|Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail)|
|Locale||Michigan, Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, United States|
|Dates of operation||April 1, 1976–June 1, 1999|
|Successor line||CSX Transportation, Norfolk Southern, Conrail Shared Assets Operations|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8½ in (1435 mm) (standard gauge)|
Consolidated Rail Corporation, also known as Conrail (AAR reporting marks CR), began operations on April 1, 1976 as a federally-funded takeover of the major railroad companies in the Northeastern United States, all of which were financially failing. A reporting mark is an identification assigned by the Association of American Railroads (AAR to rail carriers and other companies operating in North America. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In 1999 it was divided between Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX Transportation, with three terminal switching districts operated by successor Conrail Shared Assets Operations. This article is about the present railroad formed in 1990 For the former regional railroad in Virginia and North Carolina a small part of the new one see Norfolk Southern Conrail Shared Assets Operations is an American Railroad company
In the years leading to 1973, the freight railroad system of the U. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. S. was collapsing. Even after the government-funded Amtrak took over intercity passenger service in 1971, railroad companies continued to lose money. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 Inter-city rail services are express Train passenger services which cover longer distances than Commuter trains Africa Inter-city services are reasonably Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The giant Penn Central Transportation, formed in 1968 by the merger of the New York Central Railroad and Pennsylvania Railroad (and supplemented in 1969 by the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad), went bankrupt in 1970. The Pennsylvania and New York Central Transportation Company, almost always called Penn Central, was an American Railroad company that operated from 1968 Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The New York Central Railroad, known simply as the New York Central in its publicity was a Railroad operating in the Northeastern United States. The Pennsylvania Railroad was an American Railroad, founded in 1846 Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The New York New Haven and Hartford Railroad was a railroad that operated in the northeast United States from 1872 to 1969 Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Under Judge John P. Fullam, the bankrupt company threatened in mid-1973 to end all operations by the end of the year if they did not receive government aid by October 1, as otherwise it would have to liquidate. John P Fullam is a Judge on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Congress quickly came up with a bill to nationalize the bankrupt railroads. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government The Association of American Railroads, which opposed nationalization, submitted an alternate proposal for a government-funded private company. The Association of American Railroads is an industry trade group representing primarily the major freight railroads of Fullam kept the company operating into 1974, when, on January 2, after threatening a veto, President Nixon signed the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 into law. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation. The 3R Act, as it was called, provided interim funding to the bankrupt railroads and defined a new Consolidated Rail Corporation under the AAR's plan.
The 3R Act also formed the United States Railway Association, another government corporation, taking over the powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission with respect to allowing the bankrupt railroads to abandon unprofitable lines. The United States Railway Association was the Corporation created by Federal law that oversaw Conrail. A government-owned corporation, state-owned enterprise or government business enterprise is a legal entity created by a Government to undertake commercial The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a Regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 which was signed The USRA was incorporated February 1, 1974, and Edward G. Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Jordan, an insurance executive from California, was named president on March 18 by Nixon. Insurance, in Law and Economics, is a form of Risk management primarily used to hedge against the Risk of a contingent loss Corporate titles are titles conferred on individuals as a means of identifying their function in the Organization. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Events 37 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius ' will and proclaims Caligula emperor Arthur D. Lewis of Eastern Air Lines was appointed chairman April 30, and the rest of the board was named May 30 and sworn in July 11. Eastern Air Lines was a major United States Airline that existed from the late 1920s until 1991 Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy.
Under the 3R Act, the USRA was to create a Final System Plan to decide which lines should be included in the new Consolidated Rail Corporation. Unlike most railroad consolidations, only the designated lines were to be taken over. Other lines would be sold to Amtrak, various state governments, transportation agencies, and solvent railroads. The few remaining lines were to remain with the old companies along with all previously abandoned lines, many stations, and all non-rail related properties, thus converting most of the old companies into solvent property holding companies. The plan was unveiled July 26, 1975, consisting of lines from Penn Central and six other companies—the Ann Arbor Railroad (bankrupt 1973), Erie Lackawanna Railway (1972), Lehigh Valley Railroad (1970), Reading Company (1971), Central Railroad of New Jersey (1967) and Lehigh and Hudson River Railway (1972). Events 657 - Battle of Siffin. 811 - Battle of Pliska; Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Ann Arbor Railroad, historically was an American Railroad that operated between Toledo Ohio, and Elberta and Frankfort Michigan Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. The Erie Lackawanna Railway, known as the Erie-Lackawanna Railroad until 1968 was formed from the 1960 merger of the Erie Railroad and the Delaware Lackawanna Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Lehigh Valley Railroad was one of a number of railroads built in the northeastern United States primarily to haul Anthracite coal. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Reading Company, usually called the Reading Railroad ( and officially known as the Philadelphia and Reading Rail Road and then the Philadelphia and Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The Central Railroad of New Jersey, more commonly known as the Jersey Central Lines or CNJ, was a regional railroad with origins in the 1830s lasting until 1976 when Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. The Lehigh and Hudson River Railway ( L&HR) was the smallest of the six Railroads that were merged into Conrail in 1976 Controlled railroads and jointly owned railroads such as Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines were also included (see list of railroads transferred to Conrail for a full list). Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines ( PRSL) was a joint venture of the Pennsylvania Railroad and Reading Railroad in southern New Jersey. The Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail was formed on April 1, 1976 not by a standard merger but as a new Government corporation that took over only It was approved by Congress on November 9, and on February 5, 1976 President Ford signed the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, which included this Final System Plan, into law. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Events 1576 - Henry of Navarre converts to Roman Catholicism in order to ensure his right to the throne of France. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr (July 14 1913 December 26 2006 was the thirty-eighth President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977 and the fortieth Vice President The Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, Pub
The Erie Lackawanna had been formed in 1960 as a merger of the Erie Railroad and Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Erie Railroad was a Railroad that operated in New York State, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and The Delaware Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company ( DL&W or Lackawanna) was a Railroad connecting Pennsylvania 's Lackawanna Valley It too was bankrupt, but was somewhat stronger financially than the others. It was ruled reorganizable under Chapter 77 on April 30, 1974 (as had the Boston and Maine Railroad), but on January 9, 1975, with no end to its losses in sight, its trustees reconsidered and asked for inclusion. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. The Boston and Maine Railroad, also known by the abbreviation B&M, was the dominant Railroad of the northern New England region of the United Events 475 - Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople. Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Final System Plan assigned a major section of the EL, from northern New Jersey west to northeast Ohio, to be sold to the Chessie System, which would help spur competition in Conrail's territory. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads The Chessie System was a Holding company that owned four American railroads the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O Competition is a rivalry between individuals groups nations or animals for territory or resources Chessie however could not reach an agreement with EL labor unions, and in February 1976 announced that it would not be buying the EL section. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The USRA hurriedly assigned large amounts of trackage rights to the Delaware and Hudson Railway, allowing it to compete in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Washington, DC markets. Railway companies can interact with and control others in many ways "D&H" redirects here for the firearm magazine manufacturing company see D&H Industries The Delaware and Hudson Railway ( D&H) is an Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D
On the other hand, the State of Michigan decided to keep the full Ann Arbor Railroad, of which Conrail would only run the southernmost portion, operational. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. The Ann Arbor Railroad, historically was an American Railroad that operated between Toledo Ohio, and Elberta and Frankfort Michigan Michigan bought it and the whole line was operated by Conrail for several years until it was sold to a short line.
Conrail was incorporated in Pennsylvania on October 25, 1974, and operations began April 1, 1976. Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The theory was that if the service was improved through increased capital investment, the economic basis of the railroad would be improved. Investment or investing is a term with several closely-related meanings in Business management, Finance and Economics, related to saving During its first seven years, Conrail proved to be highly unprofitable, despite receiving billions of dollars of assistance from Congress. The corporation declared enormous losses on its federal income tax returns from 1976 through 1982, resulting in an accumulated net operating loss of $2. 2 billion during that period. Congress once again reacted with support by passing the Northeast Rail Service Act of 1981 (NERSA) (45 U. S. Sec. 1101 et seq. ), which amended portions of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act by exempting Conrail from liability for any state taxes (45 U. S. C. 727(c)) and requiring the Secretary of Transportation to make arrangements for the sale of the government's interest in Conrail (45 U. S. C. 761). After NERSA was implemented, Conrail began to improve and reported taxable income between $2 million and $314 million each year from 1983 through 1986.
Although Conrail's government-funded rebuilding of the heavily run-down railroad infrastructure and rolling stock it inherited from its six bankrupt predecessors succeeded by the end of the 1970s in improving the physical condition of tracks, locomotives, and freight cars, the fundamental economic regulatory issues remained, and Conrail continued to post losses of as much as $1 million a day. Rolling Stock was a Newspaper of ideas and a chronicle of the 1980s published in Boulder, Colorado This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. A railroad car or railway carriage is a Vehicle on a rail transport system (railroad or railway that is used for the carrying of Cargo or Conrail management, recognizing the need for more regulatory freedoms to address the economic issues, were among the parties lobbying for what became the Staggers Act of 1980, which significantly loosened the Interstate Commerce Commission's rigid economic control of the rail industry. The Staggers Rail Act of 1980 (See Public Law 96-448 signed into law by President Jimmy Carter on October 14, The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a Regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 which was signed This allowed Conrail and other carriers the opportunity to become profitable and strengthen their finances.
The Staggers Act allowed the setting of rates that would recover capital and operating cost (fully allocated cost recovery) by each and every route mile the railroad operated. There would be no more cross-subsidization of costs between route-miles (i. e. , rates on profitable route segments were not set higher to subsidize routes where rates were set at intermodal parity, yet still did recover fully allocated costs). Finally where current and/or future traffic projections showed that profitable volumes of traffic would not return, the railroads were allowed to abandon those routes, shippers and passengers to other modes of transportation. With the Staggers Act, the railroads, including Conrail, were freed from the requirement to operate services with open ended losses for the public convenience and necessity of those who simply chose rail services as their mode of transportation.
Conrail began turning a profit by 1981, the result of the Staggers Act freedoms and its own managerial improvements under the leadership of L. Stanley Crane, who had been chief executive officer of the Southern Railway. The Northeast Rail Service Act of 1981 relieved Conrail of its requirement to provide commuter service on the Northeast Corridor, further improving its finances. Commuter rail, regional rail or suburban rail is a Passenger rail transport service between a city center and outer suburbs and Commuter towns The Northeast Corridor ( NEC) is the busiest passenger rail line in the United States by ridership and service frequency
After considerable debate in Congress, the Conrail Privatization Act of 1986 was signed into law by President Reagan on October 21, 1986. Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) The largest initial public offering in US history came on March 26, 1987 when Conrail's stock, worth $1. Initial public offering (IPO, also referred to simply as a "public offering" is when a company issues Common stock or shares to the public for the first Events 1026 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) 9 billion, was sold to private investors.
Conrail inherited the commuter rail operations of its predecessor rail lines, and operated them until 1983, when these services were transferred to state or metropolitan transit authorities. Commuter rail, regional rail or suburban rail is a Passenger rail transport service between a city center and outer suburbs and Commuter towns Except for MARC, the transit authorities purchased the track and right-of-way on which their commuter operations ran, leaving Conrail freight operations as a tenant.
Lower Hudson Valley of New York State and southwest Connecticut
With Conrail's increasing success, two eastern rail competitors of Conrail engaged in a takeover battle to control the railroad and expand their systems. The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority ( MBTA) is "a body politic and corporate and a political subdivision" of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts The Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company, or MTA Metro-North Railroad, or more commonly Metro-North, is a Suburban commuter rail service The New Jersey Transit Corporation (usually shortened to New Jersey Transit, NJ Transit or NJT) is a statewide Public transportation system serving The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority ( SEPTA) is a regional public authority that operates various forms of public transit &mdash bus MARC, prior to 1984 known as Maryland Rail Commuter Service, is a Regional rail system comprising three lines in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area In business a takeover is the purchase of one company (the target) by another (the acquirer, or bidder) In 1997, however, the two railroads, CSX Transportation and the Norfolk Southern Railway, struck a compromise agreement to jointly acquire Conrail and split most of its assets between them, with Norfolk Southern acquiring a larger portion of the Conrail network via a larger stock buyout. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar This article is about the present railroad formed in 1990 For the former regional railroad in Virginia and North Carolina a small part of the new one see Norfolk Southern In Arguments compromise is a concept of finding Agreement through Communication, through a mutual Acceptance of terms—often involving variations Under the final agreement approved by the Surface Transportation Board, Norfolk Southern acquired 58 percent of Conrail's assets, including roughly 6,000 Conrail route miles, and CSX received 42 percent of Conrail's assets, including about 3,600 route miles. The Surface Transportation Board (STB of the United States was created by the Interstate Commerce Commission Termination Act of 1995 at the same time the 
The buyout was approved by the Surface Transportation Board (successor agency to the Interstate Commerce Commission) and took place on August 22, 1998. The Surface Transportation Board (STB of the United States was created by the Interstate Commerce Commission Termination Act of 1995 at the same time the The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a Regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 which was signed Events 392 - Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) The lines were transferred to two newly-formed limited liability companies, to be subsidiaries of Conrail but leased to CSX and Norfolk Southern, respectively New York Central Lines (NYC) and Pennsylvania Lines (PRR). A limited liability company (abbreviated LLC or LLC) in the law of the vast majority of the United States is a legal form of business Company New York Central Lines LLC was a Limited liability company that owned Railroad lines in the United States that are owned and operated by CSX Transportation Pennsylvania Lines LLC was a Limited liability company that owned Railroad lines in the United States that are owned and operated by the Norfolk Southern The NYC and PRR reporting marks, which had passed to Conrail, were also transferred to the new companies, and NS also acquired the CR reporting mark. A reporting mark is an identification assigned by the Association of American Railroads (AAR to rail carriers and other companies operating in North America. Operations under CSX and NS began June 1, 1999. Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar)
As the names indicated, CSX acquired the former New York Central Railroad main line from New York City and Boston, Massachusetts to Cleveland, Ohio, and the former Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway (NYC Big Four) line to Indianapolis, Indiana (continuing west to East St. Louis, Illinois on a former Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad (PRR Panhandle Route) line), while Norfolk Southern got the former Pennsylvania Railroad main line and Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad from Jersey City, New Jersey to Cleveland, and the rest of the former NYC main line west to Chicago, Illinois. The New York Central Railroad, known simply as the New York Central in its publicity was a Railroad operating in the Northeastern United States. The City of New York Cleveland is a City in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state The Cleveland Cincinnati Chicago and St Louis Railway, also known as the Big Four Railroad and commonly abbreviated CCC&StL, was a Railroad company in East St Louis is a city located in St Clair County Illinois, USA directly across the Mississippi River from St The Pittsburgh Cincinnati Chicago and St Louis Railroad, commonly called the Pan Handle Route ( Panhandle Route in later days was a Railroad forming The Pennsylvania Railroad was an American Railroad, founded in 1846 Jersey City is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Thus the Conrail "X" was neatly split in two, CSX getting one diagonal from Boston to St. Louis and Norfolk Southern the other from New York to Chicago. The two lines cross at a bridge southeast of downtown Cleveland ( ), where the former Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad crosses over the NYC's former Cleveland Short Line Railway around the south side of Cleveland. The Cleveland Short Line Railway was a freight bypass around southern Cleveland Ohio on the New York Central Railroad 's Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway
In three major metropolitan areas - North Jersey, South Jersey/Philadelphia, and Detroit - Conrail Shared Assets Operations continues to serve as a terminal operating company owned by both CSX and NS. Conrail Shared Assets Operations is an American Railroad company The Conrail Shared Assets Operations arrangement was a concession made to federal regulators who were concerned about the lack of competition in certain rail markets and logistical problems associated with the breaking up the Conrail operations as they existed in densely populated areas with many local customers. The smaller Conrail operation that exists today serves rail freight customers in these markets on behalf of its two owners. A fourth area, the former Monongahela Railway in southwest Pennsylvania, was originally owned jointly by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Pennsylvania Railroad and Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad. The Monongahela Railway was a Coal -hauling Short line Railroad in Pennsylvania and West Virginia in the United States. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ( B&O) was one of the Oldest railroads in the United States and the first Common carrier railroad The Pennsylvania Railroad was an American Railroad, founded in 1846 The Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad ( P&LE), also known as the "Little Giant" was formed on May 11 1875. Conrail absorbed the company in 1993, and assigned trackage rights to CSX, the successor to the B&O and P&LE. Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) Railway companies can interact with and control others in many ways With the Conrail breakup, those lines are owned by NS, but the CSX trackage rights are still in place.
Though Conrail was divided in 1999 between Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX Transportation, some of its locomotives still bear its name. Most of its fleet is still around in some yards.
This Conrail locomotive No. 3062 SD40-2 is sitting idle in Botsford Yard Kalamazoo, MI on March 31, 2008. The EMD SD40-2 is a model of C-C Diesel-electric locomotive built by General Motors ' Electro-Motive Division between January 1972 and February Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
This Conrail locomotive No. 3070 SD40-2 is sitting idle in Botsford Yard Kalamazoo, MI on March 31, 2008. The EMD SD40-2 is a model of C-C Diesel-electric locomotive built by General Motors ' Electro-Motive Division between January 1972 and February Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common