A constitutional republic is a state where the head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people, and must govern according to existing constitutional law that limits the government's power over citizens. A system of government is a term that refers to the set of political Institutions by which a Government of a State is organized in order to exert its powers Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions See also Form of government This article lists forms of government and Political systems according to a series of different ways of categorising them Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler A band society is the simplest form of human Society. A band generally consists of a small kin group no larger than an Extended family or Clan. A chiefdom is a type of complex society of varying degrees of centralization that is led by an individual known as a chief. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system Corporatocracy is a Neologism that describes a Government dominated by corporate influence banks and governments Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives Despotism is a Form of government by a single authority either an individual or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute political power A dictatorship is usually defined as an autocratic Form of government in which the Government is ruled by a Dictator. A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy, Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed A kleptocracy (sometimes cleptocracy, occasionally kleptarchy) ( root klepto+kratein = rule by thieves) is a term applied to a Kritarchy is a form of government ruled by judges It may have existed in Israel during the period of time described in the Book of Judges and exist in Somalia under the Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein Appointments are made and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent and Ability A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that Ochlocracy ( Greek: οχλοκρατία or okhlokratía; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment Plutocracy is rule by the wealthy or power provided by wealth A puppet state is a State that is nominally independent but in reality under the control of another power A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Mixed government, also known as a mixed constitution, is a form of government that integrated facets of government by Democracy, Oligarchy, and Monarchy A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a form of a Republic which operates under a Parliamentary system of government The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers' state) can carry one of several different (but related meanings In strictly speaking any A capitalist republic is a concept of government completely the reverse of Marxist thought A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party Technocracy: A form of government in which scientists and technical experts are in control "technocracy is described as that society in which those who govern justify themselves Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler Theodemocracy is a political system theorized by Joseph Smith Jr Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either a State where only property owners may participate in Government; or a government Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office In Politics, representation describes how political power is alienated from most of the members of a group and vested for a certain time period in the hands of a small subset A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic Laws of nation states and other political organizations For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. In a constitutional republic, executive, legislative, and judicial powers are separated into distinct branches and the will of the majority of the population is tempered by protections for individual rights so that no individual or group has absolute power. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State Separation of powers, a term ascribed to French Enlightenment Political philosopher Baron de Montesquieu, is a model for the Governance Individual rights refer to the Rights of Individuals in contrast with Group rights. The fact that a constitution exists that limits the government's power makes the state constitutional. That the head(s) of state and other officials are chosen by election, rather than inheriting their positions, and that their decisions are subject to judicial review makes a state republican. Judicial review is the power of the courts to annul the acts of the executive and/or the legislative power where it finds them incompatible with a higher norm A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its
Constitutional Republics are a deliberate attempt to diminish the threat of mobocracy thereby protecting dissenting individuals and minority groups from the tyranny of the majority by placing theoretical checks on the power of the majority of the population. Ochlocracy ( Greek: οχλοκρατία or okhlokratía; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people The phrase tyranny of the majority, used in discussing systems of Democracy and Majority rule, is a criticism of the Scenario in which decisions made  The power of the majority of the people is checked by limiting that power to electing representatives who, theoretically, are required to govern within limits of overarching constitutional law rather than the popular vote having legislative power itself (even though such representatives are elected by said majority, creating a definitive conflicted interest). John Adams defined a constitutional republic as "a government of laws, and not of men. John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. " Also, the power of government officials is checked by allowing no single individual to hold executive, legislative and judicial powers. Instead these powers are separated into distinct branches that serve as a check and balance on each other. A constitutional republic is designed so that "no person or group [can] rise to absolute power. "
The notion of the constitutional republic originates with Aristotle's Politics and his notion of a possible fifth type of government called the polity. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Polity ( Greek: Πολιτεία or Πολίτευμα transliterated as Politeía or Políteuma) was originally a term used in Ancient Greece He contrasts the polity of republican government with democracy and oligarchy in book 3, chapter 6 of Politics. Polity, in the general descriptive sense, can refer to the political organizational system that is being used by a particular group, be it a tribe, a city-state, an empire, a corporation, etc. In Aristotle's second, more specific sense of the word, he envisioned a polity to be a combination of what he thought were the best characteristics of oligarchy (rule by the wealthy) and democracy (rule by the poor). The polity government would be ruled by the many in the best interests of the country.
Oligarchies favored the wealthy members of society and featured elected leadership positions. Democracies favored the poor and middle-class members, of which there are usually greater numbers, and had features such as legislative assemblies open to citizens of voting age. When taken to heart, so to speak, and used correctly, the polity form of government would be the most ideal government possible, thought Aristotle, because it could take input from community members of all levels and rule fairly in the interests of the whole community and not just the majority.
Constitutional republics were first advocated in the 18th and 19th centuries by liberals, who were engaged at the time in a political and ideological conflict against conservative supporters of traditional monarchy. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Since the beginning of the 20th century, constitutional republics have entered the political mainstream and have gathered the support of many other ideologies in addition to liberalism. Political debate on the issue of constitutional republicanism has largely subsided.
The United States of America is one of the oldest constitutional republics in the world. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the According to James Woodburn, in The American Republic and Its Government, "the constitutional republic with its limitations on popular government is clearly involved in the Constitution, as seen in the election of the President, the election of the Senate and the appointment of the Supreme Court. " That is, the ability of the people to choose officials in government is checked by not allowing them to elect Supreme Court justices-- however in reality, such justices are appointed by the popularly elected president, and approved by the popularly-elected Senate. Woodburn says that in a republic, as distinguished from a democracy, the people are not only checked in choosing officials but also in making laws.  A Bill of Rights exists in the U. S. Constitution which protects certain individual rights. The individual rights enumerated in the Bill of Rights cannot be voted away by the majority of citizens if they wished to oppress a minority who does not agree with the restrictions on liberty that they wish to impose. To eliminate these rights would require government officials overcoming constitutional checks as well as a two-thirds majority vote of Congress and ratification by three-fourths of the States in order to amend the Constitution. However, Madison, Jefferson and others, held that the federal government was not the sole or final judge of its own authority, holding that this would "make it, and not the Constitution, the judge of its powers. " Rather, in the Virginia Resolutions, the Kentucky Resolutions and elsewhere, various individuals stipulated that the people of the individual states were the final check on federal power to ensure compliance with the Constitution, holding that the people of any given state had the final power to "interpose" for the purpose of maintaining the Constitution against federal abuses thereof. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (or Resolves) were important political statements in favor of States' rights written secretly by Vice President Thomas The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (or Resolves) were important political statements in favor of States' rights written secretly by Vice President Thomas
A constitutional republic is a form of democracy, but not all democracies are constitutional republics. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system For example, though the head of state is not elected in a monarchy, it may still be a liberal democracy if there is a parliament with elected representatives that govern according to constitutional law protecting individual rights (called a constitutional democratic monarchy). A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is Also, a representative democracy may or may not be a constitutional republic. Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives For example, "the United States relies on representative democracy, but [its] system of government is much more complex than that. [It is] not a simple representative democracy, but a constitutional republic in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law. "
Alexander Tsesis, in The Thirteenth Amendment and American Freedom: A Legal History says, to him, a constitutional republic means "a representative polity established on fundamental law, each person has the right to pursue and fulfill his or her unobtrusive vision of the good life. In such a society, the common good is the cumulative product of free and equal individuals who pursue meaningful aims. "
Karl Marx claimed that a constitutional republic is a protective legal framework for what he considered to be "capitalist exploitation. " He says: "All the bourgeois economists are aware of is that production can be carried on better under the modern police than e. g. on the principle of might makes right. They forget only that this principle is also a legal relation, and that the right of the stronger prevails in their 'constitutional republics' as well, only in another form. "