|History of European art music|
|Medieval||(500 – 1400)|
|Renaissance||(1400 – 1600)|
|Baroque||(1600 – 1760)|
|Classical||(1730 – 1820)|
|Romantic||(1815 – 1910)|
|Modern and contemporary|
|20th century classical||(1900 – 2000)|
|Contemporary classical||(1975 – present)|
Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to a period that started in the mid-1970s with the retreat of modernism. Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music Early music is commonly defined as European classical music from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque. The term medieval music encompasses European music written during the Middle Ages. Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 - 1600 The common practice period, in the history of European Art music (broadly called Classical music) spanning the Baroque, Classical, and Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as 1750 to 1810 Romantic Music is a Musicological term referring to a particular period theory compositional practice and canon in European music history from about 1815 to 1910 At the turn of the 20th century classical music was characteristically late Romantic in style while at the same time the Impressionist movement spearheaded by Claude Debussy Modernism in music is characterized by a desire for or belief in progress and Science, Surrealism, anti-romanticism Political Advocacy, general  However the term may also be employed in a broader sense to refer to the post-1945 modern forms of post-tonal music from the death of Anton Webern (including serial music, Concrete music, experimental music, etc. Modernism in music is characterized by a desire for or belief in progress and Science, Surrealism, anti-romanticism Political Advocacy, general WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Anton Webern (December 3 1883 &ndash September 15 1945 was an Austrian Composer In Music, serialism is a technique for composition that uses sets to describe musical elements, and allows the manipulation of those Musique concrète ( French; literally "concrete music" is a style of Avant-garde music that relies on recorded sounds including natural Experimental music is a term introduced by composer John Cage in 1955 )
At the beginning of the 20th century, composers of classical music were experimenting with an increasingly dissonant pitch language, which sometimes yielded atonal pieces. At the turn of the 20th century classical music was characteristically late Romantic in style while at the same time the Impressionist movement spearheaded by Claude Debussy Atonality in its broadest sense describes Music that lacks a tonal center, or key. Following World War I, as a backlash against what they saw as the excesses of Romanticism, composers adopted a neoclassic style, which sought to recapture the elegance and emotional distance of the classical era; see also New Objectivity and Social Realism). Neoclassicism in music was a 20th century development particularly popular in the period between the two World Wars in which composers drew inspiration from music of the 18th century The New Objectivity, or Neue Sachlichkeit (new dispassion was an art movement that arose in Germany in the early 1920s as an outgrowth of and in opposition to Social Realism, also known as Socio-Realism, is an Artistic movement, expressed in the visual and other realist arts, which depicts Working class After World War II, modernist composers sought to achieve greater levels of control in their composition process (e. g. , through the use of the twelve tone technique and later total serialism). Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony, especially in British usage twelve-note composition) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold In Music, serialism is a technique for composition that uses sets to describe musical elements, and allows the manipulation of those At the same time, conversely, composers also experimented with means of abdicating control, exploring indeterminacy or aleatoric processes in smaller or larger degrees.  Technological advances led to the birth of electronic music.  Experimentation with tape loops and repetitive textures contributed to the advent of minimalism. Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design especially Visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features  Still other composers started exploring the theatrical potential of the musical performance (performance art, mixed media, fluxus). This article is about Performance art For other uses see Performance (disambiguation Mixed media, in Visual art, refers to an artwork in the making of which more than one medium has been employed Fluxus —a name taken from a Latin word meaning "to flow"—is an international network of artists composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media 
Since the 1970s there has been increasing stylistic variety, with far too many schools to count, name or label. However, in general, there are four broad trends.
Many of the key figures of the high modern movement are alive, or only recently deceased, and there is also still an extremely active core of composers (e. Modernism in music is characterized by a desire for or belief in progress and Science, Surrealism, anti-romanticism Political Advocacy, general g. , Elliott Carter and Lukas Foss), performers, and listeners who continue to advance the ideas and forms of Modernism. Elliott Cook Carter Jr (born in New York City on December 11, 1908) is an American Composer from New York City. Lukas Foss (born Lukas Fuchs, August 15, 1922 in Berlin, Germany) is an American Composer, conductor
Serialism is one of the most important post-war movements among the high modernist schools. In Music, serialism is a technique for composition that uses sets to describe musical elements, and allows the manipulation of those Serialism, more specifically named "integral" or "compound" serialism, was led by composers such as Pierre Boulez, Bruno Maderna, Luigi Nono, and Karlheinz Stockhausen in Europe, and by Milton Babbitt, Donald Martino, and Charles Wuorinen in America. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Pierre Boulez (pjɛʁ buˈlɛz (b Bruno Maderna ( 21 April 1920 &ndash 13 November 1973) was an Italian - German conductor and Composer Luigi Nono ( January 29, 1924 – May 8, 1990) was an Italian Avant-garde Composer of Classical music Milton Byron Babbitt (born May 10 1916 is an American Composer. Donald Martino ( May 16, 1931 – December 8, 2005) was a Pulitzer Prize winning American Composer. Charles Wuorinen (b June 9, 1938 in New York City is an American Composer. Some of their compositions use an ordered set or several such sets, which may be the basis for the whole composition, while others use "unordered" sets for the same purpose. The term is also often used for dodecaphony, or twelve-tone technique, which is alternatively regarded as the model for integral serialism. Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony, especially in British usage twelve-note composition) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony, especially in British usage twelve-note composition) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold
Modernism is also present as surface or trope in works of a large range of composers, as atonality has lost much of its ability to scare listeners, and even film scores use sections of music clearly rooted in modernist musical language. In Music a trope is In Medieval music From the Greek τρόπος ( tropos) "turn" related to the root of
Active modernist composers include Harrison Birtwistle, Alexander Goehr, Thomas Adès, Magnus Lindberg and Gunther Schuller. Sir Harrison Paul Birtwistle CH (born 15 July, 1934) is a British contemporary Composer. Alexander Goehr (born 10 August 1932 in Berlin) is an English Composer and academic Thomas Adès (born in London, 1 March 1971) is a British Composer, Pianist and conductor. Magnus Lindberg (born June 27, 1958) is a Finnish Composer. Lindberg was born in Helsinki. Gunther Schuller (born November 22 1925) is an American Composer and horn player
Explanations of what post-modernism is, and why it is influential, vary widely, as do opinions regarding whether post-modernism is "good" for music (or even good per se). Postmodern music is music which follows the postmodern ideology There is wide agreement that composers of instrumental concert music and "art music" have absorbed ideas from the wider culture and that these influences can be detected in their music. Examples include polystylism (juxtaposition of fragments of music of different genres and styles, collage, bricolage), the use of found sounds, recorded voices, the shift from increasingly chromatic surfaces to more triadic ones or the reverse, the use of new instrumental combinations, the use of instruments extraneous to the Western concert tradition or altogether non-Western instruments, and the combining of composition with video and other visual media. Polystylism is the use of multiple styles or techniques of music and is seen as a Postmodern characteristic Key figures include the Scottish composer James MacMillan (who draws on sources as diverse as plainchant, South American 'liberation theology', Scottish folksongs, and Polish avant-garde techniques of the 1960s (Johnson 2001)), the American Michael Torke (drawing on European music of the early nineteenth century, minimalism, jazz, and popular music (Chute 2001)), and Mark-Anthony Turnage from the UK (drawing from jazz, rock, Stravinsky, and Berg (Cross 2001)). James M(acMillan may be James McMillan (Senator (1838&ndash1902 a Senator and politician from Michigan USA James MacMillan (composer See also Michael Torke (TOR-key (born September 22 1961) is an American Composer who writes music influenced by Jazz Mark-Anthony Turnage (born June 10, 1960 in Corringham Essex) is an English Composer of classical music.
The minimalist generation still has a prominent role in new composition. Minimalist music is an originally American genre of experimental or Downtown music named in the 1960s based mostly in consonant harmony, steady Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by or attempts to develop and go beyond the aesthetic of Minimalism. Philip Glass has been expanding his symphony cycle, while John Adams's On the Transmigration of Souls, a choral work commemorating the victims of the September 11, 2001 attacks, won a Pulitzer Prize. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Philip Glass (born January 31 John Coolidge Adams (born February 15 1947 is an American Composer with strong roots in minimalism. On the Transmigration of Souls, for Orchestra, chorus, Children ’s choir and Pre-recorded tape is a composition by The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism, Steve Reich has explored electronic opera (most notably in Three Tales) and Terry Riley has been active in composing instrumental music and music theatre. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3 Terry Riley (born June 24 1935) is an American composer associated with the minimalist school But beyond the minimalists themselves, the tropes of non-functional triadic harmony are now commonplace, even among composers who are not regarded as minimalists per se.
Many composers are expanding the resources of minimalist music to include rock and world instrumentation and rhythms, serialism, and many other techniques. Kyle Gann considers William Duckworth's Time Curve Preludes as the first "post-minimalism" piece, and labels John Adams as a "post-minimalist" composer, rather than as a minimalist. Kyle Eugene Gann (born November 21, 1955) is an American Composer and music critic born in Dallas, Texas. William Duckworth (born 1943 is an American Composer who also is an author educator and Internet pioneer Gann defines "post-minimalism" as the search for greater harmonic and rhythmic complexity by composers such as Mikel Rouse and Glenn Branca. Mikel Rouse (born Michael Rouse in Saint Louis, Missouri, United States, January 26, 1957) is an American Composer Glenn Branca (born October 6 1948 in Harrisburg Pennsylvania) is a highly-influential Avant-garde composer and Guitarist known for In Europe, many composers such as Joe Cutler and Steve Martland have used the minimalist music of Louis Andriessen as a starting point for their personal developments, with post-minimalism in both cases verging on atonality in its use of Stravinskian harmony. Joe Cutler (born 1968 is a British composer who studied Music at the Universities of Huddersfield and Durham before a scholarship at the Chopin Academy in Warsaw Steve Martland (born Liverpool, England, October 10, 1959) is an English Composer. Louis Andriessen ( June 6, 1939) is a Dutch Composer and pianist based in Amsterdam. Another notable characteristic is storytelling and emotional expression taking precedence over technique. Post-minimalism is also  a movement in painting and sculpture that began in the late 1960s. (See lumpers/splitters)
Polystylism is also called eclecticism. Lumping and splitting refers to a well known problem in any discipline which has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories Polystylism is the use of multiple styles or techniques of music and is seen as a Postmodern characteristic Polystylism is the use of multiple styles or techniques of music, and is seen as a postmodern characteristic. Polystylism is the use of multiple styles or techniques of music and is seen as a Postmodern characteristic A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism Polystylist composers include George Rochberg, William Bolcom, Alfred Schnittke, Frederic Rzewski, Sofia Gubaidulina, and John Zorn. George Rochberg, ( July 5, 1918, Paterson New Jersey &ndash May 29, 2005, Bryn Mawr Pennsylvania) was an American William Elden Bolcom (born May 26 1938 is an American Composer and pianist. Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке November 24, 1934 Engels - August 3, 1998 Hamburg Frederic Anthony Rzewski (born April 13 1938 in Westfield Massachusetts) is an American Composer and virtuoso Pianist. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Sofia Asgatovna Gubaidulina, (София Асгатовна Губайдулина София John Zorn (born September 2 1953 in Queens, New York City) is an American Avant-garde Composer, arranger, Record
Other aspects of post-modernity can be seen in a "post-classic" tonality that has advocates such as Michael Daugherty, Daron Hagen, Elena Kats-Chernin and Tan Dun. Michael Kevin Daugherty (born April 28, 1954) is an American Composer, pianist and teacher Daron Aric Hagen (born November 4, 1961, in Milwaukee Wisconsin) is an American Composer of Contemporary classical music Elena Kats-Chernin (born 4 November 1957 is a Soviet-born Australian Composer. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Tan Dun (pinyin Tán Dùn 譚盾 谭盾 born August 18 in Changsha
A movement in Germany in the late seventies and early eighties, reacting with a variety of strategies to restore the subjective to composing. New Simplicity (in German die neue Einfachheit) was a stylistic tendency amongst some of the younger generation of German composers in the late 1970s and early 1980s reacting New Simplicity's best-known composer is Wolfgang Rihm, who strives for the emotional volatility of late 19th-century Romanticism and early 20th-century Expressionism. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Expressionism is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an Emotional effect it is a subjective art form Called Die neue Einfachheit in German, it has also been termed "New Romanticism," "New Subjectivity," "New Inwardness," "New Sensuality," "New Expressivity," and "New Tonality. "
Styles found in other countries sometimes associated with the German New Simplicity movement include the so-called "Holy Minimalism" of the Pole Henryk Górecki and the Estonian Arvo Pärt (in their works after 1970), as well as Englishman John Tavener, who unlike the New Simplicity composers have turned back to Medieval and Renaissance models, however, rather than to 19th-century romanticism for inspiration. Henryk Mikołaj Górecki (ˈxɛnrɨk mʲiˈkɔwaj guˈrɛ͡tski (born December 6 1933 in Czernica, Silesia, Poland) is a Polish Composer WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Arvo Pärt (born 11 September 1935 in Paide, Estonia) (ˈɑr̺vɔ WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Not to be confused with John Taverner Important representative works include Symphony No. 3 "Symphony of Sorrowful Songs" (1976) by Górecki, Cantus in memoriam Benjamin Britten (1977) by Pärt, and The Veil of the Temple (2002) by Tavener, "Silent Songs" (1977) by Valentin Silvestrov. Symphony No 3 Op. 36, also known as the Symphony of Sorrowful Songs ( Symfonia pieśni żałosnych) is a Symphony in three Cantus in Memoriam Benjamin Britten (1977 is a composition by Estonian composer Arvo Pärt, written to mourn the death of English composer Benjamin Valentin Silvestrov (born September 30, 1937 in Kiev) is a Ukrainian composer of Contemporary classical music, increasingly regarded
An increasing number of composers mix western and non-western instruments, including gamelan from Indonesia, Chinese traditional instruments, ragas from Indian Classical music. The term world music includes Traditional music (sometimes called Folk music or roots music of any culture that are created and played by indigenous musicians A gamelan is a musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones xylophones drums and gongs bamboo flutes bowed and Rāga ( Sanskrit, lit "colour" or "mood" or rāgam in Carnatic music) refers to melodic modes used There is also an exploration of eastern-European and non-Western tonalities, even in relatively traditionally structured works. This trend was present already in the 1920s and 1930s, for example in the music of Béla Bartók, Henry Cowell, Colin McPhee, Alan Hovhaness, and Lou Harrison, and slightly later in the work of Olivier Messiaen, Chou Wen-chung, Halim El-Dabh, and Peggy Glanville-Hicks. Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25 1881&ndashSeptember 26 1945 was a Hungarian Composer and Pianist, considered to be one of the greatest Henry Cowell ( March 11, 1897 – December 10, 1965) was an American Composer, musical theorist, Pianist Colin McPhee ( February 15, 1900, in Montreal or Toronto – January 7, 1964, in Los Angeles) was a Alan Hovhaness (Ալան Հովհանես ( March 8, 1911 &ndash June 21, 2000) was an American Composer of Armenian Lou Silver Harrison ( May 14, 1917 &ndash February 2, 2003) was an American Olivier Messiaen ( December 10 1908 &ndash April 27 1992 was a French Composer, organist and ornithologist. Chou Wen-chung ( 周[[wikt Halim Abdul Messieh El-Dabh ( Arabic: حليم عبد المسيح الضبع; born in Sakakini, Cairo, Egypt on March 4 Peggy Glanville-Hicks (29 December 1912 Melbourne &ndash25 June 1990 Sydney) was an Australian Composer. The trend can be found also in the context of post-minimalist works, such as Janice Giteck's and Evan Ziporyn's Balinese-influenced works. Janice Giteck (born June 27 1946 in New York) is an American Composer. Evan Ziporyn (b Chicago Illinois, 1959) is an American Composer of post-minimalist music and music Some composers have used traditional instruments from their own cultures, such as Tōru Takemitsu, Minoru Miki, Chen Yi, Zhou Long, or Julian Kytasty. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> was a Japanese Composer and writer on Aesthetics and Music theory is a Japanese Composer and artistic director particularly known for his promotional activities in favour of Japanese (as well as Chinese and Korean Chen Yi may refer to Chen Yi (communist - Chinese communist military commander Chen Yi (Kuomintang - Chief Executive of Taiwan Province Zhou Long ( 周[[wikt 龙|龙]] b Beijing, China, July 8, 1953) is a Chinese composer of Contemporary classical music. Julian Kytasty (Юліян Китастий is a Ukrainian-American Composer, Singer, Kobzar, Bandurist and flute player World music influence may also be found in the context of post-classic tonality, such as in the music of Bright Sheng, or in the context of thoroughly modernist works by composers such as Claude Vivier. Bright Sheng (surname Sheng, born Shèng Zōngliàng, 盛[[wiktionary 宗|宗]] 亮, in Shanghai Claude Vivier (14 April 1948 - 7 March 1983 was a Canadian composer
Similarly, many composers have emerged since the 1980s who are heavily influenced by art rock. Art rock is a term describing a subgenre of Rock music that tends to have "experimental or avant-garde influences" and emphasizes "novel sonic texture Many, such as Scott Johnson, Steven Mackey, and Frank Zappa started out as rock musicians and only later moved into the realm of scored music. Scott Johnson (born 1952 is an American Composer known for his pioneering use of recorded speech as musical melody Steven Mackey is an American composer guitarist and music educator Frank Vincent Zappa (December 21 1940 – December 4 1993 was an American Composer, Electric guitarist Record producer and Film director Other notable composers who draw on rock include Steve Vai, Annie Gosfield, Evan Ziporyn, Julia Wolfe, Michael Gordon, David Lang, John Zorn, Steve Martland, Ben Johnston, Anne LeBaron, Paul Dresher, Kitty Brazelton, Glenn Branca, Erkki-Sven Tüür, and Nick Didkovsky. Steven "Steve" Siro Vai (born June 6 1960 in Carle Place New York) is an American Instrumental rock Guitarist Annie Gosfield (born September 11, 1960 in Philadelphia Pennsylvania) is a New York Composer who specializes in using detuned or Evan Ziporyn (b Chicago Illinois, 1959) is an American Composer of post-minimalist music and music Julia Wolfe (born December 18, 1958) is an American Composer. Michael Gordon is an American composer and co-founder of the Bang on a Can festival and ensemble David Lang (born January 8, 1957 in Los Angeles, California) is an American composer living in New York City. John Zorn (born September 2 1953 in Queens, New York City) is an American Avant-garde Composer, arranger, Record Steve Martland (born Liverpool, England, October 10, 1959) is an English Composer. Benjamin Burwell Johnston Junior (born March 15, 1926 in Macon Georgia) is a composer of Contemporary music in the Just intonation Alice Anne LeBaron (b Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States, May 30 1953) is an United States composer and Harpist Paul Joseph Dresher (born January 8, 1951 in Los Angeles) is an American Composer. Kitty Brazelton (b 1951 in Cambridge Massachusetts) is an American Vocalist, Composer, Flutist, and Lead singer of the Glenn Branca (born October 6 1948 in Harrisburg Pennsylvania) is a highly-influential Avant-garde composer and Guitarist known for Erkki-Sven Tüür (born October 16, 1959) is an Estonian composer Nick Didkovsky (b 1958 is a Composer, Guitarist, computer music programmer and leader of the band Doctor Nerve. Many of these composers (Gordon, Lang, Dresher, Wolfe, Ziporyn, Martland, Branca) are post-minimalist in orientation, but some (Didkovsky, Brazelton) are very much not.
Musical historicism is evident to varying degrees in minimalism, post-minimalism, world-music, and other genres in which tonal traditions have been sustained or have undergone a significant revival in recent decades (Watkins, 440-42, 446-48). Musical historicism signifies the use of historical materials structures styles techniques media conceptual content etc Musical historicism signifies the use of historical materials structures styles techniques media conceptual content etc Some post-minimalist works employ medieval and other genres associated with early music, such as the "Oi me lasso" and other laude of Gavin Bryars. "Lauda" redirects here For the former F1 racing driver see Niki Lauda. Richard Gavin Bryars (born 16 January 1943) is an English Composer and Double bassist He has been active in or has produced works in a variety Other composers have assimilated elements of medieval, renaissance, baroque, classical, or romantic styles in varying degrees, including Benjamin Bagby, Thomas Binkley, Easley Blackwood, René Clemencic, Joseph Dillon Ford, Vladimir Godar, Ladislav Kupkovič, Winfried Michel, George Rochberg, and Jordi Savall. Benjamin Bagby is a singer Composer, Harpist, and groundbreaking performer of Medieval music. Easley Blackwood may refer to Easley Blackwood Sr (1903-1992 invented the Blackwood convention used in bidding in contract bridge Easley Joseph Dillon Ford (born February 6, 1952, Americus Georgia, USA is an American composer author and educator Vladimír Godár (b 1956 Bratislava) is a Slovakian composer who is active in the fields of Contemporary classical music and film music. Ladislav Karol Kupkovič (born March 17, 1936) is a Slovak Composer and conductor. Winfried Michel (born 1948 in Fulda) is a German Recorder player Composer, and editor of music George Rochberg, ( July 5, 1918, Paterson New Jersey &ndash May 29, 2005, Bryn Mawr Pennsylvania) was an American Jordi Savall i Bernadet (born 1941 in Igualada, Catalonia, Spain) is a Viol player conductor, and Composer.
The historicist movement is closely related to the emergence of musicology and the Early Music Revival. See Early music and Historically informed performance for a more detailed explanation of this topic A number of historicist composers have been influenced by their intimate familiarity with the instrumental practices of earlier periods (Alexandre Danilevsky, Paulo Galvão, Roman Turovsky-Savchuk). Alexandre Danilevsky ( Russian: Александр Данилевский born in 1957 in St Paulo Galvão - (born 1966 in Lagos, Algarve, Portugal) is a Composer, Lutenist, Theorbist and Guitarist, noted Roman Turovsky-Savchuk is a painter and Lutenist - Composer. He was born in Kiev, Ukraine in 1961 and emigrated to New York City in 1979 The musical historicism movement has also been stimulated by the formation of such international organizations as the Delian Society and Vox Saeculorum (Colburn 36-45, 54-55). Musical historicism signifies the use of historical materials structures styles techniques media conceptual content etc The Delian Society, conceived by American composer Joseph Dillon Ford was founded on 23 January 2004 as an international community of Composers, Performers, Vox Saeculorum is an international society of contemporary composers writing in the Baroque style
The vocabulary of extended tonality which flourished in the first years of the 20th century continues through the contemporary period, though it never has been considered shocking or controversial in the larger musical world—as has been demonstrated statistically for the United States, at least (Straus 1999, 322–29, et passim). In North American classical music and European classical music, neoromanticism is a style identified by the extended tonality that flourished during the late Composers who have worked in the neoromantic vein after 1975 include John Corigliano, George Rochberg (in some of his works), David Del Tredici, Ladislav Kupkovič, Gian Carlo Menotti, and Krzysztof Penderecki. John Corigliano (b February 16, 1938, New York City New York) is an American Composer of Classical music and a teacher George Rochberg, ( July 5, 1918, Paterson New Jersey &ndash May 29, 2005, Bryn Mawr Pennsylvania) was an American David Del Tredici, born March 16, 1937 in Cloverdale California, is an American composer. Ladislav Karol Kupkovič (born March 17, 1936) is a Slovak Composer and conductor. Krzysztof Penderecki (ˈkʂɨʂtɔf pɛndɛrˈɛ͡tski born November 23 1933 in Dębica) is a Polish Composer and conductor of classical
Electronics are now part of mainstream music creation. Performances of regular works often use midi synthesizers to back or replace regular musicians. MIDI ( Musical Instrument Digital Interface, ˈmɪdi is an industry-standard protocol that enables Electronic musical instruments Computers Looping, sampling, and (rarely) drum machines may also be used. For the early "drum machine" computers that used a rotating cylinder as their main memory see Drum memory A drum machine is an However, the older idea of electronic music (musique concrète, electroacoustics, acousmatic art. Musique concrète ( French; literally "concrete music" is a style of Avant-garde music that relies on recorded sounds including natural Acousmatic music is a form of Electroacoustic music that deals specifically with Acousmatic sound as a compositional resource . . ) - as a search for pure sound and an interaction with the hardware itself - continues to find a place in composition, from commercially successful pieces to works targeted at very narrow audiences. See, for example, the work of Michel Chion, Francis Dhomont, Earl Howard, Curtis Roads and Denis Dufour. Michel Chion born in 1947 in Creil, France, is a Composer of experimental music Francis Dhomont (born Paris, France, 2 November 1926) is a French Composer of Electroacoustic / Acousmatic Earl Howard (born 1951 is an American Avant-garde Composer, arranger, saxophonist, Synthesizer player and multi-instrumentalist Curtis Roads is a Composer of electronic and electroacoustic music specializing in granular and pulsar synthesis author and computer programmer
Epitomized by the works of such composers as Hugues Dufourt, Gérard Grisey, Tristan Murail, and Horatiu Radulescu, "spectral music" implies the use of the spectrum of a sound as a basis of composition. Spectral music (or spectralism) refers to a Musical composition practice where compositional decisions are often informed by the analysis of sound spectra Hugues Dufourt is a French composer and philosopher associated with the Spectral school of composition. Gérard Grisey ( June 17, 1946 in Belfort, France – November 11, 1998 in Paris, France) was a Tristan Murail (born March 11, 1947 in Le Havre, France) is a French composer associated with the " spectral " technique of Horaţiu Rădulescu (January 7 1942–September 25 2008 was a Romanian-French composer best known for the spectral technique of composition See Harmonic series (mathematics for the (related mathematical concept Spectralism can thus be seen as a logical continuation of the works of Debussy, Varèse, Messiaen as well as any other composer concerned with the timbre of music. Achille-Claude Debussy (aʃil klod dəbysi (August 22 1862 &ndash March 25 1918 was a French Composer. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse, whose name was also spelled Edgar Varèse Olivier Messiaen ( December 10 1908 &ndash April 27 1992 was a French Composer, organist and ornithologist. In Music, timbre (ˈtæm-bər' like timber, or, from Fr timbre tɛ̃bʁ is the quality of a Musical note or sound that distinguishes different Spectral composition often concerns sound synthesis, the theoretical reconstruction of a physical sound; Fast Fourier Transform is frequently used to analyze the overtone series of a sound, and the material used for a musical piece derived from the data hence attained. Much of Kaija Saariaho's and the last few pieces of Claude Vivier's music are influenced by the spectralists. Kaija Saariaho (ˈkɑijɑ 'sɑːriˌɑho (born October 14, 1952) is a Finnish Composer. Claude Vivier (14 April 1948 - 7 March 1983 was a Canadian composer Spectral music (or spectralism) refers to a Musical composition practice where compositional decisions are often informed by the analysis of sound spectra
In Romania an important spectralist trend developed since late 1960. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Romanian spectral music asserts from traditional Romanian folk music roots. A number of spectral composers are from Romania; these include Iancu Dumitrescu, Octav Nemescu, Ana-Maria Avram, Costin, Calin Ioachimescu, and Corneliu Cezar. Iancu Dumitrescu (born July 15, 1944 in Sibiu, Romania) is a Romanian avant-garde composer Other spectral composers include Philippe Hurel, Michael Levinas, and Phillippe Leroux, Joshua Fineberg, and Julian Anderson. Joshua Fineberg (born July 26, 1969) is an American Composer of Contemporary classical music. Julian Anderson (born April 6, 1967 in London) is a British Composer.
"New Complexity" is a current within today's European contemporary avant-garde music scene, named in reaction to the New Simplicity. In Music, the New Complexity is a term dating from the 1980s intended to categorize primarily British Composers seeking a "complex multi-layered Among this diverse group are Richard Barrett, Brian Ferneyhough, James Dillon and Michael Finnissy. Richard Barrett (born 7 November 1959, Swansea, Wales) is a British Composer. Brian John Peter Ferneyhough (born 16 January, 1943 in Coventry) is an English Composer. James Dillon (born October 29, 1950 in Glasgow Scotland) is a Scottish composer often regarded as belonging to the New Complexity school Michael Finnissy is an English Composer and Pianist born 17 March 1946 in Tulse Hill London.
Composers often obtain unusual sounds or instrumental timbres through the use of non-traditional (or unconventional) instrumental techniques. Extended techniques are performance techniques used in Music to describe unconventional unorthodox or "improper" techniques of Singing, or of Examples of extended techniques include bowing under the bridge of a string instrument or with two different bows, using key clicks on a wind instrument, blowing and overblowing into a wind instrument without a mouthpiece, or inserting object on top of the strings of a piano. Composers’ use of extended techniques is not specific to contemporary music (for instance, Berlioz’s use of col legno in his Symphonie Fantastique is an extended technique) and it transcends compositional schools and styles.
20th century exponents of extended techniques include Henry Cowell (use of fists and arms on the keyboard, playing inside the piano), John Cage (prepared piano), and George Crumb. Henry Cowell ( March 11, 1897 – December 10, 1965) was an American Composer, musical theorist, Pianist George Crumb (born October 24, 1929) is an American Composer of modern and Avant garde music The Kronos Quartet, which has been among the most active ensembles in promoting contemporary American works for string quartet, takes delight in music which stretches the manner in which sound can be drawn out of instruments. Kronos Quartet is a String quartet founded by Violinist David Harrington in 1973
European composers who make heavy use of extended techniques include Luigi Nono, Luciano Berio, Helmut Lachenmann, Salvatore Sciarrino, Heinz Holliger and Carlo Forlivesi. Extended techniques are performance techniques used in Music to describe unconventional unorthodox or "improper" techniques of Singing, or of Luigi Nono ( January 29, 1924 – May 8, 1990) was an Italian Avant-garde Composer of Classical music Luciano Berio, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI ( October 24, 1925 &ndash May 27, 2003) was an Italian Composer. Helmut (Friedrich Lachenmann (born November 27, 1935) is a German Composer associated with musique concrète instrumentale. Salvatore Sciarrino (born Palermo, Sicily, on April 4, 1947) is an Italian composer of Contemporary classical music. Heinz Holliger (born) is a Swiss oboist, Composer and conductor. Carlo Forlivesi (born October 23, 1971) is an Italian Composer, pianist and researcher
When Duchamp displayed a urinal in an art museum, he struck the most visible blow for artistic conceptualism. Conceptual art is Art in which the Concept (s or Idea (s involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns Conceptualism is a Doctrine in Philosophy intermediate between Nominalism and realism that says universals exist only within the Music conceptualism found a champion in John Cage and, a bit later, in the composers associated with the Fluxus movement. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> John Milton Cage Jr Fluxus —a name taken from a Latin word meaning "to flow"—is an international network of artists composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media A conceptualist work is an act whose musical importance draws from the frame, rather than the content of the work. An example is Alvin Singleton's 56 Blows, a work based on a speech from the floor of the United States Senate. Alvin Singleton (born 1940 is a composer from the United States.
At the turn of the century, Eric Whitacre, whose music combines tonal music with tone clusters and similar experimental techniques has received considerable attention. An experimental musical instrument (or custom-made instrument) is a Musical instrument that modifies or extends an existing instrument or class of instruments John Coolidge Adams (born February 15 1947 is an American Composer with strong roots in minimalism. Brian John Peter Ferneyhough (born 16 January, 1943 in Coventry) is an English Composer. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Philip Glass (born January 31 York Höller (born 11 January 1944 in Leverkusen) is a German composer and Professor of composition at the Hochschule für Musik André Laporte (born 12 July 1931 in Oplinter near Tienen in Flemish Brabant) is a Belgian Composer. Per Nørgård (b July 13, 1932 in Gentofte, Denmark) is one of the most important Danish composers of the twentieth century Elliot Goldenthal (born May 2 1954 in Brooklyn, New York City) is an acclaimed Academy Award and Golden Globe winning Thomas Adès (born in London, 1 March 1971) is a British Composer, Pianist and conductor. Ricky Ian Gordon (born May 15 1956 is an American stage musical composer and lyricist This page lists ensembles that specialise in Contemporary classical music. Eric Whitacre (born 2 January 1970) is an American Composer of choral and wind band music and Electronic music Other choral composers of note include Karl Jenkins, John Rutter, Veljo Tormis, and Morten Lauridsen. Dr Karl William Jenkins OBE DMus FRAM ARAM LRAM FWCMD FTCC (born February 17, 1944) is a Welsh musician and composer John Milford Rutter CBE (born) is an English Composer, choral conductor, editor, Arranger and Record producer Veljo Tormis (b August 7, 1930) is an Estonian Composer, regarded to be one of the greatest living choral composers and one of the most important Morten Lauridsen (born February 27 1943 in Colfax Washington) is an American Composer of Danish ancestry
The medium of the concert band has undergone a revival in recent years, with contributions by composers such as Mark Camphouse, Michael Colgrass, David Del Tredici, Karel Husa, David Maslanka, Olivier Messiaen, Joseph Schwantner, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Frank Ticheli, and Eric Whitacre. Mark Camphouse (born 1954 in Oak Park Illinois) is an American composer and conductor who has written primarily for symphonic winds, but whose output also Michael Colgrass (b April 22 1932, Chicago Illinois) is an American-born musician composer and educator David Del Tredici, born March 16, 1937 in Cloverdale California, is an American composer. Karel Husa (born August 7, 1921 in Prague) is a Czech -born classical Composer and conductor David Maslanka (born August 30, 1943 in New Bedford Massachusetts) is a U Olivier Messiaen ( December 10 1908 &ndash April 27 1992 was a French Composer, organist and ornithologist. Joseph Schwantner (born March 22, 1943 in Chicago Illinois) is a Pulitzer Prize winning American composer and educator and a member Frank Ticheli (born Jan 21, 1958 in Monroe Louisiana) is an American composer of Orchestral choral, chamber Eric Whitacre (born 2 January 1970) is an American Composer of choral and wind band music and Electronic music
Contemporary classical music can be heard in film scores such as Tan Dun's original score for Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, Philip Glass's score for The Hours and Kundun, as well as his scores for Godfrey Reggio's Qatsi Trilogy of films: Koyaanisqatsi, Powaqqatsi, and Naqoyqatsi; John Corigliano's original score/soundtrack for François Girard's film The Red Violin; Michael Nyman's scores for Peter Greenaway's films, Shigeru Kan-no's score for Der Rosarote Elefant or Zbigniew Preisner's scores for Krzysztof Kieślowski's Three Colors. A film score is a broad term referring to the music in a film which is generally categorically separated from songs used within a film WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Tan Dun (pinyin Tán Dùn 譚盾 谭盾 born August 18 in Changsha Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon ( is a Chinese-language Film in the Wuxia ( chivalric and martial arts) style WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Philip Glass (born January 31 The Hours is a 2002 Film based on Michael Cunningham 's 1999 Pulitzer Prize and PEN/Faulkner Award -winning 1998 novel Kundun is a 1997 film written by Melissa Mathison and directed by Martin Scorsese. Godfrey Reggio (born March 29, 1940) is an American director of experimental Documentary films Life Born Koyaanisqatsi ( also known as Koyaanisqatsi Life out of Balance, is a 1982 film directed by Godfrey Reggio with music composed by Philip Powaqqatsi Life in Transformation is the 1988 sequel to the experimental 1982 Documentary film Koyaanisqatsi, by Naqoyqatsi Life as war is a Documentary film released in 2002 it is the third and final film of the Qatsi trilogy by Godfrey Reggio. John Corigliano (b February 16, 1938, New York City New York) is an American Composer of Classical music and a teacher François Girard (born January 12, 1963) is a Canadian director and Screenwriter particularly noted for his innovative film The Red Violin (Le Violon rouge Die Rote Violine Il Violino Rosso) is a 1998 Canadian Film. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes Peter Greenaway, CBE (born 5 April 1942) is an English Film director born in Wales. Zbigniew Preisner (ˈzbigɲɛf ˈpɾajsnɛɾ (born May 20, 1955 in Bielsko-Biała as Zbigniew Antoni Kowalski) is one of Poland 's ( June 27, 1941 &ndash March 13, 1996) was an influential Oscar -nominated Polish Film director and Three Colours ( Trzy kolory) is the collective title of three Films directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski, two made in French and one primarily Other directors have used contemporary music in soundtracks. Stanley Kubrick, for example, in 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) and Eyes Wide Shut (1999) used music by György Ligeti, and in The Shining (1980) music by both Ligeti and Krzysztof Penderecki. 2001 A Space Odyssey is a 1968 Science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick, written by Kubrick and Arthur C Eyes Wide Shut is a 1999 drama - mystery directed produced and co-written by Stanley Kubrick, based on the Novella The Shining is a 1980 horror Film directed by Stanley Kubrick, based on Stephen King 's novel of the same name Krzysztof Penderecki (ˈkʂɨʂtɔf pɛndɛrˈɛ͡tski born November 23 1933 in Dębica) is a Polish Composer and conductor of classical Both Jean-Luc Godard, in La Chinoise (1967), and Nicolas Roeg in Walkabout (1971) used music by Karlheinz Stockhausen. Jean-Luc Godard (French ʒɑ̃lyk gɔˈdaʀ (born on December 3 1930 is a French and Swiss Filmmaker and one of the founding members of the Nouvelle Vague La Chinoise is a 1967 French political film directed by Jean-Luc Godard about young revolutionaries in Paris. Nicolas Jack Roeg, BSC (born August 15, 1928 in London) is an English Cinematographer and Film director. Walkabout is an Australian term referring to the commonly-held belief that Australian Aborigines would "go walkabout" at the age of thirteen in the wilderness