Constantinople (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις, Konstantinoúpolis, or ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, in formal Ottoman Turkish: Konstantinie) was the capital of the Roman Empire (330–395), the Byzantine/East Roman Empire (395–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin Empire (1204–1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453–1922). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Strategically located between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara at the point where Europe meets Asia, Byzantine Constantinople had been the capital of a Christian empire, successor to ancient Greece and Rome. The Golden Horn ( Turkish: Haliç or Altın Boynuz, Greek: Χρυσόν Κέρας – Chrysón Kéras is an inlet of the The Sea of Marmara ( Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίς, Bulgarian The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Throughout the Middle Ages Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city, known as the Queen of Cities (Vasileuousa Polis).
Depending on the background of its rulers, it often had several different names at any given time; among the most common were Byzantium (Greek: Byzantion), New Rome (Greek: Νέα Ῥώμη, Latin: Nova Roma), although this was an ecclesiastical rather than an official name, Constantinople and Stamboul (see etymology). This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The term " New Rome " has been used in the following contexts Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The city of Istanbul has been known through the ages under a large number of different names
It was officially renamed to its modern Turkish name Istanbul in 1930 with the Turkish Postal Service Law, as part of Atatürk's national reforms. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 &ndash 10 November 1938 was an army officer revolutionary Statesman 
Constantinople was founded on the site of an already existing city, Byzantium, by the Roman emperor Constantine I. This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine The site lay astride the land route from Europe to Asia and the seaway from the Black or Euxine Sea to the Mediterranean, and being possessed of an excellent and spacious harbour in the Golden Horn. The Golden Horn ( Turkish: Haliç or Altın Boynuz, Greek: Χρυσόν Κέρας – Chrysón Kéras is an inlet of the A city was first founded there in the early days of Greek colonial expansion, probably around 671-662 BC.
Constantine restored the unity of the empire and was overseeing the progress of major governmental reforms and sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church, and became well aware Rome lay too far from the eastern imperial frontiers, and hence from the armies and the Imperial courts (emperors had long before abandoned administering the empire from Rome), and it offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians. Yet it was the capital of the state for over a thousand years, and it will have seemed unthinkable to suggest the capital be moved.
Nevertheless, Constantine identified the site of Byzantium as the correct place: a city where an emperor could sit, readily defended, with easy access to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers, his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia, his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the empire. The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת
Constantinople was built over a period of six years (324-330). Constantine consecrated his new city on 11 May 330. Although Constantinople was essentially a Greek-speaking city, government was conducted exclusively in Latin. The city became known as Constantinopolis, "Constantine's City". 
Like Rome, the expanded city was divided into 14 regions, and ornamenting it with public works worthy of a great imperial metropolis. Yet initially Constantine's new Rome did not have all the dignities of old Rome. It possessed a proconsul, rather than an urban prefect. Ancient Rome In the Roman Republic, a proconsul was a Promagistrate (like a Propraetor) who after serving as Consul, spent a year It had no praetors, tribunes or quaestors. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action Although it did have senators, they held the title clarus, not clarissimus, like those of Rome. It also lacked the panoply of other administrative offices regulating the food supply, police, statues, temples, sewers, aqueducts or other public works. The new programme of building was carried out in great haste: columns, marbles, doors and tiles were taken wholesale from the temples of the empire and moved to the new city. Similarly, many of the greatest works of Greek and Roman art were soon to be seen in its squares and streets. The emperor stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land from the imperial estates in Asiana and Pontica, and on 18 May 332 he announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of food would be made to citizens. The Diocese of Asia ( Latin: Dioecesis Asiana, Διοίκησις Ασίας / Ασιανής) was a diocese of the later Roman The Diocese of Pontus ( Latin: Dioecesis Pontica, Διοίκησις Πόντου / Ποντικής) was a diocese of the later Events 1152 - Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine. Events By Place Roman Empire Emperor Constantine I defeats the Visigoths in battle At the time the amount is said to have been 80,000 rations a day, doled out from 117 distribution points around the city.
Constantine laid out a new square at the centre of old Byzantium, naming it the Augustaeum. The Augustaion ( Greek:) or in Latin Augustaeum, was the main public square in medieval Constantinople (modern Istanbul The new senate-house (or Curia) was housed in a basilica on the east side. On the south side of the great square was erected the Great Palace of the emperor with its imposing entrance, the Chalke, and its ceremonial suite known as the Palace of Daphne. The Byzantine Great Palace of Constantinople, (Μέγα Παλάτιον Turkish: Büyük Saray also known as the Sacred Palace ( Latin Nearby was the vast Hippodrome for chariot-races, seating over 80,000 spectators, and the famed Baths of Zeuxippus. The Hippodrome of Constantinople (Sultanahmet Meydanı At Meydanı was a horse-racing track that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of The Baths of Zeuxippus, built sometime between 100 to 200 destroyed by the Nika revolt of 532 and then rebuilt several years later were popular Public baths in the At the western entrance to the Augustaeum was the Milion, a vaulted monument from which distances were measured across the Eastern Empire. The Milion ( Greek: Μίλ(λιον was a monument in Constantinople.
From the Augustaeum led a great street, the Mese (Greek: Μέση (Οδός) lit. "Middle Street"), lined with colonnades. As it descended the First Hill of the city and climbed the Second Hill, it passed on the left the Praetorium or law-court. Praetorium was originally the name of the headquarters of a Roman army Then it passed through the oval Forum of Constantine where there was a second senate-house and a high column with a statue of Constantine himself in the guise of Helios, crowned with a halo of seven rays and looking towards the rising sun. The Forum of Constantine (Φόρος Κωνσταντίνου was built at the foundation of Constantinople immediately outside of the old city walls. The Column of Constantine (or ' Burnt Column') (Çemberlitaş sütunu is a monumental column constructed on the orders of the Roman emperor Constantine the In Greek mythology the Sun was personified as Helios (ˈhiliˌɑs ( Ἥλιος Latinized as Helius) From there the Mese passed on and through the Forum of Taurus and then the Forum of Bous, and finally up the Seventh Hill (or Xerolophus) and through to the Golden Gate in the Constantinian Wall. The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its After the construction of the Theodosian Walls in the early 5th century, it would be extended to the new Golden Gate, reaching a total length of seven Roman miles. The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States
The first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople was Honoratus, who took office on 11 December 359 and held it until 361. The Hippodrome of Constantinople (Sultanahmet Meydanı At Meydanı was a horse-racing track that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of For the 7th century saint see Honoratus of Amiens. Saint Honoratus (ca Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office The emperor Valens built the Palace of Hebdomon on the shore of the Propontis near the Golden Gate, probably for use when reviewing troops. This article is about the Roman Emperor For other people called Valens see Valens Flavius Julius Valens ( Latin: DOMINVS Location Bakırköy is a large densely populated Middle class Residential Suburb of İstanbul, Turkey on its The Sea of Marmara ( Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίς, Bulgarian All the emperors up to Zeno and Basiliscus were crowned and acclaimed at the Hebdomon. Flavius Zeno, original name Tarasicodissa or Trascalissaeus, Byzantine Emperor ( Circa Flavius Basiliscus (d 476/477 was an Eastern Roman Emperor of the House of Leo, who ruled briefly (9 January 475–August 476 when Emperor Zeno Theodosius I founded the Church of John the Baptist to house the skull of the saint (today preserved at the Topkapı Palace), put up a memorial pillar to himself in the Forum of Taurus, and turned the ruined temple of Aphrodite into a coach house for the Praetorian Prefect; Arcadius built a new forum named after himself on the Mese, near the walls of Constantine. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in Ottoman: طوبكابي بالاذيis a palace in Istanbul, Turkey, which was the official and Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature Flavius Arcadius (377/378&ndash May 1, 408) was Byzantine Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death
Gradually the importance of Constantinople increased. After the shock of the Battle of Adrianople in 378, in which the emperor Valens with the flower of the Roman armies was destroyed by the Goths within a few days' march, the city looked to its defences, and Theodosius II built in 413–414 the 18 metre (60 ft) tall triple-wall fortifications which were never to be breached until the coming of gunpowder. The second Battle of Adrianople ( August 9 378) sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between a Roman army led by the This article is about the Roman Emperor For other people called Valens see Valens Flavius Julius Valens ( Latin: DOMINVS The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s Flavius Theodosius ( 10 April, 401 – July 28, 450) called the Calligrapher, known in English as Theodosius II, was The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its Theodosius also founded a University near the Forum of Taurus, on 27 February 425. The University of Constantinople, sometimes known as the University of the palace hall of Magnaura in the Byzantine Empire was recognised as a University Events 1560 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation For the US area code see Area code 425. Events By Place Western Roman Empire
Uldin, a prince of the Huns, appeared on the Danube about this time and advanced into Thrace, but he was deserted by many of his followers, who joined with the Romans in driving their king back north of the river. Uldin (d 412 was one of the primary chieftains of the Huns located beyond the Danube during the reigns of Arcadius (394–408 and Theodosius II (408–450 The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy Subsequently new walls were built to defend the city, and the fleet on the Danube improved. Money spoke louder, however, and in 424 Theodosius agreed to pay an annual subsidy to the new Hunnish king Rugila. Rugila also referred to as Ruhas, Ruga and Rua ( ΄Ρούγας, ΄Ροϋνας, ΄Ρωίλας The latter was shortly succeeded by Attila, who negotiated a doubling of the subsidy. In 441 he took the opportunity to attack while the Roman armies were engaged against both the Persian and the Vandals, and after a successful battle in Thrace not far from the city, secured a further trebling of the subsidy. He invaded again in 447; the Roman response was an assassination attempt, which failed. On 25 August 450 Marcian succeeded Theodosius, and determined to take a firm line with the Huns, stopping the subsidy payments; about the same time Attila received a message from Honoria, a sister of the western Emperor Valentinian III, which he was able to take advantage of as a pretext, and departed from Illyricum to move with all his armies against the West. Justa Grata Honoria was the sister of the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III. Flavius Placidius Valentinianus ( July 2, 419 &ndash March 16, 455) known in English as Valentinian III, was among the last
Meanwhile the barbarians overran the Western Empire, its emperors retreated to Ravenna, and it diminished to nothing. "Barbarian" is a pejorative term for an uncivilized person either in a general reference to a member of a nation or Ethnos perceived Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Thereafter, Constantinople became in truth the largest city of the Empire and of the world. Emperors were no longer peripatetic between various court capitals and palaces. They remained in their palace in the Great City, and sent generals to command their armies. The wealth of the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia flowed into Constantinople.
The emperor Justinian I (527–565) was known for his successes in war, for his legal reforms and for his public works. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or It was from Constantinople that his expedition for the reconquest of the former Diocese of Africa set sail on or about 21 June 533. Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. Events By Place Byzantine Empire June 21 - Belisarius sails from Constantinople. Before their departure the ship of the commander Belisarius anchored in front of the Imperial palace, and the Patriarch offered prayers for the success of the enterprise. Flavius Belisarius (Βελισάριος (505(? – 565 was one of the greatest Generals of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most acclaimed generals in history After the victory, in 534, the Temple treasure of Jerusalem, looted by the Romans in 70 AD and taken to Carthage by the Vandals after their sack of Rome in 455, was brought to Constantinople and deposited for a time, perhaps in the church of St Polyeuctus, before being returned to Jerusalem in either the Church of the Resurrection or the New Church. Solomon's Temple (בית המקדש transliterated Beit HaMikdash) also known as the First Temple, was according to Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers 
Chariot-racing had been important in Rome for centuries. In Constantinople, the hippodrome became over time increasingly a place of political significance. It was where (as a shadow of the popular elections of old Rome) the people by acclamation showed their approval of a new emperor; and also where they openly criticized the government, or clamoured for the removal of unpopular ministers. In the time of Justinian, public order in Constantinople became a critical political issue.
The entire late Roman and early Byzantine period was one where Christianity was resolving fundamental questions of identity, and the dispute between the orthodox and the monophysites became the cause of serious disorder, expressed through allegiance to the horse-racing parties of the Blues and the Greens. The term Orthodox Christianity may refer to The Eastern Orthodox Church: the Eastern Christian churches of Byzantine Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one alone' and physis meaning 'nature' or Monophysiticism is the Christological position that The partisans of the Blues and the Greens were said to affect untrimmed facial hair, head hair shaved at the front and grown long at the back, and wide-sleeved tunics tight at the wrist; and to form gangs to engage in night-time muggings and street violence. At last these disorders took the form of a major rebellion of 532, known as the "Nika" riots (from the battle-cry of "Victory!" of those involved). The Nika riots (Στάση του Νίκα or Nika revolt, took place over the course of a week in Constantinople in 532.
Fires started by the Nika rioters consumed the basilica of St Sophia, the city's principal church. Justinian commissioned Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus to replace it with a new and incomparable St Sophia, located at the north side of the Augusteum. Anthemius of Tralles (c 474 &ndash c 534 ( Greek) was a Greek professor of Geometry in Constantinople (present-day Instanbul Isidore of Miletus (Ισίδωρος ο Μιλήσιοςin Greek) was one of the two Greek Architects (the other being Anthemius Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya Αγία Σοφία " Holy Wisdom " Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a former patriarchal Basilica, later This was the great cathedral of the Orthodox Church, whose dome was said to be held aloft by God alone, and which was directly connected to the palace so that the imperial family could attend services without passing through the streets.  The dedication took place on 26 December 537 in the presence of the emperor, who exclaimed, "O Solomon, I have outdone thee!" Hagia Sophia had 600 personnel (including 80 priests) and cost 20,000 pounds of gold to build. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Solomon's Temple (בית המקדש transliterated Beit HaMikdash) also known as the First Temple, was according to 
Justinian also had Anthemius and Isidore demolish and replace the original Church of the Holy Apostles, built by Constantine, with a new church under the same dedication. For other structures of this name including in the Moscow Kremlin, see Church of the Holy Apostles (disambiguation. This was designed in the form of an equally-armed cross with five domes, and ornamented with beautiful mosaics. This church was to remain the burial place of the emperors from Constantine himself until the eleventh century. When the city fell to the Turks in 1453, the church was demolished to make room for the tomb of Mehmet II the Conqueror. Justinian was also concerned with other aspects of the city's built environment, legislating against the abuse of laws prohibiting building within 100 feet (30 m) of the sea front, in order to protect the view.
During Justinian I's reign, the city's population reached about 500,000 people. However, the social fabric of Constantinople was also damaged by the onset of bubonic plague between 541–542 AD. Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis (formerly known as
In the early 7th century the Avars and later the Bulgars overwhelmed much of the Balkans, threatening Constantinople from the west. The Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan. The Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) were a seminomadic people probably of Turkic descent originally from Central Asia, Simultaneously the Persian Sassanids overwhelmed the Prefecture of the East and penetrated deep into Anatolia. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Heraclius, son to the exarch of Africa, set sail for the city and assumed the purple. Heraclius, or Herakleios (Flavius Heraclius Augustus;) (c 575 - February 11, 641) was a Byzantine Emperor, who ruled the East This article is about Byzantine governors and ecclesiastical ranks He found the military situation so dire that he is said at first to have contemplated withdrawing the imperial capital to Carthage, but relented after the people of Constantinople begged him to stay. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers While the Great City withstood a siege by 80,000 Avars and the Persian fleet, Heraclius launched a spectacular campaign into the heart of the Persian empire. See Sieges of Constantinople for other sieges The Siege of Constantinople in 626 AD by the Sassanid Empire ended in a decisive victory The Persians were defeated outside Nineveh, and their capital at Ctesiphon was surrounded by the Byzantines. Nineveh ( Akkadian: Ninua; Aramaic: ܢܝܢܘܐ Hebrew נינוה Nīnewē; Arabic نينوى Naīnuwa) For the Spanish saint see Ctesiphon of Vergium. Ctesiphon (قطسيفون تیسفون was one of the great cities of the Persian Empire Persian resistance collapsed, and all the lost territories were recovered in 627. Heraclius replaced Latin with Greek as the language of government, law and military command. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly
However, the newly Muslim Arabs overrun the southern provinces. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Constantinople was besieged twice by the Arabs, once in a long blockade between 674 and 678, and once again in 717. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The First Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674 was a major conflict of the Byzantine-Arab Wars, and was one of the numerous times Constantinople 's defences The Second Arab Siege of Constantinople (717-718 was a combined land and sea effort by the Arabs to take the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople The second Arab siege was laid by both land and sea. The Arab ground forces, led by Maslama, were met with the city's impregnable walls, the stout resistance of the defenders, freezing winter temperatures, chronic outbreaks of disease, starvation, and Bulgar attacks on their camp. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Meanwhile, their fleet was decimated by the newly devised Greek Fire of the Byzantine navy, and its remnants utterly destroyed in a storm on the return home. Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Empire. The crushing victory of the Byzantines was a severe blow to Caliph Umar II, and the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate was severely stunted during his reign. Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c 682 - February 720 (عمر بن عبد العزيز was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 717 to 720
In the 730s Leo III carried out extensive repairs of the Theodosian walls, which had been damaged by frequent and violent attacks; this work was financed by a special tax on all the subjects of the Empire.
Theodora, widow of the emperor Theophilus (d. Various people have been known by the name Theophilus or Theophilos, which means "Friend of God" in Greek and is thus similar to the Latin word Amadeus 842) acted as regent during the minority of her son Michael III, who was said to have been introduced to dissolute habits by her brother Bardas. Michael III the Drunkard (Μιχαήλ Γ΄ ο Μέθυσος Mikhaēl III ho Methysos) ( January 19, 840 &ndash September 23–24 867 When Michael assumed power in 856 he became known for excessive drunkenness, appeared in the hippodrome as a charioteer and burlesqued the religious processions of the clergy. He removed Theodora from the Great Palace to the Carian Palace and later to the monastery of Gastria, but after the death of Bardas she was released to live in the palace of St Mamas; she also had a rural residence at the Anthemian Palace, where Michael was assassinated in 867.
In 865 an attack was made on the city by a new principality set up a few years earlier at Novgorod by Rurik, a Varangian chief: two hundred small Russian vessels passed through the Bosporus and plundered the monasteries and other properties on the suburban Prince's Islands. Veliky Novgorod (Вели́кий Но́вгород is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia and the administrative center of Novgorod Rurik or Riurik (Рюрик; Old East Norse: Rørik, meaning "famous ruler" c The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian The Princes' Islands ( Turkish: Prens Adaları Islands or more commonly Kizil Adalar Islands as they are officially named classical Greek: Oryphas, the admiral of the Byzantine fleet, alerted the emperor Michael, who promptly put the invaders to flight; but the suddenness and savagery of the onslaught made a deep impression on the citizens.
In 980 the emperor Basil II received an unusual gift from Prince Vladimir of Kiev: 6,000 Varangian warriors which Basil formed into a new bodyguard known as the Varangian Guard. Basil II, surnamed the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β΄ Βουλγαροκτόνος Basileios II Boulgaroktonos, 958 &ndash December 15 1025 Vladimir I can refer to Vladimir I of Kiev Vladimir I of Pskov The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian They were known for their ferocity, honour and loyalty. It is said that in 1038 they were dispersed in winter quarters in the Thracesian theme when one of their number attempted to violate a countrywoman, but in the struggle she seized his sword and killed him; instead of taking revenge, however, his comrades applauded her conduct, compensated her with all his possessions, and exposed his body without burial as if he had committed suicide. However, following the death of an emperor, they became known also for plunder in the imperial palaces. Later in the 11th Century the Varangian Guard became dominated by Anglo-Saxons who preferred this way of life to subjection to the new Norman kings of England.
The Book of the Eparch, which dates to the 10th century, gives a detailed picture of the city's commercial life and its organization at that time. The corporations in which the tradesmen of Constantinople were organised were supervised by the Eparch, who regulated such matters as production, prices, import and export. Each guild had its own monopoly, and tradesmen might not belong to more than one. It is an impressive testament to the strength of tradition how little these arrangements had changed since the office, then known by the Latin version of its title, had been set up in 330 to mirror the urban prefecture of Rome.
In the eighth and ninth centuries the iconoclast movement caused serious political unrest throughout the Empire. The emperor Leo III issued a decree in 726 against images, and ordered the destruction of a statue of Christ over one of the doors of the Chalke, an act which was fiercely resisted by the citizens. Leo III the Isaurian ' or the Syrian ' ( Greek: Λέων Γ΄ Leōn III) (c Constantine V convoked a church council in 754 which condemned the worship of images, after which many treasures were broken, burned, or painted over with depictions of trees, birds or animals: one source refers to the church of the Holy Virgin at Blachernae as having been transformed into a "fruit store and aviary". Constantine V (718&ndash September 14, 775) was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775 Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ε΄ Kōnstantinos Following the death of his son Leo IV in 780, the empress Irene restored the veneration of images through the agency of the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. Leo IV the Khazar ( Greek: Λέων Δ΄ Leōn IV) ( January 25, 750 &ndash September 8, 780 Irene Serantapechaina, known as Irene of Athens or Irene the Athenian ( Greek: Ειρήνη η Αθηναία Eirēnē) (c The Second Council of Nicaea was the seventh Ecumenical council of Christianity; it met in 787 AD in Nicaea (site of the First Council
The iconoclast controversy returned in the early 9th century, only to be resolved once more in 843 during the regency of Empress Theodora, who restored the icons. Theodora (Greek Θεοδώρα c 815 - after 867 was the wife of the Byzantine emperor Theophilus. These controversies contributed to the deterioration of relations between the Western and the Eastern Churches. As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world
In the late 11th century catastrophe struck with the unexpected and calamitous defeat of the imperial armies at the Battle of Manzikert in Armenia in 1071. The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq forces led by Alp Arslan on August 26 1071 near Manzikert The Emperor Romanus Diogenes was captured. The peace terms demanded by Alp Arslan, sultan of the Seljuk Turks, were not excessive, and Romanus agreed them. Alp Arslan (1029 &ndash December 15, 1072) was the second sultan of the Seljuk dynasty and great-grandson of Seljuk, the Eponym of On his release, however, Romanus found that enemies had placed their own candidate on the throne in his absence; he surrendered to them and suffered death by torture, and the new ruler, Michael VII Ducas, refused to honour the treaty. In response, the Turks began to move into Anatolia in 1073. The collapse of the old defensive system meant that they met no opposition, and the empire's resources were distracted and squandered in a series of civil wars. Thousands of Turkoman tribesmen crossed the unguarded frontier and moved into Anatolia. This article is about the Turkmen people of Turkmenistan. For the distinct group of Turk peoples of Iraq see Iraqi Turkmen. By 1080, a huge area had been lost to the empire, and the Turks were within striking distance of Constantinople.
Under the Comnenian dynasty (1081–1185), Byzantium staged a remarkable military, financial and territorial recovery. In what is sometimes called the Comnenian Restoration, with the establishment of a new military system, the Empire recovered nearly half of the lost Anatolian lands. The Komnenian restoration is the term used by Byzantinists to describe the military financial and territorial recovery of the Byzantine Empire under the Komnenian The Komnenian army was the force established by Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos during the late eleventh/early twelfth century and perfected by his successors
In response to a call for aid from Alexius I Comnenus, the First Crusade assembled at Constantinople in 1096, but declining to put itself under Byzantine command set out for Jerusalem on its own account (there is an excellent source for these events: the writer and historian Anna Comnena in her work The Alexiad). Alexios I Komnenos, or Comnenus (Greek Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός (1048 &ndash August 15, 1118) Byzantine emperor (1081&ndash1118 The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Anna Komnene or Comnena (Greek Άννα Κομνηνή Anna Komnēnē December 1, 1083 &ndash1153 was a Byzantine princess and scholar daughter of The Alexiad (original Greek title: Αλεξιάς) is a Medieval biographical text written around the year 1148 by the Byzantine historian
John II built the monastery of the Pantocrator (Almighty) with a hospital for the poor of 50 beds. John II Komnenos or Comnenus ( Iōannēs II Komnēnos) ( September 13, 1087 &ndash April 8, 1143) was Byzantine
With the restoration of firm central government, the empire became fabulously wealthy. The population was rising (estimates for Constantinople in the twelfth century vary from approximately 100,000 to 500,000), and towns and cities across the realm flourished. Meanwhile, the volume of money in circulation dramatically increased. This was reflected in Constantinople by the construction of the Blachernae palace, the creation of brilliant new works of art, and general prosperity at this time: an increase in trade, made possible by the growth of the Italian city-states, may have helped the growth of the economy. Certainly, the Venetians and others were active traders in Constantinople, making a living out of shipping goods between the Crusader Kingdoms of Outremer and the West while also trading extensively with Byzantium and Egypt. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Outremer, French ( outre-mer) for " Overseas " was the general name given to the Crusader states established after the This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Venetians had factories on the north side of the Golden Horn, and large numbers of westerners were present in the city throughout the twelfth century. Towards the end of Manuel I's reign, the number of foreigners in the city reached about 60,000-80,000 people out of a total population of about 400,000 people.  In 1171, Constantinople also contained a small community of 2,500 Jews. 
In artistic terms, the 12th century was a very productive period. There was a revival in the mosaic art, for example: mosaics became more realistic and vivid, with an increased emphasis on depicting three-dimensional forms. Art History Mosaics of the 4th century BC are found in the Macedonian palace-city of Aegae, and they enriched the floors of Hellenistic There was an increased demand for art, with more people having access to the necessary wealth to commission and pay for such work. According to N. H. Baynes (Byzantium, An Introduction to East Roman Civilization):
In the course of a plot between Philip of Swabia, Boniface of Montserrat and the Doge of Venice, the Fourth Crusade was, despite papal excommunication, diverted in 1203 against Constantinople, ostensibly promoting the claims of Alexius son of the deposed emperor Isaac. Philip of Swabia (1177 &ndash June 21, 1208) was king of Germany and duke of Swabia, the rival of the emperor Otto IV. Enrico Dandolo (also Anglicised Henry Dandolo or in Latin Henricus Dandulus, 1107? &ndash June 21 1205) was the Doge The reigning emperor Alexius III had made no preparation. Alexios III Angelos ( Greek: Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος (c The Crusaders occupied Galata, broke the chain protecting the Golden Horn and entered the harbour, where on 27 July they breached the sea walls: Alexius III fled. Galata or Galatae is a district in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. The Golden Horn ( Turkish: Haliç or Altın Boynuz, Greek: Χρυσόν Κέρας – Chrysón Kéras is an inlet of the But the new Alexius IV found the Treasury inadequate, and was unable to make good the rewards he had promised to his western allies. Tension between the citizens and the Latin soldiers increased. In January 1204 the protovestiarius Alexius Murzuphlus provoked a riot, probably to intimidate Alexius IV, but whose only result was the destruction of the great statue of Athena, the work of Phidias, which stood in the principal forum facing west. Phidias (or Pheidias; in Ancient Greek,; c[[ 80 BC]] c 430 BC) son of Charmides was an ancient Greek
In February the people rose again: Alexius IV was imprisoned and executed, and Murzuphlus took the purple as Alexius V. He made some attempt to repair the walls and organise the citizenry, but there had been no opportunity to bring in troops from the provinces and the guards were demoralised by the revolution. An attack by the Crusaders on 6 April failed, but a second from the Golden Horn on 12 April succeeded, and the invaders poured in. Alexius V fled. The Senate met in St Sophia and offered the crown to Theodore Lascaris, who had married into the Angelid family. But it was too late. He come out with the Patriarch to the Golden Milestone before the Great Palace and addressed the Varangian Guard. The Milion ( Greek: Μίλ(λιον was a monument in Constantinople. Then the two of them slipped away with many of the nobility and embarked for Asia. By the next day the Doge and the leading Franks were installed in the Great Palace, and the city was given over to pillage for three days.
The great historian of the Crusades, Sir Steven Runciman, wrote that the sack of Constantinople is “unparalleled in history”.
“For nine centuries,” he goes on, “the great city had been the capital of Christian civilisation. It was filled with works of art that had survived from ancient Greece and with the masterpieces of its own exquisite craftsmen. The Venetians wherever they could seized treasures and carried them off. But the Frenchmen and Flemings were filled with a lust for destruction: they rushed in a howling mob down the streets and through the houses, snatching up everything that glittered and destroying whatever they could not carry, pausing only to murder or to rape, or to break open the wine-cellars. Neither monasteries nor churches nor libraries were spared. In St Sophia itself drunken soldiers could be seen tearing down the silken hangings and pulling the silver iconostasis to pieces, while sacred books and icons were trampled under foot. While they drank from the altar-vessels a prostitute sang a ribald French song on the Patriarch’s throne. Nuns were ravished in their convents. Palaces and hovels alike were wrecked. Wounded women and children lay dying in the streets. For three days the ghastly scenes continued until the huge and beautiful city was a shambles. Even after order was restored, citizens were tortured to make them reveal treasures they had hidden. " 
For the next half-century, Constantinople was the seat of the Latin Empire. The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the The Byzantine nobility were scattered. Many went to Nicaea, where Theodore Lascaris set up an imperial court, or to Epirus, where Theodore Angelus did the same; others fled to Trebizond, where one of the Comneni had already with Georgian support established an independent seat of empire. The Principality of Epirus can also refer to the pashalik of Ali Pasha The Despotate or Principality of Epirus (Δεσποτάτο της The Empire of Trebizond ( was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople Constantinople was taken from its final Latin ruler, Baldwin II, by Byzantine forces under Michael VIII Palaeologus in 1261. Baldwin II of Courtenay (French Baudouin II de Courtenay, 1217 &ndash October 1273) was the last emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople The Empire of Nicaea ( Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Νίκαιας Turkish: İznik İmparatorluğu) was the largest of the Byzantine Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Μιχαήλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos) (1223 &ndash December 11
Although Constantinople was retaken by Michael VIII, the empire had lost many of its key economic resources, and struggled to survive. Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Μιχαήλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos) (1223 &ndash December 11 The palace of Blachernae in the north-west of the city became the main imperial residence, with the old Great Palace on the shores of the Bosporus going into decline. Blachernae (Βλαχερναί was a suburb in the northwestern section of Constantinople. The Bosporus or Bosphorus, also known as the Istanbul Strait, (İstanbul Boğazı (Βόσπορος is a Strait that forms the boundary between the When Michael VIII captured the city, its population was 35,000 people, but by the end of his reign, he succeeded in increasing the population to about 70,000 people.  The Emperor achieved this by summoning former residents back who had fled the city when the Crusaders captured it during the Fourth Crusade and by relocating Greeks from the recently reconquered Peloponnese to the capital. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus ( Greek: Πελοπόννησος Pelopónnisos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large Peninsula  In 1453, Constantinople contained approximately 50,000 people when the Ottoman Turks captured the city. The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday May 29, 1453 (Julian Calendar 
Constantinople was the largest and richest urban center in the Eastern Mediterranean during the late Roman Empire, mostly as a result of its strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean and the Black Sea. The Byzantine Great Palace of Constantinople, (Μέγα Παλάτιον Turkish: Büyük Saray also known as the Sacred Palace ( Latin The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey It would remain the capital of the eastern, Greek speaking empire for over a thousand years. In its heyday, roughly corresponding to the Middle Ages, it was the richest and largest European city, exerting a powerful cultural pull and dominating economic life in the Mediterranean. Visitors and merchants were especially struck by the beautiful monasteries and churches of the city, particularly Hagia Sophia, or the Church of Holy Wisdom: a Russian 14th-century traveller, Stephen of Novgorod, wrote, "As for St Sophia, the human mind can neither tell it nor make description of it. Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya Αγία Σοφία " Holy Wisdom " Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a former patriarchal Basilica, later "
It was especially important for preserving in its libraries manuscripts of Greek and Latin authors throughout a period when instability and disorder caused their mass destruction in western Europe and north Africa: on the city's fall thousands of these were brought by refugees to Italy, and played a key part in stimulating the Renaissance, and the transition to the modern world. The cumulative influence of the city on the west, over the many centuries of its existence, is incalculable. In terms of technology, art and culture, as well as sheer size, Constantinople was without parallel anywhere in Europe for a thousand years.
The city provided a defence for the eastern provinces of the old Roman Empire against the barbarian invasions of the 5th century. The 18 metre (60 ft) tall walls built by Theodosius II (413-414) were essentially invincible to the barbarians who, coming from the Lower Danube, found easier targets to the west than the richer provinces to the east in Asia. Flavius Theodosius ( 10 April, 401 – July 28, 450) called the Calligrapher, known in English as Theodosius II, was The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj From the 5th century the city was also protected by the Long Walls, a 60 kilometre (37 mi) chain of walls across the Thracian peninsula. The Anastasian Wall (Anastasius Suru Αναστάσειο Τείχος or the Long Walls of Thrace ( Uzun Duvar, Μακρά Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe A peninsula is a piece of land that is nearly surrounded by Water but connected to Mainland via an Isthmus. Many scholars argue that these sophisticated fortifications allowed the east to develop relatively unmolested, while Rome and the west collapsed. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 With the emergence of Christianity and the rise of Islam, Constantinople became the veritable gates to Christian Europe that stood at the fore of Islamic expansion. As the Byzantine Empire was situated in-between the Islamic world and the Christian west, so did Constantinople act as Europe’s first line-of-defense against Arab advances in the 7th and 8th centuries. The city, and the empire, would ultimately fall to the Ottomans by 1453, but its enduring legacy had provided Europe centuries of resurgence following the collapse of Rome.
The influence of Byzantine architecture and art can be seen in the copies taken from it throughout Europe. Particular examples include St. Mark's in Venice, the basilicas of Ravenna, and many churches throughout the Slavic East. Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Also, alone in Europe until the 13th century Italian florin, the Empire continued to produce sound gold coinage, the solidus of Diocletian becoming the bezant prized throughout the Middle Ages. The solidus (the Latin word for solid) was originally a Gold coin issued by the Romans. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate Bezant is a Medieval name for a Gold coin. Gold coins were not minted in early medieval Western Europe, Silver and Bronze being the Its city walls were much imitated (for example, see Caernarfon Castle) and its urban infrastructure was moreover a marvel throughout the Middle Ages, keeping alive the art, skill and technical expertise of the Roman Empire. The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its Caernarfon Castle (Castell Caernarfon was constructed at Caernarfon in Gwynedd, north-west Wales, by King Edward I of England, following his
Constantine's foundation gave prestige to the Bishop of Constantinople, who eventually came to be known as the Ecumenical Patriarch, vying for honour with the Pope. "Patriarch of Constantinople" redirects here For the institutional church itself see Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. The Bishop of Rome is the bishop of the Holy See, more often referred to in the Catholic tradition as the Pope.  They were often regarded as "first among equals", a situation which contributed to the Great Schism that divided Christianity into Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy from 1054 onwards (although the anathemas that each religious leader pronounced against the other have been withdrawn in recent times). Primus inter pares ( Latin) or First among equals is a phrase which indicates that a person is the most senior of a group of people The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Anathema (in Greek Ανάθεμα meaning originally something lifted up as an offering to the gods later with evolving meanings it came to mean to be formally The Patriarch of Constantinople is still today considered outstanding in the Eastern Orthodox Church, along with the Patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, and with the more recently created Patriarchs of Moscow, Sofia, Bucharest, Belgrade. This position is largely ceremonial but still today carries great weight, particularly since by tradition Constantinople carries the administrative burden of the Orthodox churches in non-Christian lands.
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