Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour tradition, where tradition refers to various religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights It is difficult to define the term precisely because different cultures have different established values and, in consequence, conservatives in different cultures have differing goals. (Some conservatives seek to preserve the status quo or to reform society slowly, while others seek to return to the values of an earlier time, the status quo ante). Status quo is a Latin term meaning the present existing state of affairs or "the state in which" Status quo ante, Latin for "the way things were before" incorporating the term Status quo, may refer to In Law, the objective of a
Even within one culture, different definitions of what it is that constitutes a 'conservative' may be found: Martin Blinkhorn, for example, asks the question, "Who are the 'conservatives' in today's Russia? Are they the unreconstructed Stalinists, or the reformers who have adopted the right-wing views of modern conservatives such as Margaret Thatcher?"
In a more general sense, politically, Conservatism often refers to Right-Winged politics. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities
Samuel Francis defined authentic conservatism as “the survival and enhancement of a particular people and its institutionalized cultural expressions”; Roger Scruton defines conservatism as the “maintenance of the social ecology” and “the politics of delay, the purpose of which is to maintain in being, for as long as possible, the life and health of a social organism”; and Russell Kirk considered conservatism "the negation of ideology". Samuel Todd Francis ( April 29, 1947 &ndash February 15, 2005) was an anti-capitalist paleoconservative Columnist Roger Vernon Scruton (born 27 February 1944) is an English Conservative Philosopher. Russell Kirk ( 19 October 1918 &ndash 29 April[[ 994]] was an American Political theorist, Historian, Social 
Conservatism has not produced, nor does it tend to produce, systematic treatises like Hobbes’ Leviathan or Locke’s Two Treatises of Government. Thomas Hobbes (born 5 April 1588died 4 December 1679 was an English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation Leviathan or The Matter Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil, commonly called Leviathan, is a book written by Thomas John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 was an English Philosopher. The Two Treatises of Government (or " Two Treatises of Government In the Former The False Principles and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer And His Followers are Detected Consequently, what it means to be a conservative today is frequently the subject of debate and a topic muddied by association with various (and often opposing) ideologies or political parties. Scholar R. J. White once put it this way:
"To put conservatism in a bottle with a label is like trying to liquefy the atmosphere … The difficulty arises from the nature of the thing. For conservatism is less a political doctrine than a habit of mind, a mode of feeling, a way of living. "
Although political thought, from its beginnings, contains many strains that can be retrospectively labeled conservative, it was not until the Age of Reason, and in particular the reaction to events surrounding the French Revolution of 1789, that conservatism began to rise as a distinct attitude or train of thought. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Many point to the rise of a conservative disposition in the wake of the Reformation, specifically to the works of influential Anglican theologian, Richard Hooker – emphasizing moderation in the political balancing of interests towards the goals of social harmony and common good. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Richard Hooker (March 1554 – 3 November 1600) was an Anglican priest and an influential theologian. But it was not until Edmund Burke’s polemic Reflections on the Revolution in France that conservatism gained its most influential statement of views. Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790 by Edmund Burke, is one of the best-known intellectual attacks against the (then-infant French Revolution
Edmund Burke was an Anglo-Irish statesman, who argued forcefully against the French Revolution, but he sympathized with some of the aims of the American Revolution. Edmund Burke ( 12 January, 1729 9 July, 1797) was an Irish statesman author orator Political theorist, and " Anglo-Irish " was a term used historically to describe a privileged Social class in Ireland, whose members were the descendants and successors of the The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" His classical conservative position often insisted that conservatism has no ideology, in the sense of a utopian program, with some form of master plan. Utopia is a name for an ideal community taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional Island in the Burke developed his ideas in reaction to the 'enlightened' idea of a society guided by abstract reason. Although he did not use the term, he anticipated the critique of modernism, a term first used at the end of the 19th century by the Dutch religious conservative Abraham Kuyper. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Abraham Kuijper ( Maassluis, 29 October 1837 Den Haag, 8 November 1920 generally known as Abraham Kuyper, was a Dutch Politician Burke was troubled by the Enlightenment, and argued instead for the value of inherited institutions and customs. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century
Some people, argued Burke, had less reason than others, and thus some people will make worse governments than others if they rely upon reason. To Burke, the proper formulation of government came not from abstractions such as "Reason," but from time-honoured development of the state, piecemeal progress through experience and the continuation of other important societal institutions such as the family and the Church. Reason involves the ability to think understand and draw Conclusions in an Abstract way as in Human thinking
"We are afraid to put men to live and trade each on his own private stock of reason, because we suspect that this stock in each man is small, and that the individuals would do better to avail themselves of the general bank and capital of nations and ages. Many of our men of speculation, instead of exploding general prejudices, employ their sagacity to discover the latent wisdom which prevails in them. If they find what they seek, and they seldom fail, they think it more wise to continue the prejudice, with the reason involved, than to cast away the coat of prejudice, and to leave nothing but naked reason; because prejudice, with its reason, has a motive to give action to that reason, and an affection which will give it permanence. "
Burke argued that tradition is a much sounder foundation than 'metaphysical abstractions. ' Tradition draws on the wisdom of many generations and the tests of time, while "reason" may be a mask for the preferences of one man, and at best represents only the untested wisdom of one generation. Any existing value or institution has undergone the correcting influence of past experience and ought to be respected. Also, Burke claims that man is unable to understand the many ways in which inherited behaviours influence their thinking, so trying to judge society objectively is futile.
However, conservatives do not reject change. As Burke wrote, "A state without the means of change is without the means of its conservation. " But they insist that further change be organic, rather than revolutionary. An attempt to modify the complex web of human interactions that form human society, for the sake of some doctrine or theory, runs the risk of running afoul of the iron law of unintended consequences. Unintended consequences are outcomes that are not (or not limited to what the actor intended in a particular situation Burke advocates vigilance against the possibility of moral hazards. Moral hazard is the prospect that a party insulated from risk may behave differently from the way it would behave if it were fully exposed to the risk For conservatives, human society is something rooted and organic; to try to prune and shape it according to the plans of an ideologue is to invite unforeseen disaster.
Conservatives strongly support the right of property. Carl B. Cone, in Burke and the Nature of Politics, pointed out that this view, expressed as philosophy, also served the interests of the people involved. "As Burke had declared…this law . . . encroached upon property rights. . . . To the eighteenth century Whig, nothing was more sacred than the rights of property, . . . the protest could not be entirely frank, and it masked personal interests behind lofty principles. These principles were not hypocritically pronounced, but they did not reveal the financial interests of Rockingham, Burke, and other persons who opposed the East India legislation as members of parliament, as holders of East India stock. . . "
Cultural conservatism is a philosophy that supports preservation of the heritage of a nation or culture. Cultural conservatism is Conservatism with respect to Culture. The culture in question may be as large as Western culture or Chinese civilization or as small as that of Tibet. Western culture (sometimes equated with Western Civilization) are terms which are used to refer to Cultures of European origin China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European Cultural conservatives try to adapt norms handed down from the past. The norms may be romantic, like the anti-metric movement that demands the retention of avoirdupois weights and measures in Britain and opposes their replacement with the metric system. The avoirdupois (ˌævərdəˈpɔɪz French avwaʀdypwɑ system is a system of weights (or properly Mass) based on a pound of sixteen Ounces Metrication (or metrification refers to the introduction of the SI metric system as the International standard for physical measurements—a long-term series They may be institutional: in the West this has included chivalry and feudalism, as well as capitalism, laicité and the rule of law. Chivalric order Chivalry is a term related to the Medieval institution of Knighthood. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Laïcité (laisiˈte is the French concept of a Secular society, connoting the absence of religious involvement in government affairs The rule of law, in its most basic form is the principle that no one is above the law
In the subset social conservatism, the norms may also be moral. Social conservatism is a political or moral ideology that affirms the government's role in encouraging or enforcing traditional values or behaviors in the belief that these are what For example, in some cultures practices such as homosexuality are considered wrong. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. In other cultures women who expose their faces or limbs in public are considered immoral, and conservatives in those cultures often support laws to prohibit such practices. Other conservatives take a more positive approach, supporting good samaritan laws, or laws requiring public charity, if their culture considers these acts moral.
Cultural conservatives often argue that old institutions have adapted to a particular place or culture and therefore ought to persevere. Depending on how universalizing (or skeptical) they are, cultural conservatives may or may not accept cultures that differ from their own. Many conservatives argue based on a universal morality; others appeal only to a moral code existing within their own culture, avoiding the relevance of differing moral codes in other cultures to those in their own culture. That is, a cultural conservative may doubt whether the broad ideals of French communities would be equally appropriate in Germany.
Religious conservatives seek to preserve the teachings of particular ideologies, sometimes by proclaiming the value of those teachings, at other times seeking to have those teachings given the force of law. Religious conservatism may support, or be supported by, secular customs. In other places or at other times, religious conservatism may find itself at odds with the culture in which the believers reside. In some cultures, there is conflict between two or more different groups of religious conservatives, each strongly asserting both that their view is correct, and that opposing views are wrong.
Conservative governments influenced by religious conservatives may promote broad campaigns for a return to traditional values. Modern examples include the Back to Basics campaign of British Prime Minister, John Major. Back to Basics was an ill-fated attempt to relaunch the government of British Prime Minister John Major in 1993. Sir John Major KG CH ACIB (born 29 March 1943 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom In the European Union, a conservative campaign sought to constitutionally specify certain conservative values in the proposed European Constitution. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented international Treaty intended
Because many religions preserve a founding text, or at least a set of well-established traditions, the possibility of radical religious conservatism arises. These are radical both in the sense of abolishing the status quo and of a perceived return to the radix or root of a belief. They are ante conservative in their claim to be preserving the belief in its original or pristine form. Radical religious conservatism generally sees the status quo as corrupted by abuses, corruption, or heresy. One example of such a movement was the Radical Reformation within the Protestant Reformation and the later Restorationists of the 1800s. The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to what was believed to be both the corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time For other usages see Restoration (general disambiguation Apokatastasis (universal restoration Christian Zionism (restoration of Israel and
Similar phenomena have arisen in practically all the world's religions, in many cases triggered by the violent cultural collision between the traditional society in question and the modern Western society that has developed throughout the world over the past 500 years. Much of what is labelled as radical religious conservatism in the modern world is in fact an indigenous fusion of traditional religious ideals with modern, European revolutionary philosophy, sometimes Marxist in nature.
Fiscal conservatism is the economic philosophy of prudence in government spending and debt. Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic conservatism is a political phrase term used in North America to describe advocacy of lower governmental spending practices and a Edmund Burke, in his 'Reflections on the Revolution in France', articulated its principles:
. Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790 by Edmund Burke, is one of the best-known intellectual attacks against the (then-infant French Revolution . . [I]t is to the property of the citizen, and not to the demands of the creditor of the state, that the first and original faith of civil society is pledged. The claim of the citizen is prior in time, paramount in title, superior in equity. The fortunes of individuals, whether possessed by acquisition or by descent or in virtue of a participation in the goods of some community, were no part of the creditor's security, expressed or implied. . . [T]he public, whether represented by a monarch or by a senate, can pledge nothing but the public estate; and it can have no public estate except in what it derives from a just and proportioned imposition upon the citizens at large.
In other words, a government does not have the right to run up large debts and then throw the burden on the taxpayer; the taxpayers' right not to be taxed oppressively takes precedence even over paying back debts a government may have imprudently undertaken.
Many forms of conservatism incorporate elements of other ideologies and philosophies. An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics In turn, conservatism has influence upon them. Most conservatives strongly support the sovereign nation (although that was not so in the 19th century), and patriotically identify with their own nation. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself Patriotism is commonly defined as love of and/or devotion to one's country Nationalist separatist movements may be both radical and conservative. Separatism refers to the advocacy of a state of cultural ethnic tribal religious racial or gender separation from the larger group often with demands for greater political autonomy They appeal to tradition and often emphasise rural life and folkways.
Most patriots appeal to national symbolism: the national flag, national historical icons, founders and emblems, the works of national poets and authors, or the representation of the nation by its artists. A national flag is a Flag that symbolises a country The flag is flown by the government but usually can be flown by Citizens of that country as well Conservatives often express admiration of the patriotic values of duty and sacrifice. Duty (from "due" that which is owing O Fr deu did past participle of devoir Lat Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning "to make sacred" from Old French, from Latin sacrificium: sacr, "sacred"
Conversely, some conservatives say that to defend their national identity, they may need to expose the hypocrisy of an existing regime. For example, G. K. Chesterton responded to Decatur in The Defendant, saying "'My country, right or wrong,' is a thing that no patriot would think of saying except in a desperate case. Gilbert Keith Chesterton (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936 was an influential English writer of the early 20th century It is like saying, 'My mother, drunk or sober. '" Further, paleoconservatives and others say that in this era of the managerial state, there is no clear consensus on what institutions should be conserved; therefore, the term conservative can only mean that any idea or ideology or institution that preserves human rights, and the rights of other sentient beings to exist in peace, is what should be preserved. Paleoconservatism (sometimes shortened to paleo or paleocon when the context is clear is a term for an anti-communist and Anti-authoritarian Managerial state is a Paleoconservative concept used in critiquing modern Social democracy in Western countries
The phrases "economic liberal" and "economic conservative" seem to be antonyms, diverging from modern neoliberalism, and classical liberalism in the tradition of Adam Smith. Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy.  Some conservatives look to a modified free market order, such as the American System, ordoliberalism, or Friedrich List's National System. The American System was a Mercantilist economic plan based on the " American School " ideas of Alexander Hamilton, expanded upon later by Friedrich Ordoliberalism (also called German neoliberalism) is a school of Liberalism emphasizing the need for the state to ensure that the Free market produces results Friedrich List ( August 6, 1789 – November 30, 1846) was a leading 19th Century German and American Economist who developed See also American System (economic plan. The American School, also known as " National System " represents three different yet The latter view differs from strict laissez-faire in that the state's role is to promote competition while maintaining the national interest, community and identity. Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do”
Outside the United States, "liberal" often refers only to free-market policies. For example, in Europe "liberal-conservative" is an accepted term. Differences in meaning and usage of the terms "liberal" and "conservative" have contributed to a great deal of confusion, and often the words seem to be used with no more meaning than "us" and "them". Conservatives and classical liberals are "allied against the common enemy, socialism," but classical liberals are less suspicious of big government than conservatives. 
In western democracies, 'conservative' and 'right-wing' are two different terms. In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities A political spectrum (plural Spectra) is a way of modeling different political positions by placing them upon one or more geometric axes Certainly, in the west, liberals embody the political left. Although left-wing groups and individuals may have conservative social and cultural attitudes, these attitudes are not accepted as legitimate characteristics of a political group that supports the individual rights of personhood. On economic policy and the economic system, conservatives and the right generally support the free market, although less so in Europe than in other places.
Burkean conservatives favour incremental over radical change, even from the right. Most conservatives distrust the xenophobic and even racist sentiments that are prominent in some far-right wing groups (such as the Nazis or the Ku Klux Klan) just as most socialists distrust the communistic sentiments prominent on the political left. Xenophobia is an intense and/or irrational dislike and sometimes fear of people from other countries List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Ku Klux Klan ( KKK) is the name of several past and present secret domestic terrorist organizations in the United States, generally in the southern states that are Protectionism and anti-immigration policies may conflict with free-market conservatives' support for deregulation and free trade. For the protectionist Australian political party from the 1880s to 1909 see Protectionist Party Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions Some conservatives oppose military interventionism, inspired by early British conservative thinkers, such as David Hume and Edmund Burke. David Hume (26 April 1711 25 August 1776 Scottish Philosopher, Economist, and Historian is an important figure in Western philosophy Edmund Burke ( 12 January, 1729 9 July, 1797) was an Irish statesman author orator Political theorist, and Burke saw imperialism as interfering with the traditions and organic make-up of the colonised societies. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude
The overlap between 'respectable' conservatives and the extreme right is determined by the degree of political taboo, rather than inherent ideological incompatibility. In European parliamentary systems, conservatives currently ally with centrist or even leftist groups, rather than with the xenophobic-populist right, although critics have contended that the conservatives are taking in far-right ideas. For example, in December 2005, Le Canard Enchaîné claimed that Nicolas Sarkozy had implemented almost all of the far-right Front National (FN) measures proposed in its election program. Le Canard enchaîné (French The Chained Duck) is a Satirical Newspaper published weekly in France. Nicolas Sarkozy (pronounced, All mainstream parties in Belgium cooperated to exclude the Flemish-separatist and xenophobic Vlaams Belang, although some politicians wish to break this 'cordon sanitaire'. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Separatism refers to the advocacy of a state of cultural ethnic tribal religious racial or gender separation from the larger group often with demands for greater political autonomy Vlaams Belang ( English: Flemish Interest) is an anti-immigration right-wing Political party in the Flemish Community of Belgium And mainstream parties in France sometimes support each others' candidates in run-off elections, to exclude the Front National party. However, in March 1977, and then March 1983, FN was present on RPR-UDF lists at municipal elections; in 1988, RPR and UDF right-wing conservative parties allied with FN in the Bouches-du-Rhône and Var regions. The Union for French Democracy ( Union pour la Démocratie Française, UDF was a French centrist Political party. Bouches-du-Rhône ( Occitan: Bocas de Ròse, lit "Mouths of the Rhône River" is a department in the south of France named after the The Var is a French department in Provence in southeast France In March 1989, they had common lists in at least 28 cities of more than 9 000 inhabitants. Those alliances were condemned in 1991, but a dozen conservative deputies gained FN's support in 1997.
Conservatism in the United Kingdom is related to its counterparts in other Western nations, but has a distinct tradition. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Edmund Burke is often considered the father of conservatism in Anglo-American circles. Edmund Burke ( 12 January, 1729 9 July, 1797) was an Irish statesman author orator Political theorist, and Burke was a Whig, while the short name "Tory" is given to the modern Conservative Party. The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to In the political tradition of some English-speaking countries, the term Tory has referred to a variety of political parties and Creeds since it was Being an 18th century Whig does not preclude a person from being a major figure in the development of that Party. The modern day Party system cannot safely be traced back before the French Revolution and subsequent wars. The views of Burke remain a central tenet of conservative thinking across much of the English-speaking world. As one Australian scholar argues, "For Edmund Burke and Australians of a like mind, the essence of conservatism lies not in a body of theory, but in the disposition to maintain those institutions seen as central to the beliefs and practices of society. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. "
The old established form of English and, after the Act of Union, British conservatism, was the Tory Party. The Acts of Union were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into In the political tradition of some English-speaking countries, the term Tory has referred to a variety of political parties and Creeds since it was It reflected the attitudes of a rural land owning class, and championed the institutions of the monarchy, the Anglican Church, the family, and property as the best defence of the social order. See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches In the early stages of the industrial revolution, it seemed to be totally opposed to a process that seemed to undermine some of these bulwarks. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The new industrial elite were seen by many as enemies to the social order.
Sir Robert Peel was able to reconcile the new industrial class to the Tory landed class by persuading the latter to accept the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846. Sir Robert Peel 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 &ndash 2 July 1850 was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 December 1834 to 8 April The Corn Laws were Import tariffs designed to support domestic British corn prices against competition from less expensive foreign-grain imports between 1815 and 1846 He created a new political group that sought to preserve the old status quo while accepting the basics of laissez-faire and free trade. The new coalition of traditional landowners and sympathetic industrialists constituted the new Conservative Party. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom.
Benjamin Disraeli gave the new party a political ideology. Benjamin Disraeli 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (born Benjamin D'Israeli; 21 December 1804 &ndash 19 April 1881 was As a young man, he was influenced by the romantic movement and the then fashionable medievalism, and developed a devastating critique of industrialism. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the In academic usage medievalism is the study of the Middle Ages, also referred to as medieval studies. In his novels he outlined an England divided into two nations, each living in perfect ignorance of each other. He foresaw, like Karl Marx, the phenomenon of an alienated industrial proletariat.
His solution involved a return to an idealised view of a corporate or organic society, in which everyone had duties and responsibilities towards other people or groups. This "one nation" conservatism is still a very important tradition in British politics. It has animated a great deal of social reform undertaken by successive Conservative governments.
Although nominally a Conservative, Disraeli was sympathetic to some of the demands of the Chartists and argued for an alliance between the landed aristocracy and the working class against the increasing power of the middle class, helping to found the Young England group in 1842 to promote the view that the rich should use their power to protect the poor from exploitation by the middle class. For chartism in financial markets see Technical analysis, and for the British socialist journal see Chartist (magazine Chartism was Young England was a Victorian era political group The group was born on the playing fields of Cambridge and Eton. The conversion of the Conservative Party into a modern mass organisation was accelerated by the concept of "tory Democracy" attributed to Lord Randolph Churchill. Major Randolph Frederick Edward Spencer Churchill, MBE ( May 28, 1911 &ndash June 6, 1968) was the son of British
A Liberal-Conservative coalition during World War I coupled with the ascent of the Labour Party, hastened the collapse of the Liberals in the 1920s. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the After World War II, the Conservative Party made concessions to the socialist policies of the Left. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including This compromise was a pragmatic measure to regain power, but also the result of the early successes of central planning and state-ownership forming a cross-party consensus. A planned economy or directed economy is an Economic system in which the Government or Workers' councils manages the Economy. This was known as 'Butskellism', after the almost identical Keynesian policies of Rab Butler on behalf of the Conservatives, and Hugh Gaitskell for Labour. In Economics Keynesian economics (ˈkeɪnziən also Keynesianism and Keynesian Theory) is based on the ideas of twentieth-century British economist Richard Austen Butler Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, KG CH DL PC (9 December 1902&ndash8 Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell ( 9 April 1906 &ndash 18 January 1963) was a British politician leader of the Labour Party from 1955
However, in the 1980s, under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher, and the influence of Sir Keith Joseph, there was a dramatic shift in the ideological direction of British conservatism, with a movement towards free-market economic policies. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 Keith Sinjohn Joseph Baron Joseph, CH, PC ( 17 January 1918 &ndash 10 December 1994) was a British Barrister A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers As one commentator explains, "The privatization of state owned industries, unthinkable before, became commonplace [during Thatcher's government] and has now been imitated all over the world. Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business " Some commentators have questioned whether Thatcher's conservatism (Thatcherism) was consistent with the traditional concept of "conservatism" in the United Kingdom, and saw her views as more consistent with radical classical liberalism; Thatcher herself was described as "a radical in a conservative party", and her ideology has been seen as confronting "established institutions" and the "accepted beliefs of the elite", both concepts incompatible with the traditional conception of "conservatism" as signifying support for the established order and existing social convention. Thatcherism is the system of political thought attributed to the governments of Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world
Much of their support comes from southern England, sometimes known as "middle England"
Conservatism in the United States comprises a constellation of political ideologies including fiscal conservatism, free market or economic liberalism, social conservatism, bioconservatism and religious conservatism, as well as support for a strong military, small government, and states' rights. Conservatism in the United States includes a variety of political ideologies including Fiscal conservatism, Supply-side economics, Social conservatism In Canada, political conservatism is generally considered to be primarily represented by the Conservative Party of Canada at the federal level and by various Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic conservatism is a political phrase term used in North America to describe advocacy of lower governmental spending practices and a A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Economic liberalism is the Economic component of Classical liberalism. Social conservatism is a political or moral ideology that affirms the government's role in encouraging or enforcing traditional values or behaviors in the belief that these are what Techno-progressivism, technoprogressivism, tech-progressivism or techprogressivism (a portmanteau word combining " Technoscience A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking A Small government is one which minimizes its own activities In its "perfect" form it would confine itself to Foreign policy, Defense and Law States' rights refers to the idea in US politics and constitutional law, that U
Much of the conservative attitude in the modern United States is focused in the nation's heartland, rural areas with low population density, as contrasted with the more liberal cities and college towns.
The Latin Conservative parties, primarily appear at two-party systems, fighting for the power with Liberal Parties. Most of the conservative parties disappeared, because of the new government structures, except for the Colombian Conservative Party.
Most of these parties create their structure and ideological program in the image of Simon Bolivar's views.
Conservatism in Australia is related to British and American conservatism in many respects, but has a distinct political tradition. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Like conservatism in many other nations, Australian conservatism is traditionally composed of diverse groups and interests, which are united more by opposition to certain political developments than by a distinct shared ideology; as one scholar argues, "Australian conservatives are more readily characterized by what they reject than by any shared set of values. "
In terms of partisan politics, conservatism has often been defined as opposition to the Australian Labor Party; as such, many different groups have historically been grouped on the "conservative" side of Australian politics, such as "social conservatives. . . Empire nationalists, organizations supporting rural interests, anti-socialist Catholics, fundamentalist Christians and free-market liberals. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal " In contemporary Australian politics, the Liberal Party of Australia is often seen as the "conservative" party, which can surprise American observers for whom liberalism is seen as opposed to conservatism. The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal
Historically, for the first seventy years after the Federation of Australia, the non-Labor (and hence implicitly "conservative") side of Australian politics was associated with policies of moderate protectionism in trade, and of support for the welfare state, coupled with maintenance of Australia's ties to the British Empire. The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South For the protectionist Australian political party from the 1880s to 1909 see Protectionist Party This article refers specifically to the Welfare state of the United Kingdom. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Many scholars have seen the government of Robert Menzies as exemplifying this trend. Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, QC (20 December 1894 - 15 May 1978 Australian politician was the twelfth person to serve  However, from the 1980s, free-market economic policies were increasingly associated with conservatism in Australian politics, following the same trend as the United States and Britain under Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher respectively. A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 
In other parts of Europe, mainstream conservatism is often represented by the Christian Democratic parties. Christian democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Christian (and often specifically Catholic) principles to public policy They form the bulk of the European Peoples Party faction in the European Parliament. The European People's Party (EPP is a Christian democratic and Liberal conservative European political party. The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU The origin of these parties is usually in Catholic parties of the late 19th and early 20th century, and Catholic social teaching was their original inspiration. Catholic social teaching encompasses aspects of Catholic doctrine relating to matters dealing with the collective welfare of humanity Over the years, conservatism gradually became their main ideological inspiration, and they generally became less Catholic. The German CDU, its Bavarian sister party Christian Social Union (CSU), and the Dutch Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) are Protestant-Catholic parties. The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest Political party in Germany. The Christian Democratic Appeal ( CDA) (Christen Democratisch Appèl is a Dutch Christian-democratic Political party.
In the Nordic countries, conservatism has been represented in liberal conservative parties like the Moderate Party in Sweden, Høyre in Norway and the Conservative People's Party in Denmark. The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe called the Nordic region, consisting of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Liberal conservatism is a variant of Conservatism which combines conservative and liberal values and positions This article refers to the Swedish political party for the group that dominated the Church of Scotland in the 18th century see Moderate Party (Scotland The Conservative Party ( Høyre, H meaning " right " is a Norwegian Political party. Domestically, these parties generally support market-oriented policies, and usually gain support from the business community and white-collar professionals. Internationally they generally support the European Union and a strong defense. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Their views on social issues tend to be more liberal than, for example, the U. S. Republican Party. Social conservatism in the Nordic countries are often found in their Christian Democratic parties. Christian democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Christian (and often specifically Catholic) principles to public policy In several Nordic countries, right-wing populist parties have gained some support since the 1970s. Their policies have often been focused on tax cuts, reduced immigration, and tougher law and order policies.
Generally, one could claim that European conservatives tend to be more moderate on many social and economic issues, than American conservatives. They tend to be quite friendly to the aims of the welfare state, although concerned about a healthy business environment. However, some groups have been more supportive of a stricter libertarian or laissez-faire agenda, especially under influence from Thatcherism. European conservative groups often see themselves as guardians of prudence, moderation, history and tried experience, as opposed to radicalism and social experiments. Approval of high culture and established political institutions like the monarchy is often found in European conservatism. High culture is a term now used in a number of different ways in Academic discourse whose most common meaning is the set of cultural products mainly in the Mainstream conservative groups are often staunch supporters of the European Union. >one might also find elements of nationalism in many countries.
Psychological research increasingly suggests that ideologies reflect motivational processes, as opposed to the view that political convictions always reflect independent and unbiased thinking. One Nation, One Nation Conservatism, or Tory Democracy is a term used in political debate in the United Kingdom to refer to the left wing of the Conservative Thatcherism is the system of political thought attributed to the governments of Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 Gaullism (Gaullisme is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. Research in 2008 proposed that ideologies may function as prepackaged units of interpretation that spread because of basic human motives to understand the world, avoid existential threat, and maintain valued interpersonal relationships. The authors conclude that such motives may lead disproportionately to the adoption of system-justifying worldviews. System justification theory refers to a social psychological tendency to defend and bolster the Status quo, that is to see it as good fair legitimate and desirable
Psychologists have generally found that personality traits, individual difference variables, needs, and ideological beliefs seem to have a common thread. Mental health professional A psychologist is a practitioner of Psychology, the systematic investigation of the mind including Behavior, Cognition, In Psychology, Trait theory is a major approach to the study of human personality. For instance, a meta-analysis by Jost, Glaser, Kruglanski, and Sulloway in 2003  analyzed 88 studies, from 12 countries, with over 22,000 subjects, and found that death anxiety, intolerance of ambiguity, lack of openness to experience, uncertainty avoidance, need for cognitive closure, need for personal structure, and threat of loss of position or self-esteem all contribute to the degree of one's overall political conservatism. Terror management theory (TMT is a developing area of study within the academic study of Psychology. Ambiguity tolerance is the ability to perceive Ambiguity in information and Behavior in a neutral and open way The term cognitive closure refers to "a desire for definite Knowledge on some issue and the eschewal of confusion and ambiguity In Psychology, self-esteem reflects a Person 's overall evaluation or appraisal of her or his own worth The researchers suggest that these results show that political conservatives stress resistance to change and are motivated by needs that are aimed at reducing threat and uncertainty.
According to research by Robert Altemeyer, individuals that are politically conservative tend to rank high on Right-Wing Authoritarianism, as measured by Altemeyer's RWA scale. Robert Altemeyer, also known as Bob Altemeyer, or Dr Bob by his students is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Manitoba Right-wing authoritarianism ( RWA) is a Personality and ideological variable studied in political, social, and personality  Those that are identified as high RWAs, in addition to having a tendency to be conservative, are more punitive toward criminals, and tend to hold more orthodox religious views.
Scores on the RWA scale also correlate highly with measures of ethnocentrism and hostility toward homosexuals. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one's own Culture. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. It is important to note that high RWAs tend to show more prejudiced attitudes when their answers on the questionnaires are anonymous. Recent research by Cunningham, Nezlek, and Banaji  has found support for the idea that prejudice find a home in people with rigid ideologies, as was predicted by Altemeyer as well as Theodor Adorno. Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund Adorno ( September 11, 1903 &ndash August 6, 1969) was a German -born international sociologist Cunningham and his colleagues found that people who are high in explicit prejudice are also high in implicit prejudice, and that people who demonstrate a rigid, right-wing ideology tend to be prejudiced toward many disadvantaged groups that have little in common.
Liberal psychologist Felicia Pratto and her colleagues have found evidence to support the idea that a high Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) is strongly correlated with conservative political views, and opposition to programs and policies that aim to promote equality (such as affirmative action, laws advocating equal rights for homosexuals, women in combat, etc). Social dominance orientation ( SDO) is a personality variable which predicts social and political attitudes Affirmative action in the United States|Employment equity (Canada|Reservation in India|Numerus clausus The term affirmative action describes many policies aimed at a historically Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation.  According to psychologists, an SDO is an attitude toward intergroup relationships which says that groups are subordinated and of lesser status than others.  High-SDO persons seek to maintain this structure by promoting group inequality and policies that help maintain the dominance of one group over another. Low-SDO persons seek to reduce group inequality and eliminate the hierarchical structure of society's groups. 
Pratto and her colleagues also found that high SDO scores were also highly correlated with measures of sexism and anti-Black prejudice. Sexism is the belief or attitude that one Gender or Sex is inferior to or less valuable than the other and can also refer to a Hatred or distrust towards The word prejudice refers to prejudgment making a decision before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case or event There has been some debate within the psychology community on what the relation is between SDO and racism. One explanation suggests that opposition to programs that promote equality is based not on racism or sexism but on a "principled conservatism. "  This perspective suggests that opposition to such programs is based not on racism but on a "concern for equity, color-blindness, and genuine conservative values. Color blindness, a Color vision deficiency is the inability to perceive differences between some of the Colors that others can distinguish "
Furthermore, some principled-conservatism theorists have suggested that racism and conservatism are independent, and only verly weakly correlated among the highly educated, who truly understand the concepts of conservative values and attitudes. In an effort to examine the relationship between education, SDO, and racism, Sidanius and his colleagues asked approximately 4,600 Euro-Americans to complete a survey in which they were asked about their political and social attitudes, and their social dominance orientation assessed. Results indicated partial support for the principled-conservatism position. However, the data suggest several problems for the principled-conservatism position. Contrary to what these theorists would predict, correlations among SDO, political conservatism, and racism were strongest among the most well educated, and weakest among the least well educated, according to Sidanius and his colleagues, because conservatives tend to be more invested in the hierarchical structure of society and in maintaining the inequality of the present status quo in society. Status quo is a Latin term meaning the present existing state of affairs or "the state in which"