A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of constitutional government, wherein either an elected or hereditary monarch is the head of state, unlike in an absolute monarchy, wherein the king or the queen is the sole source of political power, as he or she is not legally bound by the national constitution. A system of government is a term that refers to the set of political Institutions by which a Government of a State is organized in order to exert its powers Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions See also Form of government This article lists forms of government and Political systems according to a series of different ways of categorising them Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler A band society is the simplest form of human Society. A band generally consists of a small kin group no larger than an Extended family or Clan. A chiefdom is a type of complex society of varying degrees of centralization that is led by an individual known as a chief. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system Corporatocracy is a Neologism that describes a Government dominated by corporate influence banks and governments Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives Despotism is a Form of government by a single authority either an individual or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute political power A dictatorship is usually defined as an autocratic Form of government in which the Government is ruled by a Dictator. A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy, Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed A kleptocracy (sometimes cleptocracy, occasionally kleptarchy) ( root klepto+kratein = rule by thieves) is a term applied to a Kritarchy is a form of government ruled by judges It may have existed in Israel during the period of time described in the Book of Judges and exist in Somalia under the Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein Appointments are made and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent and Ability A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that Ochlocracy ( Greek: οχλοκρατία or okhlokratía; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment Plutocracy is rule by the wealthy or power provided by wealth A puppet state is a State that is nominally independent but in reality under the control of another power A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Mixed government, also known as a mixed constitution, is a form of government that integrated facets of government by Democracy, Oligarchy, and Monarchy A constitutional Republic is a State where the Head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people and A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a form of a Republic which operates under a Parliamentary system of government The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers' state) can carry one of several different (but related meanings In strictly speaking any A capitalist republic is a concept of government completely the reverse of Marxist thought A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party Technocracy: A form of government in which scientists and technical experts are in control "technocracy is described as that society in which those who govern justify themselves Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler Theodemocracy is a political system theorized by Joseph Smith Jr Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either a State where only property owners may participate in Government; or a government Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything The constitutional monarchy's government and its law are the government and the law of a limited monarchy. Most constitutional monarchies are parliamentary (UK, Australia, NZ, Japan, Malaysia, Thailand), the monarch is the head of state, but the elected prime minister is head of government. TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Although contemporary constitutional monarchies mostly are representative, constitutional democratic monarchies, monarchies have co-existed with fascist and quasi-fascist constitutions (Italy, Japan, Spain) and with military dictatorships (Thailand). Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy,
Constitutional monarchy occurred in Europe after the French revolution. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an General Napoleon Bonaparte is considered the first monarch proclaiming himself as embodiment of the nation, rather than as a divinely-appointed ruler; this interpretation of monarchy is basic to continental constitutional monarchies. G. W. F. Hegel, in Philosophy of Right (1820) justified it philosophically, according well with evolving contemporary political theory and with the Protestant Christian view of Natural Law. Hegel forecast a constitutional monarch of limited powers, whose function is embodying the national character and constitutional continuity in emergencies, per the development of constitutional monarchy in Europe and Japan. Moreover, the ceremonial office of president (e. g. European and Israeli parliamentary democracies), is a contemporary type of Hegel's constitutional monarch (whether elected or appointed), yet, his forecast of the form of government suitable to the modern world might be perceived as prophetic. The Russian and French presidents, with their stronger powers, might be Hegelian, wielding power suited to the national will embodied.
"The Brabançonne", Belgium's national anthem, written shortly after publication of Philosophy of Right, ends with a pledge of loyalty to: Le Roi, la Loi, la Liberté! [The King, the Law, and Liberty!], said anthem might be counterpart to the French: Liberté, égalité, fraternité, with French Republican sentiment replaced with Belgian monarchical sentiment. The Brabançonne ( Song of Brabant) is the National anthem of Belgium. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Liberté égalité fraternité, French for " Liberty, equality, fraternity ( Brotherhood)" is the motto
As originally conceived, a constitutional monarch was quite a powerful figure, head of the executive branch even though his or her power was limited by the constitution and the elected parliament. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. Some of the framers of the US Constitution may have conceived of the president as being an elected constitutional monarch, as the term was understood in their time, following Montesquieu's somewhat dated account of the separation of powers in the United Kingdom ; although the term "president" at that time implied someone with the powers of the chairman of a committee of equals, like the rotating "president" of the congress under the Articles of Confederation.
An evolution in political thinking would, however, eventually spawn such phenomena as universal suffrage and political parties. Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral By the mid 20th century, the political culture in Europe had shifted to the point where most constitutional monarchs had been reduced to the status of figureheads, with no effective power at all. In politics a figurehead, by Metaphor with the carved figurehead at the prow of a sailing ship is a person who holds an important title or office yet executes little Instead, it was the democratically elected parliaments, and their leader, the prime minister who had become those who exercised power. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. In many cases even the monarchs themselves, while still at the very top of the political and social hierarchy, were given the status of "servants of the people" to reflect the new, egalitarian view.
In present terms, the difference between a parliamentary democracy that is a constitutional monarchy, and one that is a republic, is considered more a difference of detail than of substance, particularly in the common case in which the head of state serves the traditional role of embodying and representing the nation. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its This is reflected, for example, in all but the most die-hard Spanish Republicans accepting their country's returning to constitutional monarchy after the death of Francisco Franco. The Second Spanish Republic was the system of government in Spain between April 14 1931, when King Alfonso XIII left the country Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid
Today constitutional monarchies are mostly associated with Western European countries such as the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, Denmark, Spain, Luxembourg, Monaco, Liechtenstein, and Sweden. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Luxembourg (Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small Landlocked country in Western Europe, bordered by For other uses see Monaco (disambiguation Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco ( French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque The Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein) is a tiny doubly landlocked Alpine country in Western Europe, bordered by Switzerland "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. In such cases it is the prime minister who holds the day-to-day powers of governance, while the King or Queen (or other monarch, such as a Grand Duke, in the case of Luxembourg, or Prince in the case of Monaco and Liechtenstein) retains only minor to no powers. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Different nations grant different powers to their monarchs. In the Netherlands, Denmark and in Belgium, for example, the Monarch formally appoints a representative to preside over the creation of a coalition government following a parliamentary election, while in Norway the King chairs special meetings of the cabinet. A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a Cabinet of a parliamentary Government in which several parties cooperate Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch.
The most significant family of constitutional monarchies in the world today are the sixteen realms, all independent parliamentary democracies in a personal union relationship under Elizabeth II. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Unlike some of their continental European counterparts, the Monarch and her Governors-General in the Commonwealth Realms hold significant "reserve" or "prerogative" powers, to be wielded in times of extreme emergency or constitutional crises usually to uphold parliamentary government. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch An instance of a Goveror General exercising his power was during the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, where the Australian Prime Minister of the time, Gough Whitlam was effectively fired from his position, this led to much speculation that Australia should become a republic. Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916 known as Gough Whitlam (ˈɡɒf goff is an Australian former politician and 21st
In both the United Kingdom and elsewhere, a common debate centers around when it is appropriate for a monarch to use his or her political powers. When a monarch does act, political controversy can often ensue, partially because the neutrality of the crown is seen to be compromised in favor of a partisan goal. In politics a partisan is a committed member of a party In multi-party systems the term is typically understood to describe a person who supports their party's measures without an While political scientists may champion the idea of an "interventionist monarch" as a check against possible illegal action by politicians, the monarchs themselves are often driven by a more pragmatic sense of self-preservation, in which avoiding political controversy can be seen as an important way to retain public legitimacy and popularity. This is a list of notable political scientists See the List of political theorists for those who study politics without using the Scientific method.
There also exists today several federal constitutional monarchies. A federal monarchy is a federation of states with a single monarch as over-all head of the federation but retaining different monarchs or a non-monarchical system of government in the In these countries, each subdivision has a distinct government and head of government, but all subdivisions share a monarch who is head of state of the federation as a united whole.
|State||Last constitution established||Type of monarchy||Monarch selected by|
|Andorra||1993||Co-Principality||Selection of Bishop of La Seu d'Urgell and election of French President|
|Bahrain||2002||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Belgium||1831||Kingdom; popular monarchy||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Cambodia||1993||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Denmark||1953||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Japan||1946||Empire||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Jordan||1952||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Kuwait||1962||Emirate||Hereditary succession directed approval of al-Sabah family and majority of National Assembly|
|Lesotho||1993||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed approval of College of Chiefs|
|Liechtenstein||1862||Principality||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Luxembourg||1868||Grand duchy||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Malaysia||1957||Elective monarchy||Selected from nine hereditary Sultans of the Malay states|
|Monaco||1911||Principality||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Morocco||1962||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Netherlands||1815||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Norway||1814||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Saudi Arabia||Kingdom||Hereditary succession|
|Spain||1978||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Sweden||1974||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Thailand||2007||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Tonga||1970||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|United Arab Emirates||1971||Elective monarchy||Chosen by Federal Supreme Council from rulers of Abu Dhabi|
|United Kingdom||1688||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Antigua and Barbuda||1981||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Australia||1977||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|The Bahamas||1973||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Barbados||1966||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Belize||1981||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Canada||1982||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Grenada||1974||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Jamaica||1962||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|New Zealand||1987||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Papua New Guinea||1975||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||1983||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Saint Lucia||1979||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||1979||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Solomon Islands||1978||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|
|Tuvalu||1978||Kingdom||Hereditary succession directed by constitution|