Conservative Judaism (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel and Europe) is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. The Masorti movement is the name given to Conservative Judaism in the State of Israel. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
The principles of Conservative Judaism include:
Conservative Judaism has its roots in the school of thought known as Positive-Historical Judaism, developed in 1850s Germany as a reaction to the more liberal religious positions taken by Reform Judaism. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently subjected to vandalism and the insertion of personal opinions The term conservative was meant to signify that Jews should attempt to conserve Jewish tradition, rather than reform or abandon it, and does not imply the movement's adherents are politically conservative. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Because of this potential for confusion, a number of Conservative rabbis have proposed renaming the movement, and outside of the United States and Canada, in many countries including Israel and the UK, it is today known as Masorti Judaism (Hebrew for "Traditional"). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
Like Reform Judaism, the Conservative movement developed in Europe and the United States in the 1800s, as Jews reacted to the changes brought about by the Enlightenment and Jewish emancipation. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently subjected to vandalism and the insertion of personal opinions The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Jewish question Jewish emancipation was the abolition of discriminatory laws as applied especially to Jews in Europe in the nineteenth century the recognition of Jews In Europe the movement was known as Positive-Historical Judaism, and it is still known as "the historical school. "
Positive-Historical Judaism, the intellectual forerunner to Conservative Judaism, was developed as a school of thought in the 1840s and 1850s in Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Its principal founder was Rabbi Zecharias Frankel, who had broken with the German Reform Judaism in 1845 over its rejection of the primacy of the Hebrew language in Jewish prayer. Rabbi (pronunciation, although in English usually) in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’ or more literally ‘my great one’ when addressing any master Zecharias Frankel ( 30 September, 1801 – 13 February 1875) was a Bohemian-German Rabbi and a historian who studied the historical development Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently subjected to vandalism and the insertion of personal opinions In 1854, Frankel became the head of the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau, Germany. Wrocław (Breslau Vratislav Vratislavia or Wratislavia Yiddish: ברעסלוי) is the chief City of the historical region of Lower Silesia At the seminary, Frankel taught that Jewish law was not static, but rather has always developed in response to changing conditions. Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law He called his approach towards Judaism "Positive-Historical," which meant that one should have a positive attitude towards accepting Jewish law and tradition as normative, yet one should be open to developing the law in the same fashion that it has always historically developed. Normative has specialized meanings in several academic disciplines Frankel rejected the innovations of Reform Judaism as insufficiently based in Jewish history and communal practice. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently subjected to vandalism and the insertion of personal opinions However, Frankel's use of modern methods of historical scholarship in analyzing Jewish texts and developing Jewish law set him apart from neo-Orthodox Judaism, which was concurrently developing under the leadership of Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch. Torah im Derech Eretz (תורה עם דרך ארץ - Torah with "the way of the land" is a philosophy of Orthodox Judaism articulated by Rabbi Samson Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch ( June 20, 1808 – December 31, 1888) was the intellectual founder of the Torah im Derech Eretz
In the latter half of the 19th century, the debates occurring in German Judaism were replicated in America. Conservative Judaism in America similarly began as a reaction to Reform Judaism's rejection of traditional Jewish law and practice. The differences between the more modern and traditional branches of American Judaism came to a head in 1883, at the "Trefa Banquet" - where shellfish and other non-kosher dishes were served at the celebration of the first graduating class of Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati. Shellfish is a Culinary and Fisheries term for those aquatic Invertebrate animals that are used as Food: various species of molluscs The Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (also known as HUC, HUC-JIR, and The College-Institute) is the oldest Jewish The adoption of the radical Pittsburgh Platform in 1885, which dismissed observance of the ritual commandments and Jewish peoplehood as "anachronistic", created a permanent wedge between the Reform movement and more traditional American Jews. The Pittsburgh Platform is a pivotal 19th century document in the history of the American Reform Movement in Judaism that called for Jews to adopt a modern approach
In 1886, Rabbis Sabato Morais and H. Pereira Mendes founded the Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS) in New York City as a more traditional alternative to HUC. Sabato Morais (Leghorn Italy April 13, 1823 - Philadelphia PA November 11, 1897) was an Italian-American Rabbi Henry Pereira Mendes (1852–1937 was an American Rabbi who was born in Birmingham, England and died in New York. The Seminary's brief affiliation with the traditional congregations that established the Union of Orthodox Congregations in 1898 was severed due to the Orthodox rejection of the Seminary's academic approach to Jewish learning. The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America (UOJCA more popularly known as the Orthodox Union, or OU, is one of the oldest Orthodox Jewish At the turn of the century, the Seminary lacked a source of permanent funding and was ordaining on average no more than one rabbi per year.
The fortunes of Conservative Judaism underwent a dramatic turnaround when in 1902, the famed scholar Solomon Schechter accepted the invitation to become president of JTS. Solomon Schechter שניאור זלמן שכטר ( December 7, 1847 - November 19[[ 915]] was a Moldavian born Romanian and English Under Schechter's leadership, JTS attracted a distinguished faculty and became a highly regarded center of Jewish learning. In 1913, the Conservative Movement founded its congregational arm, the United Synagogue of America.
Conservative Judaism enjoyed rapid growth in the first half of the 20th century, becoming the largest American Jewish denomination. Its combination of modern innovation (such as mixed gender seating) and traditional practice particularly appealed to first and second-generation Eastern European Jewish immigrants, who found Orthodoxy too restrictive, but Reform Judaism foreign. After World War II, Conservative Judaism continued to thrive. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The 1950s and early 1960s featured a boom in synagogue construction as upwardly-mobile American Jews moved to the suburbs. A synagogue (from Greek: grc συναγωγή transliterated synagogē, "assembly" he בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California. Conservative Judaism occupied an enviable middle position during a period where American society prized consensus.
The Conservative coalition splintered in 1963, when advocates of the Reconstructionist philosophy of Mordecai Kaplan seceded from the movement to form a distinct Reconstructionist Judaism. Mordecai Menahem Kaplan ( June 11, 1881 &ndash November 8, 1983) was a Rabbi and the founder of Reconstructionist Judaism Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan (1881 – 1983 Kaplan had been a leading figure at JTS for 54 years, and had pressed for liturgical reform and innovations in ritual practice from inside of the framework of Conservative Judaism. Frustrated by the perceived dominance of the more traditionalist voices at JTS, Kaplan's followers decided that the ideas of Reconstructionism would be better served through the creation of separate denomination. In 1968, the split became formalized with the establishment of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College. The Reconstructionist Rabbinical College ( RRC) is located in Wyncote Pennsylvania, about 10 miles (16 km north of central Philadelphia.
In the 1970s and early 1980s, Conservative Judaism was divided over issues of gender equality. Gender equality (also known as gender equity, gender egalitarianism, or sexual equality) is the goal of the Equality of the Genders In 1973, the Committee on Jewish Law and Standards voted, without adopting an explanatory responsum, to permit synagogues to count women toward a minyan, but left the choice to individual congregations. The Committee on Jewish Law and Standards is the central authority on Halakha (Jewish law and tradition within Conservative Judaism; it is one of the most active Responsa ( Latin: plural of responsum, "answers" comprise a body of written decisions and rulings given by Legal scholars in response to questions A minyan (מנין lit to count number; pl minyanim) in Judaism refers to the Quorum required for certain religious After a further decade of debate, in 1983, JTS voted to admit women for ordination as Conservative rabbis, also without adopting an explanatory responsum. Some opponents of these decisions left the Conservative movement to form the Union for Traditional Judaism. The Union for Traditional Judaism is an ostensibly non-denominational Jewish educational outreach and communal service organization
In 2002, the Committee adopted a responsum that provides an official religious-law foundation for its past actions and articulates the current Conservative approach to the role of women in Judaism. 
In December 2006, a responsum was adopted by the Committee that approved the ordination of gay and lesbian rabbis and permitted commitment ceremonies for lesbian and gay Jews (but not same-sex marriage), while maintaining the traditional prohibition against anal sex between men. In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality. A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same Anal sex most often refers to the sex act involving insertion of the Penis into the Rectum.  An opposing responsum, that maintained the traditional prohibitions against ordinations and commitment ceremonies, was also approved. Both responsa were enacted as majority opinions, with some members of the Committee voting for both. This result gives individual synagogues, rabbis, and rabbinical schools discretion to adopt either approach. 
In the 1990s, the American Jewish University (Formerly the University of Judaism) in Los Angeles established the Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies as an independent rabbinical school. The American Jewish University, formerly the separate institutions University of Judaism and Brandeis-Bardin Institute, is a Jewish non-denominational The Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies, informally known as the "Ziegler School" or simply "Ziegler" is the graduate program of study leading to Ordination as Conservative
At the time of the 1990 National Jewish Population Survey, Conservative Judaism remained the largest denomination in America, with 43 percent of Jewish households affiliated with a synagogue belonging to Conservative synagogues (compared to 35 percent for Reform and 16 percent for Orthodox). The National Jewish Population Survey (NJPS most recently performed in 2000-01 is a representative survey of the Jewish population in the United States sponsored In 2000, the NJPS showed that only 33 percent of synagogue-affiliated American Jews belonging to Conservative synagogue. For the first time in nearly a century, Conservative Judaism is no longer the largest denomination in America. At the same time, however, certain Conservative institutions, particular day schools, have shown significant growth. Conservative leaders agree that these contrasting trends indicate that the movement has reached a crossroads as it heads into the 21st century.
For much of the large movement's history, Conservative Judaism avoided publishing systematic explications of the Jewish principles of faith. Although Jews and religious leaders share a core of monotheistic principles Judaism has no formal statement of principles of faith such as a Creed or Catechism This was a conscious attempt to hold together a wide coalition.
In 1988, the leadership council of Conservative Judaism finally issued an official statement of belief, Emet Ve-Emunah: Statement of Principles of Conservative Judaism. In accord with classical rabbinic Judaism, it agrees that Jews must hold certain beliefs. However, it holds that the Jewish community never developed any one binding catechism. A catechism (ˈkætəkɪzəm κατηχισμός is a summary or exposition of Doctrine, traditionally used in Christian religious teaching from New Testament Thus, it is difficult if not impossible to pick out only one person's formal creed and hold it as binding. Instead, Emet Ve-Emunah allows for a range of Jewish beliefs that Conservative rabbis believe are authentically Jewish and justifiable.
Thus, Emet Ve-Emunah affirms belief in God and in the divine inspiration of the Torah; however it also affirms the legitimacy of multiple interpretations of these issues. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to Atheism, Trinitarian views of God, and polytheism are all ruled out. Atheism SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple Gods (usually assembled in a pantheon) together with associated Mythology and Rituals Conservative Judaism explicitly rejects relativism, yet also rejects fundamentalism. Compare Moral relativism, Aesthetic relativism, Social constructionism, Cultural relativism, and Cognitive relativism. Fundamentalism refers to a "deep and totalistic commitment" to a belief in and strict adherence to a set of basic principles (often Religious in nature a reaction
Conservative Judaism affirms monotheism. For the Celtic Frost album see Monotheist (album In Theology, monotheism (from Greek grc [[wiktμόνος μόνος]] Its members have varied beliefs about the nature of God, and no one understanding of God is mandated. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. Among the beliefs affirmed are: Maimonidean rationalism; Kabbalistic mysticism; Hasidic panentheism (neo-Hasidism, Jewish Renewal); limited theism (as in Harold Kushner's "When Bad Things Happen to Good People"); organic thinking in the fashion of Alfred North Whitehead and Charles Hartshorne, also known as process theology (such as Rabbis Max Kaddushin and William E. Kaufman). Moses Maimonides ( March 30 1135 – December 13 1204) also known as the Rambam, was a Rabbi, Physician, and Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה lit "receiving" is a discipline and school of thought discussing the mystical aspect of Judaism. Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc from the Hebrew: he '''''חסידות''''', Chassidus, meaning "piety" from the Hebrew Panentheism (from Greek (pân "all" (en "in" and (Theós "God" "all-in-God" is a belief system Jewish Renewal is a recent movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, Musical and Harold S Kushner is a prominent American Rabbi aligned with the progressive wing of Conservative Judaism. When Bad Things Happen to Good People (ISBN 1-4000-3472-8 is a 1981 book by Harold Kushner, a Conservative Rabbi. Alfred North Whitehead, OM ( February 15 1861, Ramsgate, Kent, England &ndash December 30 1947, Charles Hartshorne ( June 5, 1897 &ndash October 9, 2000) was a prominent American philosopher who concentrated primarily on the Philosophy Process theology is a school of thought influenced by the metaphysical Process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947 William E Kaufman is a Rabbi, a Philosopher, and an author of several books and academic articles
Mordecai Kaplan's religious naturalism (Reconstructionist Judaism) used to have an influential place in the movement, but since Reconstructionism developed as an independent movement, this influence has waned. Mordecai Menahem Kaplan ( June 11, 1881 &ndash November 8, 1983) was a Rabbi and the founder of Reconstructionist Judaism Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan (1881 – 1983 Papers from a recent Rabbinical Assembly conference on theology were recently printed in a special issue of the journal Conservative Judaism (Winter 1999); the editors note that Kaplan's naturalism seems to have dropped from the movement's radar screen. The Rabbinical Assembly (RA is the international association of Conservative Rabbis The RA was founded in 1901 to shape the ideology programs and practices of the
Conservative Judaism allows its adherents to hold to a wide array of views on the subject of revelation. Many Conservative Jews reject the traditional Jewish idea that God literally dictated the words of the Torah to Moses at Mount Sinai in a verbal revelation, but they hold the traditional Jewish belief that God inspired the later prophets to write the rest of the Tanakh. Moses ( Latin: Moyses,; Greek: grc Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: ar موسىٰ The Biblical Mount Sinai is an ambiguously located mountain at which the Hebrew Bible states that the Ten Commandments were given to Moses by Revelation is the act of revealing or disclosing (see etymology or in the theological perception making something obvious and clearly understood through active or passive communication In Religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has encountered the Supernatural or the divine and serves as an intermediary See also Old testament, Septuagint, Targum, Peshitta The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ (taˈnax or; also Tenakh or Tenak is Many Conservative Jews believe that Moses was inspired by God in the same manner as the later prophets.
Conservative Jews who reject the concept of verbal revelation believe that God revealed his will to Moses and other prophets in a non-verbal form — that is, God's revelation did not include the particular words of the divine texts.
Conservative Judaism is comfortable with the higher criticism, including the documentary hypothesis, the theory that the Torah was redacted from several earlier sources. Historical criticism or higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that investigates the origins of a text as applied in Biblical studies it naturally The movement's rabbinic authorities and its official Torah commentary (Etz Hayim: A Torah Commentary) affirm that Jews should make use of modern critical literary and historical analysis to understand how the Bible developed.
Conservative Judaism views halakha (Jewish religious law) as normative and binding. Conservative Judaism views Halakha ( Jewish law) as normative and binding Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law Examining Jewish history and rabbinic literature through the lens of academic criticism, Conservative Judaism believes that halakha has always evolved to meet the changing realities of Jewish life, and that it must continue to do so in the modern age. Jewish history is the History of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense can mean the entire spectrum of Rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history
This view, together with Conservative Judaism's diversity of opinion concerning divine revelation, accounts for some of the diversity and disagreement in the Conservative movement's halakha. When considering changes to halakha, Conservative Judaism's rabbinical authorities may rely on historical analysis as well as religious considerations. As Solomon Schechter noted, "however great the literary value of a code may be, it does not invest it with infallibility, nor does it exempt it from the student or the Rabbi who makes use of it from the duty of examining each paragraph on its own merits, and subjecting it to the same rules of interpretation that were always applied to Tradition". 
Conservative Judaism contrasts itself with other denominations through two major areas of distinction:
Concerning the degree of revelation of Torah Conservative Judaism assumes that Orthodox Jews accept direct verbal revelation of the Torah. Conservative responsa are the body of Responsa literature of Conservative Judaism (also known as Masorti Judaism) (Many Orthodox philosophers do not agree with this characterization, see Breuer, Berkovits, Soloveitchik, Kook, or Fox) However, Conservative Judaism rejects the Reform view, that the Torah was not revealed but divinely inspired. A number of notable people are known by the surname Breuer Carolyn Breuer, German musician Eric Breuer, Swiss archaeologist and historian Soloveitchik (סולובייצ'יק (also Soloveichik) is a surname In contrast to both, most Conservative positions affirm the divine but nonverbal revelation of written Torah as the authentic, historically correct Jewish view. In this view, Oral Torah is considered inspired by Torah, but not necessarily of a straightforward divine origin. According to Rabbinic Judaism, the oral Torah, oral Law, or oral tradition ( is the oral tradition received in conjunction with the written Torah
Concerning interpretation of Halakha (or Jewish law): because of Judaism's legal tradition, the fundamental differences between modern Jewish denominations also involve the relevance, interpretation, and application of Jewish law Jewish law and tradition. Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law Conservative Judaism believes that its approach is the most authentic expression of Judaism as it was traditionally practiced. Conservative Jews believe that movements to its left, such as Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism, have erred by rejecting the traditional authority of Jewish law and tradition. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently subjected to vandalism and the insertion of personal opinions Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan (1881 – 1983 Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law They believe that the Orthodox Jewish movements, on the theological right, have erred by slowing down, or stopping, the historical development of Jewish law: "Conservative Judaism believes that scholarly study of Jewish texts indicates that Judaism has constantly been evolving to meet the needs of the Jewish people in varying circumstances, and that a central halakhic authority can continue the halakhic evolution today. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized " (Soc. Culture. Jewish Usenet Newsgroup FAQ) The Conservative movement makes a conscious effort to use historical sources to determine what kind of changes to Jewish tradition have occurred, how and why they occurred, and in what historical context. With this information they believe that can better understand the proper way for rabbis to interpret and apply Jewish law to our conditions today. See also under Modern Orthodox Judaism. Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance
Mordacai Waxman, a leading figure in the Rabbinical Assembly, writes that "Reform has asserted the right of interpretation but it rejected the authority of legal tradition. Orthodoxy has clung fast to the principle of authority, but has in our own and recent generations rejected the right to any but minor interpretations. The Conservative view is that both are necessary for a living Judaism. Accordingly, Conservative Judaism holds itself bound by the Jewish legal tradition, but asserts the right of its rabbinical body, acting as a whole, to interpret and to apply Jewish law. " (Mordecai Waxman Tradition and Change: The Development of Conservative Judaism)
Conservative Judaism views the process by which Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism make changes to Jewish tradition as potentially invalid. Thus, Conservative Judaism rejects patrilineal descent and would hold that a child of a non-Jewish mother who was raised as a Reform or Reconstructionist Jew is not legally Jewish and would have to undergo conversion to become a Jew. Patrilineality (aka agnatic kinship) is a system in which one belongs to one's father's lineage it generally involves the Inheritance of property names or titles Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity or a change from one religious identity to another The Conservative movement is committed to Jewish pluralism and respects the religious practices of Reform and Reconstructionist Jews. For example, the Conservative movement recognizes their clergy as rabbis, even if it does not necessarily accept their specific decisions. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion.
Conservative Judaism accepts that the Orthodox approach to halakhah is generally valid. Accordingly, a Conservative Jew could satisfy their halakhic obligations by participation in Orthodox rituals. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized
In the more limited sense of the term, Conservative Judaism is a unified movement; the international body of Conservative rabbis is the Rabbinical Assembly (RA), the organization of synagogues is the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism (USCJ), and the primary seminaries are the Jewish Theological Seminary of America (JTS) in New York City and the Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies at the American Jewish University (formerly the University of Judaism) in Los Angeles. The Rabbinical Assembly (RA is the international association of Conservative Rabbis The RA was founded in 1901 to shape the ideology programs and practices of the The United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism (USCJ is the primary organization of synagogues practicing Conservative Judaism in North America The Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies, informally known as the "Ziegler School" or simply "Ziegler" is the graduate program of study leading to Ordination as Conservative The American Jewish University, formerly the separate institutions University of Judaism and Brandeis-Bardin Institute, is a Jewish non-denominational Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Conservative Judaism outside the USA is often called Masorti Judaism; Masorti rabbis belong to the Rabbinical Assembly 
Affiliated seminaries outside the USA include the Marshall Meyer Seminario Rabínico Latinoamericano in Argentina, and Machon Schechter (in Jerusalem. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the )
Many Jews both inside and outside of this formal Conservative movement identify Conservative Judaism as a worldview which is significantly larger than the USCJ and RA. Sociologically and religiously, there is social and religious overlap between the USCJ, the Union for Traditional Judaism, and much of the Chavurah movement. The Union for Traditional Judaism is an ostensibly non-denominational Jewish educational outreach and communal service organization A chavurah or havurah (חבורה Hebrew: "fellowship" plural chavuroth) is a small group of like-minded Jews A growing number of congregations which are not affiliated, but which identify themselves as "post-denominational," practice traditional Judaism while emphasizing equal roles for women, for example as prayer leaders.  Rabbis trained at JTS and the Ziegler School often serve these synagogues and chavurot, and members of these synagogues and chavurot often pray at, or are members of, USCJ synagogues.
Conservative Judaism has had a large impact on education in America. Many conservative schools dot the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Solomon Schecter day schools, including The Epstein School in Atlanta, Georgia, are an example. Solomon Schechter שניאור זלמן שכטר ( December 7, 1847 - November 19[[ 915]] was a Moldavian born Romanian and English The Epstein School is a parochial Jewish day school in Atlanta, Georgia, and part of the Solomon Schechter chain of schools
Conservative Judaism maintains the Rabbinic understanding of Jewish identity: A Jew is someone who was born to a Jewish mother, or who converts to Judaism in accordance with Jewish law and tradition. Samuel Schafler ( February 20, 1929 - April 3, 1991) was a New York-born Rabbi, historian editor and Jewish educator Hebrew College is an accredited college of Jewish studies in Newton Center, near Boston Massachusetts. The Board of Jewish Education (BJE of Toronto Ontario is an administrative body that offers direction to the Greater Toronto Area 's Jewish schools Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Camp Ramah ( מחנה רמה) is a network of Jewish Summer camps operating in the United States, Canada, and Israel. Conservatism thus rejects patrilineal descent, which is accepted by the Reform movement. Conservative Rabbis are not allowed to perform intermarriages (marriages between Jews and non-Jews). However, the Leadership Council of Conservative Judaism has a different sociological approach to this issue than does Orthodoxy, although agreeing religiously. In a press release it has stated:
Conservative Judaism has come under criticism from a variety of sources such as:
Orthodox Jewish leaders vary considerably in their dealings with the Conservative movement and with individual Conservative Jews. Some Modern Orthodox leaders cooperate and work with the Conservative movement, while haredi ("ultra-Orthodox") Jews often eschew formal contact with Conservative Judaism, or at least its rabbinate. Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance Haredi or Chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism.  From the Orthodox perspective, Conservative Jews are considered just as Jewish as Orthodox Jews, but they are viewed as misguided, consistent violators of halakha. 
Over the years, Conservative Judaism has experienced internal criticism. Due to halakhic disputes, such as the controversies over the role of women and homosexuality, some Conservative Talmudic scholars and experts in halakha have left the Jewish Theological Seminary and the Committee on Jewish Law and Standards. The subject of homosexuality in Judaism dates back to the Biblical book of Leviticus. The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history The Committee on Jewish Law and Standards is the central authority on Halakha (Jewish law and tradition within Conservative Judaism; it is one of the most active  and the seminary's former Chancellor, Rabbi Ismar Schorsch, complained of the movement's "erosion of [its] fidelity to Halacha . Ismar Schorsch (born November 3, 1935 -) was the sixth Chancellor of The Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS and is the Rabbi Herman . . [which] brings [it] close to Reform Judaism. "
In matters of marriage and divorce, the State of Israel relies on its Chief Rabbinate to determine who is Jewish; the Chief Rabbinate, following Orthodox customs, does not recognize the validity of conversions performed by Conservative rabbis and will require a Jew who was converted by a Conservative rabbi to undergo a second, Orthodox conversion to be regarded as a Jew for marriage and other purposes. Betrothal ( shiddukhin) In Jewish law (halakha Betrothal (shiddukhin or Engagement is defined as the mutual promise between In Jewish Law a get ( גט, plural gittim or gittin) is a Divorce document which is presented by a husband to his wife For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The Chief Rabbinate of Israel ( הרבנות הראשית לישראל) is the supreme Jewish religious governing body in the state of Israel. " Who is a Jew? " (Mihu Yehudi? ?מיהו יהודי is a basic question about Jewish identity. A conversion to Judaism (גיור giyur) is a formal act undertaken by a non-Jewish person who wishes to be recognised as a full member of the Jewish community