. A signature (from Latin signare, " Sign " is a handwritten (and sometimes stylized depiction of someone's name nickname or even a simple Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Coming into force (also called enforcement or enactment) is a term that refers to the process by which Legislation, or part of legislation and Events 1384 - The Hongwu Emperor of Ming China, Emperor Dong hears a case of a couple who tore paper money bills while fighting Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A party is a Person or group of persons that compose a single Entity which can be identified as one for the purposes of the Law. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security A Treaty is an agreement under International law entered into by actors in international law namely States and International organizations. A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a Chemical substance that acts primarily upon the Central nervous system where it alters Brain Amphetamine, and related drugs such as Methamphetamine are a group of drugs that act by increasing levels of Norepinephrine, Serotonin, and Dopamine Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system Depressants and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects from mild Sedation Psychedelic drugs are Psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain and perception of the mind During the 1960s, drug use increased greatly around the world, especially in Western nations. Inspired by psychedelic advocates such as Aldous Huxley and Timothy Leary, millions of people experimented with powerful hallucinogens, and drugs of all kinds became freely available. Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 &ndash 22 November 1963 was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. Timothy Francis Leary ( October 22, 1920 &ndash May 31, 1996) was an American Writer, Psychologist, Futurist The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories Psychedelics, Dissociatives Recreational drug use is the use of Psychoactive drugs for Recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes Government authorities saw this as immoral and destructive to economic progress. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 could not ban the many newly discovered psychotropics, since its scope was limited to drugs with cannabis-, coca-, and opium-like effects. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is an international Treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally Narcotic) Drugs and of drugs Cannabis, also known as marijuana or marihuana, or ganja (from Hindi / Sanskrit: गांजा gānjā hemp) is a Not to be confused with Cocoa. Coca is a Plant in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to north-western South America Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies (
On February 21, 1971, a conference of plenipotentiaries in Vienna signed a new Convention worded to include almost any conceivable mind-altering substance. Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The word plenipotentiary (from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + power has two meanings Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. The Convention, which contains import and export restrictions and other rules aimed at limiting drug use to scientific and medical purposes, came into force on August 16, 1976. Events 1384 - The Hongwu Emperor of Ming China, Emperor Dong hears a case of a couple who tore paper money bills while fighting Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Today, 175 nations are Parties to the treaty. Many laws have been passed to implement the Convention, including the U.S. Psychotropic Substances Act, the UK Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, and the Canadian Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 amended the Controlled Substances Act to ensure compliance with the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (c38 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canada 's federal drug control statute Like the treaty itself, these statutes usually divide drugs into several classes or Schedules.
Provisions to end the international trafficking of drugs covered by this Convention are contained in the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force This treaty, signed in 1988, regulates precursor chemicals to drugs controlled by the Single Convention and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. It also strengthens provisions against money laundering and other drug-related crimes. Money laundering is the practice of engaging in financial Transactions in order to conceal the Identity, source and/or destination of Money, Illegal drugs are related to crime in multiple ways Most directly it is a crime to use possess manufacture or distribute drugs classified as having a potential for abuse
Adolf Lande, under the direction of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, prepared the Commentary on the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Adolf Lande served for many years as secretary of the Permanent Central Narcotics Board and the Drug Supervisory Body (two international drug organs and was the primary drafter The United Nations Office of Legal Affairs is a United Nations agency established in 1946, that performs several key functions in the area of International law The Commentary, published in 1976, is an invaluable aid to interpreting the treaty and constitutes a key part of its legislative history. Legislative history includes any of various materials generated in the course of creating Legislation, such as committee reports analysis by legislative counsel committee hearings
International drug control began with the 1912 International Opium Convention, a treaty which adopted import and export restrictions on the poppy's psychoactive derivatives. The International Opium Convention, signed at The Hague on January 23, 1912, was the first international drug control treaty A poppy is any of a number of showy Flowers typically withone per stem, belonging to the poppy family. Over the next half-century, several additional treaties were adopted under League of Nations auspices, gradually expanding the list of controlled substances to encompass cocaine and other drugs and granting the Permanent Central Opium Board power to monitor compliance. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions After the United Nations was formed in 1945, those enforcement functions passed to the UN. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
In 1961, a conference of plenipotentiaries in New York adopted the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, which consolidated the existing drug control treaties into one document and added cannabis to the list of prohibited plants. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is an international Treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally Narcotic) Drugs and of drugs Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp In order to appease the pharmaceutical interests, the Single Convention's scope was sharply limited to the list of drugs enumerated in the Schedules annexed to the treaty and to those drugs determined to have similar effects.
During the 1960s, a wave of drug use spread across Western developed nations, to the point where it appeared to alarmed policymakers to be reaching epidemic proportions. Inspired by Aldous Huxley, Timothy Leary, and a host of other psychedelic avatars, young people began using hallucinogenic, stimulant, and other drugs on a widespread scale. Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 &ndash 22 November 1963 was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. Timothy Francis Leary ( October 22, 1920 &ndash May 31, 1996) was an American Writer, Psychologist, Futurist In many jurisdictions, police had no laws under which to prosecute users and traffickers of these new drugs; LSD, for instance, was not prohibited federally in the U. S. until 1967.
In 1968, "[d]eeply concerned at reports of serious damage to health being caused by LSD and similar hallucinogenic substances," the UN Economic and Social Council passed a resolution calling on nations to limit the use of such drugs to scientific and medical purposes and to impose import and export restrictions. The Economic and Social Council ( ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation  Later that year, the UN General Assembly requested that ECOSOC call upon the Commission on Narcotic Drugs to "give urgent attention to the problem of the abuse of the psychotropic substances not yet under international control, including the possibility of placing such substances under international control". Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members Commission on Narcotic Drugs is the central drug policy-making body within the United Nations system 
Circa 1969, with use of stimulants growing, ECOSOC noted with considerable consternation that the Commission "was unable to reach agreement on the applicability of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 to these substances". Stimulant drugs are Drugs that temporarily increase alertness and awareness  The language of the Single Convention and its legislative history precluded any interpretation that would allow international regulation of these drugs under that treaty. A new convention, with a broader scope, would be required in order to bring those substances under control. Using the Single Convention as a template, the Commission prepared a draft convention which was forwarded to all UN member states. The UN Secretary-General scheduled a conference for early 1971 to finalize the treaty. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. 
Meanwhile, countries had already begun passing legislation to implement the draft treaty. In 1969, Canada added Part IV to its Food and Drugs Act, placing a set of "restricted substances," including LSD, DMT, and MDA, under federal control. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Dimethyltryptamine (DMT also known as NN -dimethyltryptamine, is a naturally occurring Tryptamine and potent psychedelic drug found not only in 34-Methylenedioxyamphetamine ( MDA or Tenamfetamine) is a Psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and empathogen/entactogen of the In 1970, the United States completely revamped its existing drug control laws by enacting the Controlled Substances Act (amended in 1978 by the Psychotropic Substances Act, which allows the U. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Controlled Substances Act ( CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control The Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 amended the Controlled Substances Act to ensure compliance with the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. S. drug control Schedules to be updated as needed to comply with the Convention). In 1971, the United Kingdom passed the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (c38 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs A host of other nations followed suit. A common feature shared by most implementing legislation is the establishment of several classes or Schedules of controlled substances, similarly to the Single Convention and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, so that compliance with international law can be assured simply by placing a drug into the appropriate Schedule.
The conference convened on January 11, 1971. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Nations split into two rival factions, based on their interests. According to a Canadian Senate report, "One group included mostly developed nations with powerful pharmaceutical industries and active psychotropics markets . The Senate of Canada (Le Sénat du Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the sovereign (represented by the governor general . . The other group consisted of developing states. . . with few psychotropic manufacturing facilities".  The organic drugmaking states that had suffered economically from the Single Convention's restrictions on cannabis, coca, and opium, fought for tough regulations on synthetic drugs. Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp Not to be confused with Cocoa. Coca is a Plant in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to north-western South America Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( The synthetic drug-producing states opposed those restrictions. Ultimately, the developing states' lobbying power was no match for the powerful pharmaceutical industry's, and the international regulations that emerged at the conference's close on February 21 were considerably weaker than those of the Single Convention. Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland
The Convention's adoption marked a major milestone in the development of the global drug control regime. Over 59 years, the system had evolved from a set of loose controls focused on a single drug into a comprehensive regulatory framework capable of encompassing almost any mind-altering substance imaginable. According to Rufus King, "It covers such a grab-bag of natural and manufactured items that at every stage of its consideration its proponents felt obliged to stress anew that it would not affect alcohol or tobacco abuse. "
The Convention has four Schedules of controlled substances, ranging from Schedule I (most restrictive) to Schedule IV (least restrictive). A list of psychotropic substances, and their corresponding Schedules, was annexed to the 1971 treaty. A 2002 European Parliament report describes the Schedules as follows:
A 1999 UNODC report notes that Schedule I is a completely different regime from the other three. According to that report, Schedule I mostly contains hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD that are produced by illicit laboratories, while the other three Schedules are mainly for licitly produced pharmaceuticals. The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories Psychedelics, Dissociatives The UNODC report also claims that the Convention's Schedule I controls are stricter than those provided for under the Single Convention, a contention that seems to be contradicted by the 2002 Canadian Senate and 2003 European Parliament reports. The Senate of Canada (Le Sénat du Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the sovereign (represented by the governor general The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU 
Although estimates and other controls specified by the Single Convention are not present in the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the International Narcotics Control Board corrected the omission by asking Parties to submit information and statistics not required by the Convention, and using the initial positive responses from various organic drug producing states to convince others to follow. The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions  In addition, the Convention does impose tighter restrictions on imports and exports of Schedule I substances. A 1970 Bulletin on Narcotics report notes:
Article 2 sets out a process for adding additional drugs to the Schedules. First, the World Health Organization (WHO) must find that the drug meets the specific criteria set forth in Article 2, Section 4, and thus is eligible for control. Then, the WHO issues an assessment of the substance that includes:
The Commission on Narcotic Drugs makes the final decision on whether to add the drug to a Schedule, "taking into account the communication from the World Health Organization, whose assessments shall be determinative as to medical and scientific matters, and bearing in mind the economic, social, legal, administrative and other factors it may consider relevant". Commission on Narcotic Drugs is the central drug policy-making body within the United Nations system A similar process is followed in deleting a drug from the Schedules or transferring a drug between Schedules. For instance, at its 33rd meeting, the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence recommended transferring tetrahydrocannabinol to Schedule IV of the Convention, citing its medical uses and low abuse potential. 
The UN Economic and Social Council is the only body with the power to alter or reverse the Commission's scheduling decisions. The Economic and Social Council ( ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation
In the event of a disagreement about a drug's Scheduling, Article 2, Paragraph 7 allows a Party to, within 180 days of the communication of the Commission's decision, give the UN Secretary-General "a written notice that, in view of exceptional circumstances, it is not in a position to give effect with respect to that substance to all of the provisions of the Convention applicable to substances in that Schedule. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. " This allows the nation to comply with a less stringent set of restrictions. The U. S. Controlled Substances Act's 21 U. The Controlled Substances Act ( CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control S. C. § 811(d)(4) implies that placing a drug in Schedule IV or V of the Act is sufficient to "carry out the minimum United States obligations under paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention".  This provision, which calls for temporarily placing a drug under federal drug control in the event the Convention requires it, was invoked in 1984 with rohypnol. Flunitrazepam (ˌfluːnaɪˈtræzəpæm is a highly potent Hypnotic drug with powerful Sedative, Anxiolytic, Amnestic, and Skeletal Long before abuse of the drug was sufficiently widespread in the United States to meet the Act's drug control criteria, rohypnol was added to the Schedules of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the U. S. government had to place rohypnol in Schedule IV of the Controlled Substances Act in order to meet its minimum treaty obligations. 
As of March 2005, 111 substances were controlled under the Convention.
In 1998, ephedrine was recommended for control under the Convention. Ephedrine (EPH is a Sympathomimetic Amine commonly used as a Stimulant, appetite suppressant concentration aid Decongestant, and to treat The Dietary Supplement Safety and Science Coalition lobbied against control, stressing the drug's history and safety, and arguing that "ephedrine is not a controlled substance in the US today, nor should it be internationally".  After a two-year debate, the Expert Committee on Drug Dependence decided against regulating ephedrine. However, the Commission on Narcotics Drugs and the International Narcotics Control Board listed the drug as a Table I precursor under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, a move that did not require WHO approval. The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force
The Expert Committee on Drug Dependence cautiously began investigating ketamine at its thirty-third meeting, noting, "Its use in veterinary medicine must also be considered in relation to its control". Ketamine is a drug for use in human and veterinary medicine developed by Parke-Davis (today a part of Pfizer) in 1962  Ketamine remains uncontrolled internationally, although many nations have enacted restrictions on the drug.
The Expert Committee's evaluation of MDMA, or Ecstasy, during its twenty-second meeting was marked by pleas from doctors to allow further research into the drug's therapeutic uses. MDMA ( 34-methylenedioxy- N -methylamphetamine) most commonly known today by the street name Ecstasy (often abbreviated E, X, The UN was under considerable pressure from the United States government to control the drug in the wake of extensive seizures of the drug by American authorities. Paul Grof, chairman of the Expert Committee, argued that international control was not yet warranted, and that scheduling should be delayed pending completion of more studies. Paul Grof, a psychiatrist was a member of the World Health Organization committee that evaluated ecstasy. The Expert Committee concluded that because there was "insufficient evidence to indicate that the substance has therapeutic usefulness," it should be placed in Schedule I. However, its report did recommend more MDMA research:
Circa 1994, the United States government notified the UN Secretary General that it supported controlling methcathinone, an addictive stimulant manufactured with common household products, as a Schedule I drug under the Convention. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. Methcathinone ( 2-(methylamino-propiophenone, α-methylamino-propiophenone) is a Psychoactive Stimulant. The FDA report warned of the drug's dangers, even noting that addicts in Russia were observed to often have "potassium permanganate burns on their fingers" and to "tend not to pay attention to their appearance, thus looking ragged with dirty hands and hair". Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Potassium permanganate is the Chemical compound K[[manganese Mn]] O 4  With methcathinone having no medical use, the decision to place the drug in Schedule I was uncontested.
Traditionally, the UN has been reluctant to control nicotine and other drugs traditionally legal in Europe and North America, citing tolerance of a wide range of lifestyles. Nicotine is an Alkaloid found in the Nightshade family of plants ( Solanaceae) which constitutes approximately 0 This contrasts with the regulatory regime for other highly addictive drugs. Gabriel Nahas, in a Bulletin on Narcotics report, noted:
Nonetheless, in October 1996, the Expert Committee considered controlling nicotine, especially products such as gum, patches, nasal spray, and inhalers.  The UN ultimately left nicotine unregulated. Since then, nicotine products have become even more loosely controlled; Nicorette gum, for instance, is now an over-the-counter drug in the United States. Over-the-counter (OTC drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to Prescription drugs The name "over-the-counter"
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in cannabis, was originally placed in Schedule I when the Convention was enacted in 1971. Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp At its twenty-sixth meeting, the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence recommended that THC be transferred to Schedule II, citing its low abuse potential. The Commission on Narcotic Drugs rejected the proposal. At its thirty-third meeting, the Committee issued another evaluation of the drug, stating:
At its 1045th meeting, on April 29, 1991, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs approved the transfer of dronabinol and its stereochemical variants from Schedule I to Schedule II of the Convention, while leaving other tetrahydrocannabinols and their stereochemical variants in Schedule I. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar.
Like the Single Convention, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances recognizes scientific and medical use of psychoactive drugs, while banning other uses. Article 7 provides that, in respect of Schedule I substances, the Parties shall "[p]rohibit all use except for scientific and very limited medical purposes by duly authorized persons, in medical or scientific establishments which are directly under the control of their Governments or specifically approved by them".
In this sense, the U. S. Controlled Substances Act is stricter than the Convention requires. The Controlled Substances Act ( CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Both have a tightly restricted category of drugs called Schedule I, but the Act prohibits medical use of Schedule I substances, while the Convention allows limited medical use of all substances.
Article 32 allows an exemption for peyote and other "plants growing wild which contain psychotropic substances from among those in Schedule I and which are traditionally used by certain small, clearly determined groups in magical or religious rites". Lophophora williamsii (loʊˈfɒfərə wɪlˈjæmsiaɪ lō-fof′ŏ-ră will-yăm′sē-ī better known by its common name Peyote, (from the However, this provision can only be invoked if a Party makes a reservation at the time of signature, ratification or accession. The U. S. Government, in Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal, argued that this is an extremely limited exemption. Gonzales v O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal, 546 U That case involved a seizure by U.S. Customs and Border Protection of several drums of DMT-containing liquid derived from ayahuasca. The United States Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP known as U Dimethyltryptamine (DMT also known as NN -dimethyltryptamine, is a naturally occurring Tryptamine and potent psychedelic drug found not only in This entry focuses on the Ayahuasca brew for information on the vine of the same name see Banisteriopsis caapi Ayahuasca Plaintiffs sued to have the drugs returned to them, claiming that they used it as a central part of their religion. 
The Commentary on the Convention on Psychotropic Substances notes that while many plant-derived chemicals are controlled by the treaty, the plants themselves are not:
Mexico, in particular, argued that "production" of psychotropic drugs should not apply to wild-growing plants such as peyote cacti or psilocybin mushrooms. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Lophophora williamsii (loʊˈfɒfərə wɪlˈjæmsiaɪ lō-fof′ŏ-ră will-yăm′sē-ī better known by its common name Peyote, (from the Psilocybin (IPA /saɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic Indole of the Tryptamine family found in Psilocybin The Bulletin on Narcotics noted that "Mexico could not undertake to eradicate or destroy these plants". The Bulletin on Narcotics is a publication of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.  Compared to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (which calls for "uprooting of all coca bushes which grow wild" and governmental licensing, purchasing, and wholesaling of licit opium, coca, and cannabis crops), the Convention on Psychotropic Substances devotes few words to the subject of psychoactive plants. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is an international Treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally Narcotic) Drugs and of drugs
On July 2, 1987, the United States Assistant Secretary of Health recommended that the Drug Enforcement Administration initiate scheduling action under the Controlled Substances Act in order to implement restrictions required by cathinone's Schedule I status under the Convention. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and The Controlled Substances Act ( CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Cathinone ( β - keto[[amphetamine]] is a Monoamine Alkaloid found in the Shrub Catha edulis ( Khat The 1993 DEA rule placing cathinone in the CSA's Schedule I noted that it was effectively also banning khat:
This provision was eventually judged to be inadequate, and was strengthened by the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances's precursor control regime, which established two Tables of controlled precursors. The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force The Commission on Narcotic Drugs and International Narcotics Control Board were put in charge of adding, removing, and transferring substances between the Tables. Commission on Narcotic Drugs is the central drug policy-making body within the United Nations system The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions
Circa 1999, the Government of Spain proposed amending Schedules I and II to include isomers, esters, ethers, salts of isomers, esters and ethers, and any "substance resulting from modification of the chemical structure of a substance already in Schedule I or II and which produced pharmacological effects similar to those produced by the original substances". Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. This article is about the chemical concept For "isomerism" of atomic nuclei see Nuclear isomer. Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least Ether is a class of Organic compounds which contain an ether group — an Oxygen Atom connected to two (substituted Alkyl  The WHO opposed this change. The Commission on Narcotic Drugs did amend the Schedules to include stereoisomers, however, with the understanding that "specific isomers that did not have hazardous pharmacological activity and that posed no danger to society could be excluded from control, as dextromethorphan had been in the case of Schedule I of the 1961 Convention. Commission on Narcotic Drugs is the central drug policy-making body within the United Nations system Stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution but which differ in the three dimensional orientations Dextromethorphan ( DXM or DM) is an Antitussive (cough suppressant drug found in many over-the-counter cold and Cough medicines "
Article 22 provides:
Conspiracy, attempts, preparatory acts, and financial operations related to drug offenses are also required to be criminalized. In the Criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between Natural persons to break the law at some time in the future and in some cases with at least one overt act Party also must count convictions handed down by foreign governments in determining recidivism. Recidivism ( IPA: /ɹɪˈsɪdɪvɪzm̩/ From recidive + ism, from Latin recidīvus "recurring" from re- Article 22 also contains extradition provision, although a nation can refuse to grant extradition if its "competent authorities consider that the offence is not sufficiently serious. Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal "
Article 22 allows Parties, in implementing the Convention's penal provisions, to make exceptions for drug abusers by substituting "treatment, education, after-care, rehabilitation and social reintegration" for imprisonment. Drug rehabilitation (often drug rehab or just rehab) is an umbrella term for the processes of medical and/or psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of This reflects a shift in focus in the war on drugs from incarceration to treatment and prevention that had already begun to take hold by 1971. Indeed, in 1972, a parallel provision allowing treatment for drug abusers was added to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs by the Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was a protocal that made several changes to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.
Article 20 mandates drug treatment, education, and prevention measures and requires Parties to assist efforts to "gain an understanding of the problems of abuse of psychotropic substances and of its prevention" and to "promote such understanding among the general public if there is a risk that abuse of such substances will become widespread. " To comply with these provisions, most Parties financially support organizations and agencies dedicated to these goals. The United States, for instance, established the National Institute on Drug Abuse in 1974 to comply with the research requirement and began sponsoring Drug Abuse Resistance Education in 1983 to help fulfill the educational and prevention requirements. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science Drug Abuse Resistance Education, better known as DARE or DARE, is an international education program that seeks to prevent use of Illegal drugs, membership
A 1998 UN General Assembly Special Session on the World Drug Problem report noted:
The report mentioned proposals to increase the flexibility of scheduling drugs under the Convention and to amend the drug-control treaties to make them more responsive to the current situation. Neither proposal has gained traction, however. Due to the ease of manufacturing methamphetamine, methcathinone, and certain other stimulants, control measures are focusing less on preventing drugs from crossing borders. Instead, they are centering around increasingly long prison sentences for manufacturers and traffickers as well as regulations on large purchases of precursors such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Ephedrine (EPH is a Sympathomimetic Amine commonly used as a Stimulant, appetite suppressant concentration aid Decongestant, and to treat Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE is a sympathomimetic Amine commonly used as a Decongestant. The International Narcotics Control Board and Commission on Narcotic Drugs help coordinate this fight by adding additional precursors to the Tables of chemicals controlled under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force
In 1997, ECOSOC called on nations to help enforce international law by cooperating "with relevant international organizations, such as the International Criminal Police Organization and the World Customs Organization . The International Criminal Police Organization, better known by its telegraphic address Interpol is an organization facilitating international police cooperation The World Customs Organization ( WCO) is an Intergovernmental organization that helps Members (Governments usually represented by Customs administrations from 173 countries . . in order to promote coordinated international action in the fight against illicit demand for and supply of amphetamine-type stimulants and their precursors. " That resolution also called on governments overseeing precursor exports "to inquire with the authorities of importing States about the legitimacy of transactions of concern, and to inform the International Narcotics Control Board of the action taken, particularly when they do not receive any reply to their inquiries". 
Pockets of high-intensity clandestine production and trafficking, such as rural southwest Virginia, exist in most industrialized nations. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state However, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime believes that East Asia (particularly Thailand) now has the most serious amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) problem in the world. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC is a United Nations agency that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj A 2002 report by that agency noted:
The Office called on nations to bring more resources to bear in the demand reduction effort, improving treatment and rehabilitation processes, increasing private sector participation in eliminating drugs from the workplace, and expanding the drug information clearing house to share information more effectively. Demand reduction refers to efforts aimed at reducing public desire illegal and illicit drugs Drug rehabilitation (often drug rehab or just rehab) is an umbrella term for the processes of medical and/or psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency
In 2000, the International Narcotics Control Board chastised Canada for refusing to comply with the Convention's requirement that international transactions in controlled psychotropics be reported to the Board. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page INCB Secretary Herbert Schaepe said:
To a Board already worried by European experiments with harm reduction and cannabis liberalization, the quiet Canadian defiance of treaty obligations seemed to be another hairline crack in the foundation of global drug control. Harm reduction is a Philosophy of Public health, intended to be a progressive alternative to the prohibition of certain potentially dangerous
In an unusual departure from its normally pro-industry leanings, the INCB issued a press release in 2001 warning of excessive use of licit psychotropics:
The Board also warned that the Internet provides "easy access to information on drug production and drug-taking," calling it "a growing source of on-line drug trafficking. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs " The Board pointed out that some Internet suppliers sell controlled drugs without regard to the Convention's medical prescription requirements. A prescription (℞ is a health-care program implemented by a Physician or other medical practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual