Conscription is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority. Military service in its simplest sense is service by an individual or group in an Army or other military organization whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary National service is a common name for mandatory or voluntary government service programs (most often focusing on military service A conscription crisis is a public dispute about a policy of Conscription, or mandatory service in the military also known as a "draft" A conscientious objector (CO is an individual who on religious moral or ethical grounds refuses to participate as a combatant in war or in some cases to take any role that would support Conscription in Australia, or mandatory Military service also known as National Service, has a controversial history dating back to the first years of nationhood Conscription in Finland is part of a wider general "national defence duty" (asevelvollisuus värnplikt defined in the 127§ of the Constitution of Finland. Germany has Conscription ( Wehrpflicht) for male citizens stated in the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. As of 2008 Greece (Hellenic Republic has mandatory Military service ( Conscription) of 12 months for men between the ages of 18 and 45 The Israel Defense Forces ( IDF) (צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit The Malaysian National Service, or Program Latihan Khidmat Negara (PLKN, is Malaysia 's compulsory military service program and Conscription into the Compulsory Military Training (CMT a form of Conscription, has been used in New Zealand during a number of historical periods Conscription in Russia is presently a 12 month draft mandatory for all male citizens age 18-27 with a number of exceptions National Service ( NS) is the name given to the compulsory Conscription in Singapore of all male Singaporean citizens and second-generation permanent In Turkey, compulsory military service applies to all male citizens from twenty to forty one years of age (with some exceptions "National Service" redirects here For national service in other countries see National service. The Draft redirects here For other uses see Draft. Conscription in the United States has been employed several times usually during It is most often used in the specific sense of government policies that require citizens (often just males) to serve in the armed forces. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking It is known by various names — for example, the most recent conscription program in the United States was known colloquially as "'the draft. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Draft redirects here For other uses see Draft. Conscription in the United States has been employed several times usually during '" Many nations do not maintain conscription forces, instead relying on a volunteer or professional military most of the time, although many of these countries still reserve the possibility of conscription for wartime and during times of crises.
"Conscription" has also sometimes been used as a general term for non-military involuntary labour demanded by some established authority; for example, some translators of Old Testament commentaries use the term to describe the levies of labour used to build the Temple of Solomon. Involuntary servitude is a United States legal and Constitutional term for a person laboring against that person's will to benefit another under some form In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. Solomon's Temple (בית המקדש transliterated Beit HaMikdash) also known as the First Temple, was according to In Japan during World War II, Japanese women and children were conscripted to work in factories. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Referring to compulsory service in the armed forces, the term "conscription" has two main meanings:
The term "conscription" refers only to the mandatory service; thus, those undergoing conscription are known as "conscripts" or "selectee" in the United States (from the Selective Service System or the Selective Service Initiative announced in 2004). The Selective Service System is the means by which the United States administers military Conscription. The Universal National Service Act is the name of at least three bills proposed in the United States Congress (in 2003 2006 and 2007
In the U.S. the term "enlisted" is often used to refer only to those who have volunteered for service in roles other than as commissioned officers. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority
The system of military slaves was widely used in the Middle East from the 9th until the 19th century. Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. lmiddle of the 14th century, Ottoman Sultan Murad I built his own personal slave army called the Kapıkulu. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr - from Khodāvandgār - "the God-like One" (I The new force was based on the sultan's right to a fifth of the war booty, which he interpreted to include captives taken in battle. The captive slaves were converted to Islam and trained in the sultan's personal service. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. In the devşirme (translated "blood tax" or "child collection"), young Christian boys from the Balkans were taken away from their homes and families, converted to Islam and enlisted into special soldier classes of the Ottoman army. Devşirme or devshirme (derived from devşirme meaning "collection gathering" was the systematic collection of non-Muslim children The military of the Ottoman Empire was divided in three organizational structures the Army Navy and Air Force These soldier classes were named Janissaries, the most famous branch of the Kapıkulu. The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish ينيچرى ( yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier" comprised Infantry units that formed The Janissaries eventually became a decisive factor in the Ottoman invasions of Europe. The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older European  Most of the military commanders of the Ottoman forces, imperial administrators and de facto rulers of the Ottoman Empire, such as Pargalı İbrahim Pasha and Sokollu Mehmet Paşa, were recruited in this way. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Pargalı İbrahim Pasha or Frenk İbrahim Pasha was the first Grand Vizier appointed by Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire (reigned Biography Early years Little is known for certain about Mehmed's birth and early life  By 1609 the Sultan's Kapıkulu forces increased to about 100,000.  Mahmud II forcibly disbanded Janissary corps in 1826. Mahmud II ( Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثاني Mahmud-ı sānī) ( July 20, 1785 July 1, 1839 
Mamluks were a slave soldiers who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another A soldier is a general English term that refers to a member of a land component of National Armed forces. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for The first mamluks served the Abbasid caliphs in 9th century Baghdad. The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Over time they became a powerful military caste, and on more than one occasion they seized power for themselves, for example, ruling Egypt from 1250-1517. Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. From 1250 Egypt had been ruled by the Bahri dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks (al-Mamalik al-Bahariyya المماليك البحرية) was a Mamluk Dynasty of mostly Kipchak White slaves from the Caucasus served in the army and formed an elite corp of troops eventually revolting in Egypt to form the Burgi dynasty. White People is the second album by Handsome Boy Modeling School. This article deals with the various Ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region The Burji dynasty المماليك البرجية ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517 Mamluks were mainly responsible for the expulsion of the Crusaders from Palestine and preventing the Mongol Ilkhanate of Persia and Iraq from entering Egypt. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate (Ил Хан улс Il Khan uls;) was a Mongol Khanate established in This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. 
The Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Bloodthirsty" (1672-1727) raised a corps of 150,000 black slaves, called his Black Guard, who coerced the country into submission. Moulay Ismail Ibn Sharif ( 1634? or 1645?-1727 reigned 1672-1727 (مولاي إسماعيل بن الشريف ابن النصر was the second ruler of the Moroccan "Blackguard" or "Antipaladin" can also refer to a particular Dungeons & Dragons prestige class. 
Modern conscription was invented during the French Revolution, allowing the Republic to defend itself from European monarchies' attacks. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Deputy Jean-Baptiste Jourdan gave its name to the September 5, 1798 Act, whose first article stated: "Any Frenchman is a soldier and owes himself to the defense of the nation. Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, 1st Comte Jourdan ( April 29, 1762 &ndash November 23, 1833) was a Marshal of France. Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 1798 ( MDCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Patriotism is commonly defined as love of and/or devotion to one's country " It enabled the creation of the Grande Armée, what Napoleon Bonaparte called "the nation in arms," which successfully battled European professional armies. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. More than 2. 6 million men were inducted between 1800 and 1813. 
The defeat of the disorganized Prussian Army shocked the Prussian establishment, which had largely felt invincible after the Frederician victories. The Prussian Army (Preußische Armee was the Army of the Kingdom of Prussia. Frederick II (Friedrich II January 24 1712 August 17 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740&ndash1786 from the Scharnhorst advocated adopting the levée en masse, the military conscription used by France. Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst ( 12 November 1755 - 28 June 1813) was a General in Prussian service Chief Levée en masse (literally "Rise in (a Mass" is defined in Article 4 letter A paragraph 6 of the Third Geneva Convention. Krümpersystem was the beginning of short-term compulsory service in Prussia, as opposed to the long-term conscription previously used. 
In Russian Empire, the service time was 25 years at the beginning of the 19th century. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya In 1834 it was decreased to 20 years. The recruits should have been not younger than 17 and not older than 35.  In 1874 universal conscription on the modern pattern was introduced, an innovation only made possible by the abolition of serfdom in 1861. The origins of Serfdom in Russia are traced to Kievan Rus in the 11th century New military law decreed that all male Russian subjects, when they reached the age of 20, were eligible to serve in the military for 6 years. 
Conscription was introduced in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The Union Army was the army that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The 1863 Enrollment Act permitted draftees to hire paid substitutes to fight in their place. The Enrollment Act of March 3 1863, was legislation passed by the United States Congress during the American Civil War to provide fresh manpower for the Union This, and the bounty system, led to widespread dislike of conscription by the public at large; the New York Draft Riots were one symptom. Bounty jumpers were men that enlisted in the Union army during the American Civil War only to collect a bounty and then leave The New York Draft Riots (July 11 to July 16 1863 known at the time as Draft Week) were violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination In addition, draftees were viewed with disdain by volunteer soldiers and their officers. In the end, the draft provided only 6% of the Union Army's manpower. Conscription was not employed again in the U. S. until 1917. 
According to philosopher Michel Foucault, conscription is one of the forms taken by "disciplinary institutions", along with hospitals, schools and prisons. Michel Foucault ( (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984 was a French philosopher, Historian, Intellectual, Critic and Sociologist. Disciplinary institutions ( French) is a Concept proposed by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish (1975 Louis Althusser has also underlined how Machiavelli was one of the first modern theorists to think the relationship between conscription and the creation of a nation, or successfully bolstering patriotism. Louis Pierre Althusser (Pronunciation altuˡseʁ ( October 16, 1918 – October 22, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. Patriotism is commonly defined as love of and/or devotion to one's country Machiavelli despised the use of mercenaries and professional armies, which at this time were ravaging the divided Italian states. A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by
Sending conscripts to foreign wars that do not directly affect the home nation's security has historically been very politically contentious in democracies. For instance, during World War I, bitter disputes broke out in Canada (see Conscription Crisis of 1917), Australia and New Zealand (See Compulsory Military Training) over conscription. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Conscription Crisis of 1917 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Compulsory Military Training (CMT a form of Conscription, has been used in New Zealand during a number of historical periods Canada also had a political dispute over conscription during World War II (see Conscription Crisis of 1944). World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Conscription Crisis of 1944 was a political and military crisis following the introduction of forced military service in Canada during World War II Similarly, mass protests against conscription to fight the Vietnam War occurred in several countries in the late 1960s. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia (See also: Conscription Crisis)
Currently, countries that draft women into military service are China, Cuba, Egypt, Eritrea, Israel, Libya, Malaysia, North Korea, and Peru . A conscription crisis is a public dispute about a policy of Conscription, or mandatory service in the military also known as a "draft" China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. In 2002, Sweden's government asked the army to consider mandatory military service for women. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Many have considered the practice of excluding women from the draft unfair, because they feel it goes against principles of equality. Social equality is a social state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in a certain respect Some simply argue that women can be militarily useful, and that excluding them places an unnecessary limit on resources. During World War II, women were drafted into the armed forces of the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The United States came close to drafting women into the Nurse Corps in preparation for a planned invasion of Japan; the Japanese surrender made this unnecessary. Most professional militaries employ specialised military nurses.
The non-egalitarian policy practiced by some countries of drafting men and not women has often been a flash point and source of conflict. Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have This policy is often cited by some masculists as an example of an unfair policy, which benefits women over men. Masculism (or Masculinism) has two contrasting meanings When used by self-identified masculists the term refers to social theories, Political movements Gender egalitarians point out that, in the long run, such a policy supports social thinking about women as weaker and less able beings, and is therefore not really an overall benefit to women - more of a double edged sword (or golden chain). Gender equality (also known as gender equity, gender egalitarianism, or sexual equality) is the goal of the Equality of the Genders Apprehension about the possible conscription of women was a key factor that led to the defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment in the United States. The Equal Rights Amendment ( ERA) is a failed proposed amendment to the United States Constitution intended to guarantee equal rights under the
In 1981 in the United States, several men filed lawsuit in the case Rostker v. Goldberg, alleging that the Military Selective Service Act violates the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment by requiring that men only and not also women register with the SSS. Rostker v Goldberg, 453 US 57 ( 1981) was a decision of the United States Supreme Court holding that the U Due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that a person has a right to receive notice and be heard in an orderly proceeding in order to protect his or her The Supreme Court eventually upheld the Act, stating that "the argument for registering women was based on considerations of equity, but Congress was entitled, in the exercise of its constitutional powers, to focus on the question of military need, rather than 'equity. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. '"
On 1 October 1999 in the Taiwan Area, the Judicial Yuan of the Republic of China in its Interpretation 490 considered that the physical differences between males and females and the derived role differentiation in their respective social functions and lives would not make drafting males only violating the Constitution of the Republic of China. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) The " Free Area of the Republic of China " ( is a Legal and Political description referring to the territories of the Republic of China under The Judicial Yuan (司法院 is one of five branches of the government of the Republic of China (Taiwan in Taipei and serves as the highest judicial organ in The Constitution of the Republic of China ( Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó SiànFǎ is the basic governing document for the Republic of China (ROC with jurisdiction  However, transsexual persons are exempt from the Taiwanese conscription. Transsexualism is a condition in which a person identifies with a physical Sex different from the one with which they were born 
A conscientious objector is an individual whose personal beliefs are incompatible with military service, or sometimes with any role in the armed forces. A conscientious objector (CO is an individual who on religious moral or ethical grounds refuses to participate as a combatant in war or in some cases to take any role that would support Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the Anarchist and more globally in the Socialist movement which may be both characterized as Internationalist A conscientious objector (CO is an individual who on religious moral or ethical grounds refuses to participate as a combatant in war or in some cases to take any role that would support A conscientious objector (CO is an individual who on religious moral or ethical grounds refuses to participate as a combatant in war or in some cases to take any role that would support For the military meaning see Armed forces. For the Soviet sports society see Armed Forces (sports society Armed Forces In some countries, conscientious objectors have special legal status, which augments their conscription duties. For example, Sweden allows conscientious objectors to choose a service in the "weapons-free" branch, such as an airport fireman, nurse or telecommunications technician. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. A nurse is responsible—along with other Health care Professionals —for the treatment safety and recovery of acutely or chronically Some may also refuse such service as they feel that they still are a part of the military complex. The reasons for refusing to serve are varied. Some conscientious objectors are so for religious reasons — notably, the members of the historic peace churches are pacifist by doctrine, and Jehovah's Witnesses, while not strictly speaking pacifists, refuse to participate in the armed services on the grounds that they believe Christians should be neutral in worldly conflicts. Peace churches are Christian churches groups or communities advocating Christian pacifism. Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
Not everyone who is conscripted is willing to go to war. In the United States, especially during the Vietnam Era, some used political connections to ensure that they were placed well away from any potential harm, serving in what was termed a Champagne unit. Champagne unit is a Pejorative term used to describe US military units that had been staffed by celebrities or people from wealthy or politically powerful families
Many would avoid military service altogether through college deferments, by becoming fathers, or serving in various exempt jobs (teaching was one possibility). Others used educational exemptions, became conscientious objectors or pretended to be conscientious objectors, although they might then be drafted for non-combat work, such as serving as a combat medic. A combat medic is a trained Soldier or sailor who is responsible for providing First aid and frontline trauma care on the battlefield It was also possible they could be asked to do similar civilian work, such as being a hospital orderly.
It was, in fact, quite easy for those with some knowledge of the system to avoid being drafted. A simple route, widely publicized, was to get a medical rejection. While a person could claim to have symptoms (or feign homosexuality), if enough physicians sent letters that a person had a problem, he might well be rejected. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. It often wasn't worth the Army's time to dispute this claim. Such an approach worked best in a larger city where there was no stigma to not serving, and the potential draftee was not known to those reviewing him.
For others, the most common method of avoiding the draft was to cross the border into another country. People who have been "called up" for military service and who attempted to avoid it in some way were known as "draft-dodgers". A draft dodger, draft evader or draft resister, is a person who avoids ("dodges" or otherwise violates the Conscription policies of the Particularly during the Vietnam War, U. S. draft-dodgers usually made their way to Canada, Mexico or Sweden. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation.
Many people looked upon draft-dodgers with scorn as being "cowards", but some supported them in their efforts. In the late years of the war, objections against it and support for draft-dodgers was much more outspoken, because of the casualties suffered by American troops, and the actual cause and purpose of the war being heavily questioned.
Toward the end of the U. S. draft, an attempt was made to make the system somewhat fairer by turning it into a lottery, with each of the year's calendar dates randomly assigned a number. Men born on lower numbered dates were called up for review. For the reasons given above, this did not make the system any fairer, and the entire system ended in 1973. Today, American men 18-25 are required to register with the government, but there has not been a callup since the Vietnam Era.
Historically, there has been resistance to conscription in almost every country and situation where it has been imposed. Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the Anarchist and more globally in the Socialist movement which may be both characterized as Internationalist In the USA and some other countries, the Vietnam War saw new levels of opposition to conscription and the Selective Service System. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The Selective Service System is the means by which the United States administers military Conscription. Many people opposed to and facing conscription chose to either apply for classification and assignment to civilian alternative service or noncombatant service within the military as conscientious objectors, or to evade the draft by fleeing to a neutral country. A small proportion, like Muhammad Ali, chose to resist the draft by publicly and politically fighting conscription. Biography Early life Cassius Clay Jr was born on January 17 1942 Some people resist at the point of registration for the draft. In the USA since 1980, for example, the draft resistance movement has focused on mandatory draft registration. Others resist at the point of induction, when they are ordered to put on a uniform, when they are ordered to carry or use a weapon, or when they are ordered into combat.
There are those who are immune to the draft. These people include anyone who works for the government (Teachers, police officers, lawmakers, etc), People who work for government contractors, and those who work in jobs essential to the operation of the country (waste management, power plants, etc). In the United Kingdom this is known as a Reserved occupation as it is deemed necessary to the survival of the nation. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A reserved occupation (also known as essential services) is an occupation considered important enough to a country that those serving in such occupations are exempt - in fact
A government can also grant an exemption from conscription to a group of people based upon religious grounds. One instance is the Amish people in the United States who are immune from any military callup and do not have to register for selective service. In Israel, the Muslim and Christian Arab minority, as well as many ultra-Orthodox Jews are also exempt from mandatory service. This exemption, however, does not cover Druze Israeli citizens and several Bedouin Muslim villages. Permanent residents such as the Druzes of the Golan Heights are also excused. Exemption does not prevent members of the exempted groups from volunteering although such behavior is marginal.
Though some conscripts feel that they benefited from their experience in the military, others feel that their time could have been spent more productively pursuing their chosen studies or career paths.  Individual resentment may also be compounded by the typically low wages paid to conscripts, especially in countries such as Greece, South Korea, Finland and Singapore. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Singapore
|GDP (US$M)[b]||Per capita|
|Albania||27,398||$9,306||$2,584. Military service in its simplest sense is service by an individual or group in an Army or other military organization whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary 63||3,600,523||emerging democracy||Yes|
|Angola||1,246,700||$28,610||$2,332. 92||12,263,596||republic; multiparty presidential regime||Yes|
|Argentina||2,736,690||$210,000||$5,210. 67||40,301,927||republic||Legal, not practiced|
|Australia||7,617,930||$644,700||$31,550. 09||20,434,176||federal parliamentary democracy||No (banned as enshrined by parliament in 1972[g])|
|Austria||82,444||$310,100||$37,818. 07||8,233,300||federal republic||Yes|
|Bahamas||10,070||$6,159||$20,150. 17||305,655||constitutional parliamentary democracy||No|
|Bangladesh||133,910||$69,340||$460. 89||150,448,339||parliamentary democracy||No|
|Belgium||30,528||$316,200||$31,400||10,584,534||democracy||No (abolished in 1994)|
|Belize||22,806||$1,141||$3,875. 88||294,385||parliamentary democracy||Legal, not practiced|
|Bhutan||47,000||$840. 5||$361. 06||2,327,849||absolute monarchy; special treaty relationship with India; note - transition to a constitutional monarchy is expected in 2008||Yes (selective)|
|Bolivia||1,084,390||$10,330||$1,132. 78||9,119,152||republic||Yes (only when there are few volunteers)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||51,129||$9,217||$2,024. 74||4,552,198||emerging federal democratic republic||No|
|Brazil||8,456,510||$967,000||$5,089. 19||190,010,647||federal republic||Yes|
|Burma||657,740||$9,600||$202. 64||47,373,958||military junta||Officially prohibited, de facto still practiced|
|China||9,326,410||$2,518,000||$1,904. 90||1,321,851,888||Communist state||Yes (selective)|
|Croatia||56,414||$37,420||$7,863. 44||4,443,350||presidential/parliamentary democracy||Yes (outdated)|
No (abolished by law in 2008)
|Cuba||110,860||$40,000||$3,510. 61||11,394,043||Communist state||Yes (both sexes)|
|El Salvador||20,720||$15,160||$2,181. 90||6,948,073||republic||Legal, not practiced|
|France||640,053||$2,149,000||$33,758. 81||60,873,000||republic||Yes (outdated)|
No (conscription suspended since 2001)
|Gambia||10,000||$462. 5||$273. 94||1,688,359||republic||No|
|Germany||349,223||$2,872,000||$34,853. 95||82,400,996||federal republic||Yes|
|Grenada||344||$454||$5,046. 07||89,971||parliamentary democracy||No (no military service)|
|Hungary||93,030||$207,000||$11,369. 91||10,064,000||parliamentary democracy||No|
|Iran||1,636,000||$193,500||$2,958. 83||68,251,090||theocratic republic||Yes|
|Israel||20,330||$140,300||$21,830. 87||6,426,679||parliamentary democracy||Yes (both sexes)|
|Jamaica||10,831||$9,230||$3,319. 99||2,780,132||constitutional parliamentary democracy||No|
|Japan||374,744||$4,883,000||$38,318. 03||127,433,494||constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government||No|
|Jordan||92,300||$300,000||$2,068. 33||6,053,193||constitutional monarchy||No|
|Korea, North||120,410||$40,000[j]||$1,800[j]||23,301,725||Communist state one-man dictatorship||Yes[h]|
|Korea, South||98,190||$897,400||$18,297. 56||49,044,790||republic||Yes|
|Kuwait||17,820||$60,720||$24,234. 11||2,505,559||constitutional emirate||Yes|
|Lebanon||10,230||$19,890||$5,066. 87||3,925,502||republic||Yes (outdated)|
No (abolished in 2007)
|Libya||1,759,540||$34,200||$5,665. 15||6,036,914||Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in practice, an authoritarian state||Yes|
|Luxembourg||2,586||$34,530||$71,904. 24||480,222||constitutional monarchy||No|
|Macedonia, Republic of||24,856||$6,225||$3,027. 85||2,055,915||parliamentary democracy||No|
|Malaysia||328,550||$132,300,||$5,330. 10||24,821,286||constitutional monarchy||Yes (selective)|
|Netherlands||33,883||$612,700||$36,975. 10||16,570,613||constitutional monarchy||Legal, not practiced|
No (ended in 2007)
|Rwanda||24,948||$1,968||$198. 64||9,907,509||republic; presidential, multiparty system||No|
|Saudi Arabia||2,149,690||$276,900||$10,032. 23||27,601,038||absolute monarchy||No|
|Singapore||692||$137,762||$30,723. 61||4,553,009||parliamentary republic||Yes|
|Slovenia||20,151||$37,920||$18,872. 76||2,009,245||parliamentary republic||No|
|Syria||184,050||$24,260,||$1,256. 04||19,043,380||republic under an authoritarian military-dominated regime||Yes|
|Switzerland||41,285||$386,100||$51,107. 52||7,508,700||formally a confederation but similar in structure to a federal republic||Yes|
(Republic of China)
|Thailand||511,770||$197,700||$3,038. 35||64,232,760||constitutional monarchy||Yes|
|Tonga||718||$244||$2,086. 88||116,921||constitutional monarchy||No|
|Trinidad and Tobago||5,128||$14,900||$14,101. 73||1,056,608||parliamentary democracy||No|
|Turkey||780,580||$635,600||$9,000||71,158,647||republican parliamentary democracy||Yes|
|United Kingdom||241,590||$2,346,000||$38,600. 61||60,776,238||constitutional monarchy||No (except Bermuda Regiment )|
|United States||9,161,923||$13,210,000||$43,866. The Bermuda Regiment is the home defence unit of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda. 65||296,410,400||Constitution-based federal republic; strong democratic tradition||No|
|Vanuatu||12,200||$341||$1,608. 71||211,971||parliamentary republic||No|
Some communitarians argue that peacetime conscription is an ideal tool for teaching a population basic, important skills such as first aid, swimming, wilderness survival and so on. Communitarianism, as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century opposing in its opinion exalted forms of Individualism while advocating phenomena They also argue that conscription makes for a more disciplined and skilled workforce, as men and women leave the military and take the skills which they honed there back to their civilian jobs.
In many countries, conscription serves as a rite of passage. A rite of passage is a Ritual that marks a change in a person's social or sexual status The prospective man is tested, to see whether or not he can endure the hardships of military training and earn the right to be called a man. Military service, in countries that have it, may then be seen as the test of manhood. Conscription may inspire camaraderie, unifying a people: all able-bodied males together as a union have had the same experience and are soldiers, and that may create unity and a national spirit.
Some argue that conscription should be connected to democracy. A professional army can possibly become a dangerous state-within-a-state. Military virtues such as obedience to orders and respect for the chain of command can possibly be abused by aspiring dictators. Virtue ( Latin virtus; Greek) is moral Excellence. Personal virtues are characteristics valued as promoting individual A dictator is an Authoritarian ruler (eg Absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole and absolute power without hereditary ascension such as an Absolute Armed forces can attract — consciously or unconsciously — people who prefer authoritarian systems. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union The army can even become the only chance for a job and decent life in times of unemployment (this was crucial in the rise of Japanese militarism), or for despised minorities. refers to the Ideology in the Empire of Japan that Militarism should dominate the political and social life of the nation and that the strength of the military is Such people may come to regard the army as their home and elevate it above the state.
On the other hand, once in power dictators such as Napoleon, Hitler, Stalin, and Saddam Hussein have used conscription. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 The most significant attempt on Hitler's life was from the professional component of his military.
Small countries have several options to raise a sizeable army. One is to put every able-bodied man under arms. This is how Switzerland managed to stay independent despite repeated attacks throughout history. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Swiss militias were so successful that their fighting style and weapons (especially the halberd) were quickly adopted by their enemies. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation This in turn made the Swiss very popular as mercenaries; many rulers even raised Swiss Guards. Swiss Guards Swiss mercenary is the name given to those soldiers who have served as Bodyguards, ceremonial guards and palace guards at foreign European courts since The rich Flemish trade cities of the early 14th century raised huge militias that could even defeat armies of knights. The County of Flanders was a historical region in the Low Countries. The famous Battle of the Golden Spurs (1302) is a good example. The Battle of the Golden Spurs (Dutch nl Guldensporenslag, French fr Bataille des éperons d'or, or Battle of Courtrai) was fought on July 11
Other options for national defense include membership in a military alliance like NATO, as is the case for countries like Belgium and Luxembourg. The North Atlantic Treaty The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Luxembourg (Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small Landlocked country in Western Europe, bordered by Switzerland started out as a military alliance between independent cantons. However, the membership in such alliance decreases the independence of a country, making it dependent on its stronger allies. Several NATO members maintain conscription, so an alliance is not mutually exclusive with conscription. The North Atlantic Treaty
Also, a wealthy small country could hire a professional mercenary army. A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by This approach does, however, require wealth and men who are willing to hire on. Moreover, it requires some means to control the mercenaries if they became unruly.
Due to the attrition inherent in warfare, it is difficult to maintain the numbers needed for a wholly professional military, especially in a lengthy war. Complicating matters is the fact that military service in such times becomes more and more unattractive, even if the war has broad support. It is for this reason that the previously all-volunteer Union Army and the WWI British Army switched to conscription after a few years of combat and its associated losses. The Union Army was the army that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces.
However, conscription creates numbers but not quality. Niccolò Machiavelli's attempts to raise a conscript army in Florence ended in catastrophe; the conscripts did not have adequate training or experience, and were awkward to perform drill and maneuver. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany If the conscript army is trained only during the crisis, the limits on time and resources on training enable only rudimentary training; anything else is to be learnt on the battlefield. However, this can be avoided by peace-time conscription to train a large reserve usable in a crisis. The quality of the reserve must be maintained by steady refresher exercises. In several countries where conscription is in use, the length (and quality) of the training is virtually similar to that of professional armies.
The losses to conscript armies on the battlefield are often large, but waste of manpower is limited by the fact that the supply of able-bodied males in a nation is not inexhaustible. In addition, any government waging a prolonged war with conscripts will risk losing popular support and following loss of power. For a democratic government, this limits the use of conscript forces for wars that are fights for existence. Pursuing national interests or expeditionary wars may still necessitate a large professional army. Expeditionary warfare is used to describe the organization of a nation's military to fight abroad especially when deployed to fight away from its established bases at home or abroad
Conscripts can also be used away from combat roles, in such duties as garrisoning important areas, internal security, protection of supply routes, thus relieving the professionals for the front.
Perhaps the kind of people who most strongly want to be in the military are not always the only kind of people who are needed in it. Conscripts come from various backgrounds and might have differing opinions and views. A diverse group is arguably more likely to succeed at any task. Still, the frequently lower morale and experience of conscripts may make them less useful in combat. This has been witnessed in the Vietnam War and Soviet-Afghan War. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The Soviet war in Afghanistan, also known as the Soviet-Afghan War or just the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, was a nine-year conflict involving
Personnel diversity might be bad for armies in some ways, by inhibiting communication and increasing social tension, but it also helps different people come together and realize the true nature of an all-inclusive society. For example, it helps them understand the problems of other classes, professions, cultures, and educational levels. Similar arguments have been presented in favor of desegregation in schools. Desegregation is the process of ending Racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States.
The manpower quality of a conscript force is considered poor in many countries and conversely, governments are reluctant to invest in professional-quality training of conscripts, giving poor-quality forces. However, in some countries with conscription, the personnel diversity of the conscript force is considered its greatest strength.  Admittedly, there are persons who would not be employed by a professional force, but these are a minority and can be discharged for medical reasons in extreme cases.
However, the conscript force may also receive the best of the youth, who would never join a professional army. Many conscripts are from such social strata that they would have much more lucrative employment or would be studying, were they not obliged to serve. These persons provide talented manpower that can easily be trained for technical and leadership duties. As junior NCO and commissioned officer positions are filled with leadership-trained conscripts, the size and cost of the professional cadre is much smaller.  As these ex-conscripts, as reservists, mature and lose their fighting fitness, they can be subsequently retrained and given emergency positions corresponding their civilian expertise. For example, a transport manager who is a reserve officer might serve as a battalion logistics chief during wartime.  The leadership-trained conscripts can also be recruited to the regular forces. The vast improvement of the Egyptian Army in between the Six Day War and the Yom Kippur War has been attributed to the decision to conscript college graduates who were previously exempt. The Egyptian Army is the largest service branch within the Egyptian military establishment. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War (מלחמת יום הכיפורים transliterated: Milkhemet Yom HaKipurim or מלחמת יום
In wartime especially in a lengthy war like WWII, the differences between concsripts and professionals may disappear over time, during war, commanders look to a soldiers and units combat experience as an indication of quality, and a consript who has seen action will be far more valuable to his/its superiors than a green professional. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
The worst problem is that the training must be designed by the physical fitness and the learning ability of the least able of the youth. However, this can be at least partly avoided by differentiating the conscript training. Even the least able can usually fulfill important roles in relatively easy logistics duties, while the most able can be trained quite well as specialists.  In many cases, the conscript servicemates may have social or societal problems, they may be criminals, bullies or drug abusers, or they may even be sociopaths. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment Bullying is the act of intentionally causing harm to others through verbal Harassment, physical Assault, or other more subtle methods of Coercion Drug abuse has a wide range of definitions related to taking a Psychoactive drug or Performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect Psychopathy ( is a psychological construct that describes chronic immoral and Antisocial behavior Allowing such persons to serve is problematic. They may corrode the capability of the unit, even endangering the safety of the others. Some countries have recognized this problem, and attempt to exclude the potential troublemakers even before they get to serve, using medical discharges, for example.  On the other hand, in some countries (like in Russia) the problems with this issue are extremely dire (see dedovschina). Dedovshchina (дедовщи́на is the name given to the informal system of subjugation of new junior conscripts for the Russian armed forces, Interior There is also the argument that if the problem can be classified as juvenile delinquency, then the military functions as a "men's school". Juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles Most Legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles such as By giving responsibility, youth development is induced, and adolescent-typical criminal behavior ceases. Youth development or adolescent development is the process through which adolescents (alternately called Youth or Young adults) acquire the The problem is that the coercion type environment of conscription armies encourage avoidance of responsibility, rather than accepting it, being more likely to promote such antisocial behaviour than to discourage it. Coercion (co-er-shion is the practice of compelling a person or manipulating them to behave in an involuntary way (whether through action or inaction by use of threats
Jean Jacques Rousseau argued vehemently against professional armies, feeling it was the right and privilege of every citizen to participate to the defense of the whole society and a mark of moral decline to leave this business to professionals. He based this view on the development of the Roman republic, which came to an end at the same time as the Roman army changed from a conscript to professional force. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the  Similarly, Aristotle linked the division of armed service among the populace intimately with the political order of the state. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. 
Some ideologies and cultures, and those based on collectivism or statism, value the society and common good above the life of an individual. An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics Collectivism is a term used to describe any moral political or social outlook that stresses human Interdependence and the importance of a Collective, rather than Statism (or Etatism) is a very loose and often Derogatory term that is used to describe Specific instances of state intervention in personal social Those ideologies and world-views justify the state to force its members to protect itself and risk their lives for the common good. In states based on society-centered ideologies, world-views and religions, conscription is the natural way of raising the army.
In the era of total war, the conscription is the only alternative for a small nation to build an army of credible strength without depending on alliances. Total war is a conflict of unlimited scope in which a Belligerent engages in a total mobilization of all available resources at his disposal This is particularly the case when the opposing state is significantly larger. In such a case, a voluntary force often can not, regardless of its quality, stand against the sheer numbers of the opposing force.
The right of the state to conscript its citizens can be founded on utilitarianist principles. Utilitarianism is the idea that the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall Utility, that is its contribution to happiness If a greater good would achieved, every thing considered, by sacrificing some soldiers a state should be willing to make this sacrifice. This assumes that state have right to use its citizens for achieving greater good for the humankind.
Conscription can give the conscripts a lasting patriotic view and readiness to die for the good of the whole. Such readiness should, according to many world-views, be present in a virtuous citizen at all times, but through training, the readiness becomes a grim reality, not rhetoric. This may decrease the admiration of the military, but may also promote militarism and lead into readiness to use violence in everyday life to solve marital problems. On the other hand, the fact that every person understands that a war — any war — means that they themselves, friends, and relatives will be dying or at the least, facing mortal danger, decreases the willingness to enter an armed conflict. In practice, engaging a conscript force in an aggressive war for a prolonged period results in morale degradation both at home and on the front, testified by Afghanistan and Vietnam Wars. The Soviet war in Afghanistan, also known as the Soviet-Afghan War or just the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, was a nine-year conflict involving The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
In a very large war, (such as World War II) raising a large enough volunteer military would require dramatic increases in taxes or budget deficits. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In such cases conscription can have lower negative impact than the impact of these higher taxes and possibly be more equitable (higher taxes would penalize those out of service much more than those in service). Research into fiscal impacts of conscription in World War II suggest a volunteer army raised to the same size would have had worse economic impact in terms of economic growth. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
It is estimated by the British military that in a professional military, one company deployed for active duty in peacekeeping corresponds to three inactive companies at home. Salaries for each are paid from the military budget.  In contrast, volunteers from a trained reserve are in their civilian jobs when they are not deployed.
In the United States there have been questions over whether those serving in the military can truly be considered volunteer, since they either have few alternatives to earn a decent living in private life; or did not volunteer for the service they eventually carry out. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Representative Charles Rangel raised the question of who was going to war. Charles Bernard "Charlie" Rangel (born June 11, 1930) is an American Politician. "When you talk about a war, you're talking about ground troops, you're talking about enlisted people, and they don't come from the kids and members of Congress," said Rangel.  Acclaimed author and journalist Gay Talese has spoken about how few other opportunities exist for those who join the military. Gay Talese (born February 7 1932) is an American author He wrote for The New York Times in the early 1960s and helped to define literary journalism "[It's] a sad commentary on who has to serve, because it is mercenary," said Talese in an interview. "They are economic mercenaries. They are economically deprived people, without opportunities, and they seek this opportunity and they never imagine how ill-chosen was their choice when they are missing a leg, or witnessing the horror. " Nadine Strossen, President of the ACLU, raised a similar point. Nadine Strossen (born August 18, 1950) is the current president of the American Civil Liberties Union. The American Civil Liberties Union ( ACLU) consists of two separate Non-profit organizations the ACLU Foundation a 501(c(3 organization which focuses "I think nobody who volunteered for [the Iraq War] was volunteering for the tours of duty—even forget the danger they are facing—but the extended time, it’s off the charts," said Strossen. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign "Chuck Hagel today gave us the exact details, so don’t quote me on this because he’s an expert and I’m not, but the order of magnitude used to be 7 months, but now it’s 15 months, or 18 months, or 21 months, and then it’s being doubled and you are not able to have leave in between. Charles Timothy " Chuck " Hagel (born October 4, 1946) is the senior United States Senator from Nebraska. So, they volunteered for one type of duty in terms of the amount of time, but they are getting something entirely different from that. Number two is query how realistic the choice is for the people who are going into it if they don’t have many other options—or any other options—to get an education, to get a job, to get the skills and the training. . . "
Many arguments opposed to conscription, or opposed to gender-discriminated conscription, arise from its violation of the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly ( 10 December 1948 at Palais The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security In particular:
In addition, many constitutions do provide similar rights in countries where there is or has been some form of conscription after World War II or that maintain a possibility of conscription in time of war. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Some groups, such as libertarians, say that the draft constitutes slavery, since it is mandatory work. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 &ndash 13 August 1946 He was an outspoken socialist and a pacifist, his later works becoming increasingly political Bertrand Arthur William Russell 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970 was a British Philosopher, Historian Paul Thomas Mann ( June Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Under the Thirteenth Amendment to the U. The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished and continues to prohibit Slavery, and with limited exceptions such as those S. Constitution, slavery or other involuntary servitude is not allowed unless it is part of punishment for a crime. They therefore see the draft as unconstitutional (at least in the U. Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable Constitution. S. ) and immoral. In 1918, the Supreme Court ruled that the World War I draft did not violate the United States Constitution. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. Arver v. United States, ). The Court detailed its conclusion that the limited powers of the federal government included conscription. Its only statement on the Thirteenth Amendment issue reads thus:
In the USSR, most of the conscripts received only very basic training and were used for forced labor unrelated to actual military service — such as building Dachas (second homes) for officers or digging up potatoes in the field with zero wage cost. Dacha ( is a Russian word for seasonal or year-round second homes located in the Exurbs of Soviet and Russian cities This contributed to the lack of incentives for the Soviet planned economy system to produce better combined harvesting machines and Soviet agriculture remained low-tech.
In Soviet-bloc Hungary, more than half of pre-1989 conscripts received a mere few weeks of rifle training and were swiftly assigned to "working squadrons," which usually hand-built rail tracks "for free", and in very poor quality. During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic A rifle is a Firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling" cut into the barrel walls At the same time, railway tracks in Western Europe were being built to high-quality standards by semi-automatic, rail-rolling factories operated by a professional workforce.
Conscription is usually limited to young people, and the burden of conscription is almost never spread equally across all age groups. The youngest people considered qualified are usually conscripted first. Opponents of ageism, and advocates of youth liberation, argue that age-based military conscription is the most severe disparity on the basis of age of any government mandate on individuals. This argument is epitomized by the Phil Ochs song, "I Ain't Marching Any More": "It's always the old who lead us to the war; it's always the young who fall. Philip David Ochs ( December 19 1940 – April 9 1976) was a U " Even in countries with elected governments, conscripts are often too young to be allowed to vote or participate in decisions on whether to go to war or to impose or set policies for conscription. The Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which lowered the voting age to 18, was proposed and approved largely in response to criticism of conscription based on the unfairness of drafting men too young to be allowed to vote. The Twenty-sixth Amendment ( Amendment XXVI) of the United States Constitution, ratified on July 1, 1971, standardized the voting age to 18 But draft-age voters in the USA are still overwhelmingly outnumbered by voters considered to be too old to be conscripted.
Traditionally conscription has been limited to the male population. Women and non-able-bodied males have been exempted from conscription. Many societies have traditionally considered conscription as a test of manhood and a rite of passage from boyhood into manhood. A rite of passage is a Ritual that marks a change in a person's social or sexual status A rite of passage is a Ritual that marks a change in a person's social or sexual status Since young men spend several months or perhaps years in service while young women can at the same time study, work, found families and find their niche in society, conscription can be considered unfair and sexist. Sexism is the belief or attitude that one Gender or Sex is inferior to or less valuable than the other and can also refer to a Hatred or distrust towards
No military can operate effectively without discipline. Discipline can either be taught from esprit de corps, already-acquired motivation of the personnel or be fundamentally embedded into the troops through guidance from leadership. Morale, also known as esprit de corps when discussing the morale of a group is an intangible term used for the capacity of people to maintain Belief in One can speculate that volunteers manifest less undisciplined behavior, however citizens conscripted might have little motivation to serve. As motivation is based on coercion, the corrective action imposed upon undisciplined conscriptees is often harsh. Coercion (co-er-shion is the practice of compelling a person or manipulating them to behave in an involuntary way (whether through action or inaction by use of threats Capital punishment, usually by firing squad, was used almost universally to maintain discipline in conscript militaries during wartime. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Execution by firing squad is a method of Capital punishment, particularly common in times of war Antony Beevor has estimated the executions covered some 1% to 5% of all conscript losses in World War II. This can be best summarized by a statement from Leon Trotsky:
Consequently, conscript armies are more likely to mutiny than all-volunteer forces, and can in extreme cases turn against their own (see fragging). Fragging is a term from the Vietnam War, used primarily by US
Discipline problems become much worse when the ablest of the youth are forced to serve against their will under the authority of people they consider less intelligent, untalented, or simply because of unquestioned authority. This was seldom a problem in the period of Industrialism when only the upper classes had access to higher education, but proved problematic in the Vietnam War, when college students were conscripted to fight under non-commissioned officers, many of whom had not finished high school and few of whom had any higher education. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution
The military draft is predicated on the assumption that nations have rights that supersede those of the individual. In the words of Einstein and Gandhi's Anti-Conscription Manifesto, "The State which thinks itself entitled to force its citizens to go to war will never pay proper regard to the value and happiness of their lives in peace. " The building of large conscript armies coincided with the rise of virulent nationalism in the 19th and 20th centuries, culminating in World War II. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
In peacetime, conscription can create an atmosphere of militarism and bigotry in society. Militarism is the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or A bigot is a person who is intolerant of opinions lifestyles or identities differing from his or her own and bigotry is the corresponding state of mind Many young men in countries with compulsory conscription develop a cynical stance about militarism because the mandatory nature of conscription creates low morale among soldiers. This is especially true in countries where nationalist feelings are weak to begin with, such as Austria, Germany and Finland, or where conditions are brutal, such as in Russia. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
Men who have had military training can also be more ready to use violence to solve conflicts than those who have not. Conscription also may create an atmosphere of chauvinism, sexism and discrimination against those men who haven't served in the armed forces. Chauvinism (ˈʃoʊvɨnɪzəm is extreme and unreasoning Partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred Sexism is the belief or attitude that one Gender or Sex is inferior to or less valuable than the other and can also refer to a Hatred or distrust towards Unlike most discrimination policies discrimination between, which is the discernment of qualities and recognition of the differences focused here discrimination against is
Conscription is a component of total war, and can also be used as an example of established policy to justify a government's demand that other sacrifices be required of civilians. Total war is a conflict of unlimited scope in which a Belligerent engages in a total mobilization of all available resources at his disposal Once a draft is allowed, Justice Louis Brandeis argued, "all bets are off". Louis Dembitz Brandeis ( November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American litigator, Supreme Court Justice, advocate  Arguably this results in a blurring of the moral distinction between civilians and the military as legitimate military targets, leading to attacks on civilians. Examples would include the indiscriminate bombing of cities conducted by both sides during World War II, the My Lai Massacre. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The My Lai Massacre ( approximately) (thảm sát Mỹ Lai was the Mass murder of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam almost It has been popular recently to call civilian deaths "collateral damage" although their deaths are highly predictable. In fact, during the last century, civilian deaths have grown compared to military deaths in conflict.
One of the objections raised is that a conscript force would be of lower quality than a volunteer army. First, short periods of service do not allow for much skill building. Second, there is a possibility of a morale drop in units with conscripts, leading to a reduction in quality as officers and NCOs work to alleviate those problems.
The biggest problem is that the pace of training has to be adjusted to the level of the lowest quality candidate. Combined with the short tour of duty, this renders the skills of the conscripts very low. Therefore the elite units of all armies which have conscription, are composed entirely of selected volunteers, such as Parachute Rangers in the Finnish army. Elite (also spelled Élite) is taken originally from the Latin, eligere, "to elect" Paratroopers are Soldiers trained in Parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force.
Likewise, the military training of the conscripts is almost universally very rudimentary. It seldom goes beyond drill, shooting practice, rudimentary specialization on one's service branch and weapons and basic battlefield training. A military parade is a formation of soldiers whose movement is restricted Shooting is the act or process of firing Rifles Shotguns or other projectile Weapons such as bows or Crossbows Even the firing of Likewise, many nations have used conscripts simply as indentured, low-cost work force, organized as "work battalions" for agriculture and building infrastructure instead of decent military service.
It can be argued that in a cost-to-benefit ratio, conscription during peace time is not worthwhile. Months or years of service amongst the most fit subtracts from the productivity of the economy; add to this the cost of training them, and in some countries paying them. Compared to these extensive costs, some would argue there is very little benefit, if there ever were war conscription and basic training could be completed quickly, and in most countries where conscription is compulsory there is little threat of war in any case.
The cost to particularly in times of military duress, such as the current U. S. conflict in Iraq, conscription serves as an instrument through which fresh soldiers may be readied when reserves and voluntary troops have been over utilized. These new troops ultimately provide more efficient use of U. S. economic resources since individuals plan for military involvement as a normal activity. Draft assignments, in contrast, disrupt everyday activity and lead to possibly greater economic shock.
The cost of conscription can be related to the parable of the broken window. The parable of the broken window was created by Frédéric Bastiat in his 1850 essay fr Ce qu'on voit et ce qu'on ne voit pas ( That Which Is Seen and That Which Military service can be related to any work. The costs of work do not disappear anywhere even if no salary is paid. The work effort of the conscripts is effectively wasted; unwilling work force is extremely inefficient and the conscripts also lose their the costs of all-volunteer paid force. The impact is especially severe in wartime, when civilian professionals are forced to fight as amateur soldiers. Not only is the work effort of the conscripts wasted and productivity is lost, but professionally-skilled conscripts are also difficult to replace in the civilian work force. Every soldier conscripted in the army is taken away from his civilian work, and away from contributing to the economy which funds the military. This is not a problem in an agrarian or pre-industrialized state where the level of education is universally low, and where a worker is easily replaced by another. However, this proves extremely problematic in a post-industrial society where educational levels are high and where the work force is highly sophisticated and a replacement for a conscripted specialist is difficult to find. A post-industrial society is a society in which an economic transition has occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy, a diffusion Even direr economic consequences result if the professional conscripted as an amateur soldier is killed or maimed for life; his work effort and productivity is irrevocably lost.
Another argument sees conscription as a tool for dictatorships to control and re-educate a population instead of being a means for an oppressed people to infiltrate the military as the power base for every dictatorship. A dictatorship is usually defined as an autocratic Form of government in which the Government is ruled by a Dictator. Especially since the military is inherently based on giving and obeying orders, instead of democracy, it is argued that a draft is a far more effective tool to instill obedience and unconditional following into society than giving a democratic populace the opportunity to control the military. Supporting that argument is the fact, that Nazi Germany changed the Reichswehr from an all-volunteer army in 1934 into the conscription-based Wehrmacht. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Reichswehr ( German for "National Defence" formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935 when it was Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 Also almost all contemporary dictatorships have a military draft (Syria, North Korea, as well as Iraq under Saddam Hussein). Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Virtually all former military dictatorships relied heavily on conscribing their entire adolescent male populations (with the military dictatorships of Pakistan and Burma being notable exceptions). A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy, Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. The former military dictatorships of Turkey, Greece, Spain, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Indonesia and Libya maintained draft systems throughout their reigns as well as all formerly communist dictatorships and the Soviet Union itself. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991