A conscientious objector (CO) is an individual who, on religious, moral or ethical grounds, refuses to participate as a combatant in war or, in some cases, to take any role that would support a combatant organization armed forces. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority Military service in its simplest sense is service by an individual or group in an Army or other military organization whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary National service is a common name for mandatory or voluntary government service programs (most often focusing on military service A conscription crisis is a public dispute about a policy of Conscription, or mandatory service in the military also known as a "draft" Conscription in Australia, or mandatory Military service also known as National Service, has a controversial history dating back to the first years of nationhood Conscription in Finland is part of a wider general "national defence duty" (asevelvollisuus värnplikt defined in the 127§ of the Constitution of Finland. Germany has Conscription ( Wehrpflicht) for male citizens stated in the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. As of 2008 Greece (Hellenic Republic has mandatory Military service ( Conscription) of 12 months for men between the ages of 18 and 45 The Israel Defense Forces ( IDF) (צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit The Malaysian National Service, or Program Latihan Khidmat Negara (PLKN, is Malaysia 's compulsory military service program and Conscription into the Compulsory Military Training (CMT a form of Conscription, has been used in New Zealand during a number of historical periods Conscription in Russia is presently a 12 month draft mandatory for all male citizens age 18-27 with a number of exceptions National Service ( NS) is the name given to the compulsory Conscription in Singapore of all male Singaporean citizens and second-generation permanent In Turkey, compulsory military service applies to all male citizens from twenty to forty one years of age (with some exceptions "National Service" redirects here For national service in other countries see National service. The Draft redirects here For other uses see Draft. Conscription in the United States has been employed several times usually during For the military meaning see Armed forces. For the Soviet sports society see Armed Forces (sports society Armed Forces In the first case, conscientious objectors may be willing to accept non-combatant roles during conscription or military service. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority Military service in its simplest sense is service by an individual or group in an Army or other military organization whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary In the second case, the CO objects to any role within armed forces and results in complete rejection of conscription or military service and, in some countries, assignment to an alternative civilian service as a substitute for conscription or military service. For the military meaning see Armed forces. For the Soviet sports society see Armed Forces (sports society Armed Forces Civilian service is service to a government made as a Civilian, particularly such service as an option for Anti-militarists and Pacifists who object The international definition of conscientious objection officially broadened in 1998, when the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights document called “Conscientious objection to military service, United Nations Commission on Human Rights resolution 1998/77” officially recognized that “persons [already] performing military service may develop conscientious objections. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights ( OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human The United Nations Commission on Human Rights ( UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations. ”  Some COs may consider themselves either pacifist or antimilitarist. Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the Anarchist and more globally in the Socialist movement which may be both characterized as Internationalist
Historically, many conscientious objectors have been executed, imprisoned, or otherwise penalized when their beliefs led to actions conflicting with their society's legal system or government. The legal definition and status of conscientious objection has varied over the years and from nation to nation. Religious beliefs were a starting point in many nations for legally granting conscientious objector status. Acceptable grounds for granting conscientious objector status have broadened in many countries.
Conscientious objection and doing civilian service (ie civilian tasks as an alternative to compulsory military service) has, in many countries, evolved into a veritable institution. Today in some countries such as Germany and Austria, those who are fulfilling their civilian service in the nursing or social domain bear a huge part of the workload in these areas. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich
In 1948, the issue of the right to “conscience” was dealt with by the United Nations General Assembly in Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly ( 10 December 1948 at Palais It reads: “Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. ” The proclamation was ratified during the General Assembly on 10 December 1948 by a vote of 48 in favour, 0 against, with 8 abstentions. Ratification is the act of giving official sanction or approval to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
In 1974, the Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations, Sean MacBride said, in his Nobel Lecture, “To the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights one more might, with relevance, be added. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. Seán MacBride (26 January 1904 &ndash 15 January 1988 was a prominent international politician. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly ( 10 December 1948 at Palais It is "The Right to Refuse to Kill". ” 
In 1976, the United Nations treaty the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights entered into force. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security A Treaty is an agreement under International law entered into by actors in international law namely States and International organizations. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations Treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in Coming into force (also called enforcement or enactment) is a term that refers to the process by which Legislation, or part of legislation and It was based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and was originally created in 1966. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly ( 10 December 1948 at Palais Nations that have signed this treaty are bound by it. Its Article 18 begins: “Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. …”
However, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights left the issue of conscientious objection inexplicit, as we see in this quote from War Resisters International: “Article 18 of the Covenant does put some limits on the right [to freedom of thought, conscience and religion], stating that [its] manifestations must not infringe on public safety, order, health or morals. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations Treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in War Resisters' International or WRI is an international Anti-war organization with members and affiliates in over thirty countries Some states argue that such limitations [on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion] would [derivatively] permit them to make conscientious objection during time of war a threat to public safety, or mass conscientious objection a disruption to public order,. . . [Some states] even [argue] that it is a 'moral' duty to serve the state in its military. ”
On July 30, 1993, explicit clarification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Article 18 was made in the United Nations Human Rights Committee general comment 22, Para. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations Treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Human Rights Committee is a United Nations body of 18 experts that meets three times a year to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by UN member states on their compliance 11: “The Covenant does not explicitly refer to a right to conscientious objection, but the Committee believes that such a right can be derived from article 18, inasmuch as the obligation to use lethal force may seriously conflict with the freedom of conscience and the right to manifest one's religion or belief. ”
In 1997, an announcement of Amnesty International's forthcoming campaign and briefing for the UN Commission on Human Rights included this quote: “The right to conscientious objection to military service is not a marginal concern outside the mainstream of international human rights protection and promotion. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to The United Nations Commission on Human Rights ( UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations. ”
In 2005, The Peace Tax Seven analyzed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights with this statement: “If the right to life is the first of all human rights, being the one on which all other rights depend, the right to refuse to kill must be the second. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly ( 10 December 1948 at Palais ”
The reasons for refusing to perform military service are varied. Many conscientious objectors cite religious reasons. Members of the Historic Peace Churches object to war from the conviction that Christian life is incompatible with military action, because Jesus enjoins his followers to love their enemies and to refuse violence. Peace churches are Christian churches groups or communities advocating Christian pacifism. Jehovah's Witnesses, while not pacifist in the strict sense, refuse to participate in the armed services on the grounds that they believe Jehovah's Witnesses should be neutral in worldly conflicts and often cite the latter portion of Isaiah 2:4 which states, "…neither shall they learn war anymore. Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination " Other objections can stem from a deep sense of responsibility toward humanity as a whole, or from simple denial that any government possesses the moral authority to command warlike behavior from its citizens.
In the early Christian Church conscientious objection was not an issue, since military service went hand-in-hand with non-Christian religious worship. After the Roman Empire officially embraced Christianity, the Just War theory was developed in order to reconcile warfare with Christian belief. Just War theory is a Doctrine of military ethics of Roman philosophical and Catholic origin studied by moral Theologians Ethicists and international After Theodosius I made Christianity an official religion of the Empire, this position slowly developed into the official position of the Western Church. In the 11th century, there was a further shift of opinion in the Latin-Christian tradition with the crusades, strengthening the idea and acceptability of Holy War. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Objectors became a minority. Some theologians see the loss of a pacifist position as a great failing of the Church; see Constantinian shift and Christian pacifism. Constantinian shift is a term used by Anabaptist and Post-Christendom theologians to describe the political and theological aspects of the 4th century Christian pacifism is the theological and ethical position that any form of violence is incompatible with the Christian faith
Because of their conscientious objection to participation in military service, whether armed or unarmed, Jehovah's Witnesses have often faced imprisonment or other penalties. Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination In Greece, for example, before the introduction of alternative civilian service in 1997, hundreds of Witnesses were imprisoned, some for three years or even more for their refusal. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar In Armenia, young Jehovah's Witnesses have been imprisoned (and remain in prison) because of their conscientious objection to military service. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority In Switzerland, virtually every Jehovah's Witness is exempted from military service. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Finnish government exempts Jehovah's Witnesses from the draft completely. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe.
"Many Seventh-day Adventists refuse to enter the army as combatants, but participate as medics, ambulance drivers, etc. The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance During World War II in Germany, many SDA conscientious objectors were sent to concentration camps or mental institutions; some were executed. Some Seventh-day Adventists volunteered for the US Army's Operation Whitecoat. The Church preferred to call them "conscientious participants", because they were willing to risk their lives as test subjects in potentially life-threatening research. Over 2,200 Seventh-day Adventists volunteered in experiments involving various infectious agents during the 1950s through the 1970s in Fort Detrick, MD. "
For believers in Indian religions, the opposition to warfare may be based on either the general idea of ahimsa, non-violence, or on an explicit prohibition of violence by their religion, e. Indian religions, also called Dharmic religions, are the related religious traditions that originated in the Indian subcontinent, namely Hinduism, Ahimsa ( Devanagari: sa अहिंसा IAST ahiṃsā is a Sanskrit term meaning Non-violence (literally the avoidance of violence - Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence. g. , for a Buddhist, one of the five precepts is "Pānātipātā veramaṇi sikkhāpadam samādiyāmi," or "I undertake the precept to refrain from destroying living creatures," which is in obvious opposition to the practice of warfare. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The 14th Dalai Lama, the highest religious authority in Tibetan Buddhism, has stated that war "should be relegated to the dustbin of history. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including " On the other hand, many Buddhist sects, especially in Japan, have been thoroughly militarized, warrior monks (yamabushi or sóhei) participating in the civil wars. Hindu beliefs do not go against the concept of war, as seen in the Gita. Both Sikhs and Hindus believe war should be a last resort and should be fought to sustain life and morality in society.
Some practitioners of pagan religions, particularly Wicca, may object on the grounds of the Wiccan rede, which states "An it harm none, do what ye will" (or variations). Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world The Wiccan Rede (pronounced "reed" is a saying that was formulated to sum up the Ethics of the Neo-Pagan religion Wicca. The threefold law may also be grounds for objection. The Rule of Three (also threefold law or law of return) is a tenet of the Neopagan religion of Wicca.
A famous example of a conscientious objector was the Austrian devout Roman Catholic Christian Franz Jägerstetter, who was executed on the 9. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth August 1943 for openly refusing to serve in the Nazi Wehrmacht, consciously accepting the penalty of death. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 He was declared Blessed by Pope Benedict XVI in 2007 for dying for his beliefs, and is well respected in and out of his homeland by religious and non-religious persons alike as a symbol of self-sacrificing resistance against a criminal regime. Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger
Some conscientious objectors are unwilling to serve the military in any capacity, while others accept noncombatant roles. Alternatives to military or civilian service include serving an imprisonment or other punishment for refusing conscription, falsely claiming unfitness for duty by feigning an allergy or a heart condition, delaying conscription until the maximum drafting age, or seeking refuge in a country which does not extradite those wanted for military conscription. Avoiding military service is sometimes labeled draft dodging, particularly if the goal is accomplished through dishonesty or evasive maneuvers. A draft dodger, draft evader or draft resister, is a person who avoids ("dodges" or otherwise violates the Conscription policies of the However, many people who support conscription will distinguish between "bona fide" conscientious objection and draft dodging, which they view as evasion of military service without a valid excuse.
Conscientious objection exists since the incorporation of forced military service but was not officially recognized until the twentieth century, when it was gradually recognized as a fundamental human right as a part of the freedom of conscience. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled
Despite the fact that international institutions like the United Nations (UN) or the Council of Europe (CoE) regard and promote conscientious objection as a human right, as of 2004, it still does not have a legal basis in most countries. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Among the roughly one-hundred countries that have conscription, only thirty countries have some legal provisions, 25 of them in Europe. In Europe, most countries with conscription more or less fulfill international guidelines on conscientious objection legislation (except for Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Finland and Russia) today. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending In many countries outside Europe, especially in armed conflict areas (Israel/Palestine, DR Congo), conscientious objection is punished severely. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Name There are differences of opinion as to what the Palestinian territories should be called The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to
While conscientious objectors - otherwise CO's - used to be seen as deserters, traitors, cowards, slackers or simply un-patriotic, their image has changed drastically in the Western world in past decades. Especially in Europe, where objectors usually serve an alternative civilian service, they are regarded as making an equally important contribution to society as conscripts. Parallel to that, the number of objectors has risen significantly, too: e. g. in Germany, where conscientious objection is a constitutional right, from less than one percent of all eligible men to more than fifty percent in 2003. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
During the American Revolutionary War exemptions varied by state. The Draft redirects here For other uses see Draft. Conscription in the United States has been employed several times usually during The New York Draft Riots (July 11 to July 16 1863 known at the time as Draft Week) were violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Pennsylvania required conscientious objectors, who would not join companies of voluntary soldiers called Associations, to pay a fine roughly equal to the time they would have spent in military drill.  Quakers who refused this extra tax had their property confiscated.
The first conscription in the United States came with the Civil War. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Although conscientious objection was not part of the draft law, individuals could provide a substitute or pay $300 to hire one.  By 1864 the draft act allowed the $300 to be paid for the benefit of sick and wounded soldiers. Conscientious objectors in Confederate States initially had few options. The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 Responses included moving to northern states, hiding in the mountains, joining the army but refusing to use a weapon or imprisonment. Between late 1862 and 1864 a payment of $500 into the public treasury exempted conscientious objectors from Confederate military duty. 
We were cursed, beaten, kicked, and compelled to go through exercises to the extent that a few were unconscious for some minutes. They kept it up for the greater part of the afternoon, and then those who could possibly stand on their feet were compelled to take cold shower baths. One of the boys was scrubbed with a scrubbing brush using lye on him. They drew blood in several places.
— Mennonite from Camp Lee, Virginia, United States, 16 July 1918. Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common 
In the United States during World War I, conscientious objectors were permitted to serve in noncombatant military roles. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All About 2000 absolute conscientious objectors refused to cooperate in any way with the military.  These men were imprisoned in military facilities such as Fort Lewis (Washington), Alcatraz Island (California) and Fort Leavenworth (Kansas). The government failed to take into account that some conscientious objectors viewed any cooperation with the military as contributing to the war effort. Their refusal to put on a uniform or cooperate in any way caused difficulties for both the government and the COs. The mistreatment received by these absolute COs included short rations, solitary confinement and physical abuse so severe as to cause the deaths of two Hutterite draftees. Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century 
Eventually, because of the shortage of farm labor, the conscientious objectors were granted furloughs either for farm service or relief work in France under the American Friends Service Committee. The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC is a Religious Society of Friends ( Quaker) affiliated organization which provides Humanitarian relief A limited number performed alternative service as fire fighters in the Cascade Range in the vicinity of Camp Lewis, Washington and in a Virginia psychiatric hospital. 
During World War II, all registrants were sent a questionnaire covering basic facts about their identification, physical condition, history and also provided a checkoff to indicate opposition to military service because of religious training or belief. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Men marking the latter option received a DSS 47 form with ten questions:
Civilian Public Service (CPS) provided conscientious objectors in the United States an alternative to military service during World War II. The Civilian Public Service ( CPS) provided Conscientious objectors in the United States an alternative to military service during World War II From 1941 to 1947 nearly 12,000 draftees, unwilling to do any type of military service, performed work of national importance in 152 CPS camps throughout the United States and Puerto Rico. The work was initially done in areas isolated from the general population both because of the government's concern that pacifist philosophy would spread and conscientious objectors would not be tolerated in neighboring communities. A constant problem through the duration of the program, especially in camps located in national forests for fire control, was make-work projects designed to occupy the men's time in the off-season and between fires. For instance, men at a camp on the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia shoveled snow from an unused roadway while a snowplow was parked nearby. The Blue Ridge Parkway is a National Parkway and All-American Road in the United States, noted for its scenic beauty The uselessness of this type of work led to low morale and loss of experienced men as they requested transfers to other camps hoping for more meaningful work. Draftees from the historic peace churches and other faiths worked in areas such as soil conservation, forestry, fire fighting, agriculture, social services, and mental health.
The CPS men served without wages and minimal support from the federal government. The cost of maintaining the CPS camps and providing for the needs of the men was the responsibility of their congregations and families. CPS men served longer than regular draftees, not being released until well past the end of the war. Initially skeptical of the program, government agencies learned to appreciate the men's service and requested more workers from the program. CPS made significant contributions to forest fire prevention, erosion and flood control, medical science and especially in revolutionizing of the state-run mental health institutions which had previously been very inhumane and often cruel.
Alternatives to war bonds and war savings stamps were provided for those who could not conscientiously help fund the WWII. War bonds are a type of Savings bond used by combatant nations to help fund a war effort and as a Monetary policy for controlling Inflation from an The war savings stamp (WSS was a Patriotic program used by the United States Treasury to help fund participation in World War I and World War II National Service Board for Religious Objectors offered civilian bonds and Mennonite Central Committee offered Civilian Public Service stamps and War Sufferers' Relief stamps. The Center on Conscience & War ( CCW) is a United States non-profit Anti-war organization dedicated to defending and extending the rights of The Mennonite Central Committee (MCC is a relief service and peace agency representing 15 Mennonite, Brethren in Christ and Amish bodies in North
Civilian Public Service was disbanded in 1947. By the early 1950s a replacement program, 1-W service, was in place for conscientious objectors classified as 1-W by Selective Service. The new program eliminated the base camps of CPS and provided wages for the men.
1-W service was divided into several categories. The Earning Service involved working in institutions such as hospitals for fairly good wages. Voluntary Service was nonpaying work done in similar institutions, mostly within North America. Pax Service was a nonpaying alternative with assignments overseas. 1-W Mission Supporting Service was like the Earning Service but the wages were used for the support of mission, relief or service projects of the draftees choice. The nonpaying services were promoted by church agencies as a sacrifice to enhance the peace witness of conscientious objectors. 
A 1971 United States Supreme Court decision broadened U. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. S. rules beyond religious belief but denied the inclusion of objections to specific wars as grounds for conscientious objection.  Some desiring to include the objection to specific wars distinguish between wars of offensive aggression and defensive wars while others contend that religious, moral, or ethical opposition to war need not be absolute or consistent but may depend on circumstance or political conviction.
Currently, the U. S. Selective Service System states, "Beliefs which qualify a registrant for conscientious objector status may be religious in nature, but don't have to be. Beliefs may be moral or ethical; however, a man's reasons for not wanting to participate in a war must not be based on politics, expediency, or self-interest. In general, the man's lifestyle prior to making his claim must reflect his current claims. " In the US, this applies to primary claims, that is, those filed on initial SSS registration. On the other hand, those who apply after either having registered without filing, and/or having attempted or effected a deferral, are specifically required to demonstrate a discrete and documented change in belief, including a precipitant, that converted a non-CO to a CO. The male reference is due to the current "male only" basis for conscription in the United States. The Draft redirects here For other uses see Draft. Conscription in the United States has been employed several times usually during
In the United States, there are two main criteria for classification as a conscientious objector. First, the objector must be opposed to war in any form, Gillette v. United States, 401 U. S. 437. Second, the objection must be sincere, Witmer v. United States, 348 U. Witmer v United States, 348 US 375 ( 1955) was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held a draft board's rejection of Jehovah's S. 375. That he must show that this opposition is based upon religious training and belief was no longer a criterion after cases broadened it to include non-religious moral belief, United States v. Seeger, 380 U. This is about the First-Amendment- and pacifism-related case that involved Daniel Seeger for the Fifth-Amendment- and HUAC-related case Seeger v S. 163 and Welsh v. United States, 398 U. S. 333. COs willing to perform non-combatant military functions are classed 1-A-O by the U. S. ; those unwilling to serve at all are 1-O.
Some objectors to the Iraq War chose Canada as a place of refuge in part because of the closeness of the Canada–United States border, entry to Canada is easy and because of the precedence set by former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in allowing draft dodgers into Canada without prosecution during the Vietnam War. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign The Canada – United States border is the international Border between Canada and the United States. A draft dodger, draft evader or draft resister, is a person who avoids ("dodges" or otherwise violates the Conscription policies of the Universal Suffrage In 1960 Prime Minister John Diefenbaker 's government decided to permit all Status Indians to vote in federal elections
Pursuant to the Treaty between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America on Mutual Legal assistance in Criminal Matters, US authorities can request Canadian authorities to identify, locate and take into custody of US nationals who have committed crime that carries a possible sentence of more than a year  and subsequently be extradited back to US pursuant to Extradition Treaty Between the United States of America and Canada . However, the Government of the United States of America must promise those extradited will not receive the death penalty in accordance with the ruling of United States v. Burns from the Supreme Court of Canada. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Background The case revolved around two Canadian citizens Glen Sebastian Burns and Atif Ahmad Rafay, who were accused of murdering Rafay's family by the The Supreme Court of Canada ( French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian
Because the possibilities that deserters have been issued an arrest warrant back in the United States and pursuant to those two agreements above, they are liable for arrest in Canada unless they legalize their status. In Military terminology desertion is the Abandonment of a " Duty " or post without permission from one's Government or superior This can be done by pursuing a refugee claim which the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB) will hold a hearing and determine their claim. The Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB is an independent administrative Tribunal. If refused, they can appeal to the Federal Court, Federal Court of Appeal and finally, Supreme Court of Canada if leave is granted. The Federal Court is a Canadian trial court that hears cases arising under certain areas of federal law The Federal Court of Appeal is a Canadian appellate court that hears cases concerning federal matters arising from certain federal Acts The Supreme Court of Canada ( French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian
However, if the refugee claim is refused and subsequent appeals do not overturn the decision made by IRB, the claimant must leave Canada within 30 days under a removal order.  If the claimant does not leave Canada within 30 days or failed to confirm departure details with CBSA, it automatically becomes a deportation order, enforceable by any peace officer in Canada. The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA (Agence des services frontaliers du Canada - ASFC is the Canadian government agency responsible for Border guard 
On Dec. 6, 2007, the Canadian Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration adopted the following motion:
The Committee recommends that the government immediately implement a program to allow conscientious objectors and their immediate family members (partners and dependents), who have refused or left military service related to a war not sanctioned by the United Nations and do not have a criminal record, to apply for permanent resident status and remain in Canada; and that the government should immediately cease any removal or deportation actions that may have already commenced against such individuals. 
On June 3, 2008, the Parliament of Canada voted 137 to 110 in favor of the above recommendation to the government (see list of names: ). The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada is Canada 's legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. However, the next day, the Toronto Star printed the following:
But the motion is non-binding and the victory was bittersweet as the government is likely to ignore it. The Toronto Star is Canada 's highest-circulation newspaper though its print edition is distributed almost entirely within the province of Ontario. "We're worried that (Prime Minister Stephen) Harper might not follow the advice of a majority of the members of the House of Commons who voted today," NDP Leader Jack Layton told reporters yesterday. John Gilbert "Jack" Layton PC MP (born July 18, 1950) is a social democratic Canadian Politician "He has had a tendency to turn his back on the message of peace that so many Canadians would want to bring forward and the welcome that they would want to offer to those who have expressed this particular courage. " The motion – which passed 137-110 – comes about a week before 25-year-old Corey Glass is supposed to leave Canada voluntarily after the former national guardsman was rejected as a refugee and ordered out of the country. 
Mennonites in Canada were automatically exempt from any type of service during World War I by provisions of the Order in Council of 1873. The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496&ndash1561 though his teachings were a relatively When World War I broke out in 1914, all Dominions of the British Empire including Canada, were called upon by Great Britain to fight on An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in Commonwealth Realms. With pressure of public opinion, the Canadian government barred entry of additional Mennonite and Hutterite immigrants, rescinding the privileges of the Order in Council.  During World War II, Canadian conscientious objectors were given the options of noncombatant military service, serving in the medical or dental corps under military control or working in parks and on roads under civilian supervision. The military history of Canada during the Second World War began with a declaration of war on Germany on September Over 95% chose the latter and were placed in Alternative Service camps.  Initially the men worked on road building, forestry and firefighting projects. After May 1943, as the labour shortage developed within the nation and another Conscription Crisis burgeoned, men were shifted into agriculture, education and industry. The Conscription Crisis of 1944 was a political and military crisis following the introduction of forced military service in Canada during World War II The 10,700 Canadian objectors were mostly Mennonites (63%) and Dukhobors (20%). The Doukhobors or Doukhabors (Духоборы Dukhobory) earlier Dukhobortsy (Духоборцы are a Christian group of Russian 
Tsarist Russia allowed Russian Mennonites to run and maintain forestry service units in South Russia in lieu of their military obligation. The Russian Mennonites are a group of Mennonites descended from Dutch and mainly Germanic Prussian Anabaptists who established colonies in South The forestry service was a form of Alternative service offered to Russian Mennonites in lieu of military service in Russia from 1881 to 1918 The program was under church control from 1881 through 1918, reaching a peak of 7000 conscientious objectors during World War I. An additional 5000 Mennonites formed complete hospital units and transport wounded from the battlefield to Moscow and Ekaterinoslav hospitals. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетровськ Днепропетро́вск Dnepropetrovsk; formerly Yekaterinoslav, ru Екатериносла́въ is 
After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Leon Trotsky issued a decree allowing alternative service for religious objectors whose sincerity was determined upon examination. See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij  Vladimir Chertkov, a follower of Leo Tolstoy, chaired the United Council of Religious Fellowships and Groups, which successfully freed 8000 conscientious objectors from military service during the Russian Civil War. Vladimir Grigoryevich Chertkov (Владимир Григорьевич Чертков sometimes transcribed as Chertkoff or Tchertkoff) ( - November 9 Leo Tolstoy, or Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy ( –) (Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й, was a Russian Writer widely regarded The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed The law was not applied uniformly and hundreds of objectors were imprisoned and over 200 were executed. The United Council was forced to cease activity in December 1920, but alternative service was available under the New Economic Policy until it was abolished in 1936. For the Malaysian New Economic Policy see Malaysian New Economic Policy.  Unlike the earlier forestry and hospital service, later conscientious objectors were classified "enemies of the people" and their alternate service was performed in remote areas in a gulag-like environment in order to break their resistance and encourage enlistment. The Gulag was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union. 
After World War II, conscientious objectors in the Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic were typically assigned to construction units, in the absence of a fully civilian alternative to military service. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state 
In Czechoslovakia, those not willing to enter mandatory military service could avoid it by signing a contract for work lasting years in unattractive occupations, such as mining. Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Those who didn't sign were imprisoned. Both numbers were tiny. After the communist party lost its power in 1989, alternative civil service was established. The " Velvet Revolution " (sametová revoluce nežná revolúcia ( November 16 &ndash December 29 1989) refers to a non-violent As of 2006, both the Czech Republic and Slovakia have abolished conscription. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million
The country recognized the right not to fight in the 18th century following problems with attempting to force Quakers into military service. The Militia Ballot Act of 1757 allowed Quakers to be excluded from military service. It then ceased to be a major issue, since Britain's armed forces were generally all-volunteer. However, press gangs were used to beef up army and navy rolls on occasions from the sixteenth to the early nineteenth centuries. Impressment (colloquially " the Press " or " press-ganging " is the act of conscripting people to serve in the military or navy usually The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Pressed men did have the right of appeal, in the case of sailors, to the Admiralty. The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. The Royal Navy last took pressed men in the Napoleonic War. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions
A more general right to refuse military service was not introduced until during World War I, when Britain introduced conscription with the Military Service Act of March 1916. Tavistock Square is a public square in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden with a fine garden named after Tavistock in Devon Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the The Conscription Crisis of 1918 stemmed from a move by the Government of the United Kingdom to impose Conscription in Ireland, and contributed to pivotal World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All See also Recruitment to the British Army during World War I For the 1917 Canadian Act of the same name see Military Service Act (Canada. The Act allowed for objectors to be absolutely exempted, to perform alternative civilian service, or to serve as a non-combatant in the army, according to the extent to which they could convince a Military Service Tribunal of the quality of their objection. Around 16,000 men were recorded as conscientious objectors, with Quakers, traditionally pacifist, playing a large role: 4500 objectors went sent to do 'work of national importance' such as farming, 7000 were ordered non-combatant duties, but 6000 were forced into the army, and when they refused orders, they were sent to prison; thirty-five were taken to France and formally sentenced to death but immediately reprieved; conditions were made very hard for conscientious objector prisoners — ten died in prison, and around seventy died elsewhere as a result of their treatment. Many objectors accepted non-combat service, for example working in the dangerous role of stretcher-bearers. Conscientious objectors were disenfranchised for five years after the war. 
Objectors had to prove their right not to fight:
Britain's 1916 conscription legislation did not apply to Ireland, despite its then status as part of the British Empire; but see Conscription Crisis of 1918. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The Conscription Crisis of 1918 stemmed from a move by the Government of the United Kingdom to impose Conscription in Ireland, and contributed to pivotal British conscription in WWII did apply to Northern Ireland, but obviously not to the Republic of Ireland. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Nevertheless, many Irishmen volunteered to fight in both world wars. The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate The various parts of the British Empire and Commonwealth had their own rules: in general it is correct to say that all the major countries of the Empire participated, and some were, in proportion to their population, major participants. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
He goes to jail, as do others with a more conventionally religious view. This is described as one of the harsher tribunals, but within the range of actual events.
In World War II, following the National Service (Armed Forces) Act of 1939, there were nearly 60,000 registered Conscientious Objectors. The National Service (Armed Forces Act 1939 was enacted immediately by the Parliament of the United Kingdom on the day the United Kingdom declared war on Germany Testing by Conscientious Objection Tribunals resumed, this time chaired by a judge, but was much less harsh; if you were not a member of the Quakers or some similar pacifist church, it was generally enough to say that you objected to "warfare as a means of settling international disputes," a phrase from the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928. The Kellogg-Briand Pact, also known as the Pact of Paris, after the city where it was signed on August 27, 1928, was an international treaty "providing The tribunals could grant full exemption, exemption conditional on alternative service, exemption only from combatant duties, or dismiss the application. Of the 61,000 only 3,000 were given complete exemption and 18,000 were dismissed as false claimants. Of those directed to non-combatant military service almost 7000 were allocated to the Non-Combatant Corps, set up in mid-1940; its companies worked in clothing and food stores, in transport, or any military project not requiring the handling of "material of an aggressive nature". Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Around 450 NCC members worked in bomb disposal; other non-combatants worked in the medical corps. Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe Other acceptable occupations were farm work, mining, firefighting, ambulance service. A farm is an area of land including various structures devoted primarily to the practice of producing and managing food ( Produce, Grains, or Livestock Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Distinguish from a Firefight, which means a battle with firearms Emergency medical services (abbreviated to the initialism "EMS" in many countries are a branch of Emergency services dedicated to providing out-of-hospital About 5500 objectors were imprisoned, charged with offences relating to their unrecognized objection. A further 1000 were court-martialled by the armed forces and sent to military detention barracks or civil prisons.
Nevertheless, the social stigma attached to 'conshies' (as they were called) was considerable: regardless of the genuineness of their motives, cowardice was often imputed. Objectors were required to do work that was either war-related (eg bomb disposal, firefighting or ambulance service) or classified as 'useful' eg farm work or mining. Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe Distinguish from a Firefight, which means a battle with firearms Emergency medical services (abbreviated to the initialism "EMS" in many countries are a branch of Emergency services dedicated to providing out-of-hospital A farm is an area of land including various structures devoted primarily to the practice of producing and managing food ( Produce, Grains, or Livestock Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body
Britain retained conscription, with rights of conscientious objection, as National Service until 1960. "National Service" redirects here For national service in other countries see National service. The use of only volunteer soldiers was hoped to remove the need to consider conscientious objectors. Ever since the First World War, however, there have been volunteer members of the armed forces who have developed a conscientious objection to continuing in service; a procedure was devised for them in the Second World War, and, with adaptations, it continues to this day. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Finland introduced conscription in 1881, but its enforcement was suspended as part of Russification in 1903. Year 1881 ( MDCCCLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Russification (in Russian: русификация rusifikátsiya)is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily During the Finnish Civil War in 1918, conscription was reintroduced, and it was mandatory to all able-bodied Finnish males. The Finnish Civil War was a part of the national and social turmoil caused by World War I (1914&ndash1918 in Europe Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority In 1922, noncombatant military service was allowed, but those who refused to serve in the military were imprisoned. Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Only after the struggle of the pacifist Arndt Pekurinen was the first Finnish law of providing for a peacetime-only alternative to compulsory military service introduced in 1931, enabling a conscientious objector to opt for civilian service a. Arndt Juho Pekurinen ( August 29 1905 in Juva, Finland – November 5 1941 in Suomussalmi, Finland was a Civilian service is service to a government made as a Civilian, particularly such service as an option for Anti-militarists and Pacifists who object k. a non-military service (Finnish siviilipalvelus). A conscientious objector (CO is an individual who on religious moral or ethical grounds refuses to participate as a combatant in war or in some cases to take any role that would support The law was dubbed "Lex Pekurinen" after him. After the beginning of the Winter War, Pekurinen and other conscientious objectors were imprisoned immediately as they were considered dangerous to national security. The Winter War (Talvisota Советско-финляндская война - official Зимняя война - unofficial Vinterkriget began when the After the break of Continuation War, Pekurinen was sent to the front lines. The Continuation War (Jatkosota Fortsättningskriget Советско-финская война ( 25 June 1941 &ndash 19 September 1944) As he still refused to bear arms and dress in uniform, he was extra-judicially executed by an officer in 1941.
After WWII, the tour of duty for the conscientious objectors was often twice the length of shortest conscription, 16 months. The objectors had to prove their conviction, and should they fail to prove their conviction, they were forced to serve in the armed service. The period was shortened to 13 months (395 days) in 1987. At the same time, the Conviction Inspection Board was abolished. Any person liable for conscription (i. e. other than women, men living in demilitarized Åland and Jehovah's Witnesses as well as physically unfit men) can apply for civilian service at any time before or during their service, the application being automatically accepted. Females serving voluntarily in army can also apply to the civilian service, if they have served more than 45 days and are thereby not able to quit their military service without consequences anymore. In 2008, the service period was shortened to 12 months, matching the longest conscription term.
The persons who have fulfilled their civilian service during normal circumstances have, according to the legislation enacted in 2008, right to serve in non-military duties also during a crisis situation. However, in such a situation, the COs may be called up to serve in different duties pertaining to rescue authorities or other necessary work of non-military nature. The persons finding their conscientious objection to the military service only after a crisis has started must, however, prove their conviction to a special board. Before the new legislation, the right to conscientious objection was acknowledged only in peacetime. The changes to the service term and to the legal status of COs during a crisis situation were made as a response to the international human rights concerns. These were voiced by several international bodies (for example, the UN's Human Rights Committee), who are overseeing the implementation of human rights agreements, which had demanded Finland to take measures to improve its legislation concerning COs, since it had been found to be discriminatory. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled None of these organizations has yet raised concerns on the current legislation.
There are a small number of total objectors who refuse even civilian service, and are imprisoned for six months. This is not registered into the person's criminal record.
According to Article 4(3) of the German constitution (Grundgesetz): "No person shall be compelled against his conscience to render military service involving the use of arms. There was a high level of Conscientious objection in East Germany. Germany has Conscription ( Wehrpflicht) for male citizens stated in the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland is the Constitution of Germany. Details shall be regulated by a federal law. "
According to Article 12a, every adult male is obligated to military service called Wehrdienst. The draftee can apply for an alternative service called "Zivildienst" (civilian service), if he declares conscience reasons. Zivildienst ( German, translated verbatim to "Civilian Service" although "compulsory paid community service" is more contextually equivalent is the civilian The civil service may not last longer than military service. This rule has been applied since October 1, 2004. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Before that date the civilian service was longer than military service, because soldiers could later be called to military exercises (Wehrübungen). In wartime, civilian draftees are expected to replace those on active military duty in their civilian professions. According to the German constitution, no one may be forced into military service. The Wehrdienst is getting increasingly controversial, because only young men are getting drafted which some consider a violation of the third article of the constitution, that every person is equal before the law, but women are not affected by the Wehrdienst. However, the German constitution also states in Article 12a section 4 that no woman may be forced to serve in the armed forces. Therefore the different treatment of men and women actually has a constitutional basis.
Until 2004 conscription was mandatory to all able-bodied Italian males. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Those who were born in the last months of the year typically used to serve in the Navy, unless judged unable for ship service (in this case they could be sent back to Army or Air Force). Until 1972, objectors were considered as traitors and tried by a military tribunal. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation. Since 1972, objectors could choose an alternative civilian service, which was eight months longer than standard military service (15 months, then 12, as for Army and Air Force, 24 months, then 18, then 12 as for the Navy). Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Civilian service is service to a government made as a Civilian, particularly such service as an option for Anti-militarists and Pacifists who object Since such length was judged too punitive, an arrangement was made to make the civilian service as long as the military service. Since 2004, Italian males no longer need to object because military service has been turned into volunteer for both males and females.
Conscription was mandatory to all able-bodied Belgian males until 1994, when it was suspended. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Civilian service was possible since 1963. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Objectors could apply for the status of conscience objector. When granted, they did an alternative service with the civil service or with a socio-cultural organisation. The former would last 1. 5 times as long as the shortest military service, the latter twice as long.
After their service, objectors are not allowed to take jobs that require them to carry weapons, such as police jobs.
Since conscription was suspended in 1994 and military service is voluntary, the status of conscience objector can not be granted anymore in Belgium. Women could not get this status either.
The Spanish Constitution of 1978 acknowledged conscientious objectors. The Constitution of Spain is regarded as the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy.  The Spanish parliament established a longer service (Prestación Social Sustitutoria) as an alternative to the Army. In spite of this, a strong movement appeared that refused both services. The Red Cross was the only important organization employing objectors. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an International humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide who stated Because of this, the waiting lists for the PSS were long, especially in areas like Navarre, where pacifism, Basque nationalism and a low unemployment rate discouraged young males from the army. Basque nationalism is a movement with roots in the Carlism and the loss by the laws of 1839 and 1876 of the Ancien Régime relationship between the Basque provinces Thousands of insumisos (non-submittants) publicly refused the PSS, and hundreds were imprisoned. In addition a number of those in the military decided to refuse further duties. A number of people not liable for military service made declarations of self-incrimination, stating that they had encouraged insumisión. The government, fearing popular reaction, reduced the length of service and instead of sentencing to insumisos to prison declared them unfit for public service.
Fronting the decreasing birth rate and the popular opposition to the army, the Spanish government tried to modernize the model carried from the Franco era, professionalizing it. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid The new army tried to provide an education for civilian life and participated in peace operations in Bosnia. Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan
In spite of this, the number of professional recruits is not covering the expectations of the Ministry of Defence, and there are plans to recruit foreigners from Spanish America.
During the 1980s, hundreds of South African white males dodged the draft, refused the call-up or objected to conscription in the South African Defence Force. South African resistance to war has a long tradition and a history that includes conscientious objectors pacifists deserters and draft dodgers as well as those whose objections are The End Conscription Campaign was an anti- Apartheid organisation allied to the United Democratic Front (UDF and composed of Conscientious objectors and their supporters The South African Defence Force (SADF were the South African Armed forces from 1957 until 1994 Some simply deserted, or joined organisations such as the End Conscription Campaign, an anti-war movement banned in 1988, while others fled into exile and joined the Committee on South African War Resistance. The End Conscription Campaign was an anti- Apartheid organisation allied to the United Democratic Front (UDF and composed of Conscientious objectors and their supporters The Committee on South African War Resistance (COSAWR an organisation of exiled Conscientious objectors, pacifists anti-militarists and deserters from the SADF, Most lived in a state of internal exile, forced to go underground within the borders of the country until a moratorium on conscription was declared in 1993. Opposition to the Angolan War, "South Africa's Vietnam," was rife in English-speaking campuses, and later the war in the townships became the focus of these groupings. The South African Border War, also known as the Namibian War of Independence, refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West
The issue is highly controversial in Turkey. Turkey and Azerbaijan are the only two countries refusing to recognize conscientious objection and sustain their membership in the Council of Europe. The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 In January 2006, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found Turkey had violated article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (prohibition of degrading treatment) in a case dealing the conscientious objection of Osman Murat Ulke. The European Court of Human Rights ( ECtHR) (Cour européenne des droits de l’homme in Strasbourg was established under the European Convention on Human Rights Osman Murat Ulke is a Turkish Conscientious objector. He was imprisoned for two and one half years for refusal of military service and was the subject of a ruling  In 2005, Mehmet Tarhan was sentenced to four years in a military prison as a conscientious objector (he was unexpectedly released in March 2006). Mehmet Tarhan (born 1978) was imprisoned for refusing military service in Turkey as a Conscientious objector. Journalist Perihan Magden was tried by a Turkish court for supporting Tarhan and advocating conscientious objection as a human right; but later, she was acquitted. Perihan Mağden (born 1960 is a Turkish writer of prose and poetry and is a columnist for the newspaper Radikal.
Israel has a long history of individuals and groups refusing military service. Such acts are recorded since the state's foundation in 1948, but during the country's first decades involved mainly a few isolated individuals, usually of a pacifist persuasion, due to pervasive public feeling that the country was fighting for its survival and that the IDF was a "Defense Force" in fact as well as in name. Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Israel Defense Forces ( IDF) (צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit Some left-wingers, especially communists, refused to take part in the 1956 Sinai War, which they perceived as an Israeli alliance with a last effort by Britain and France to keep a colonial hold over Egypt , but this remained a small-scale, isolated phenomenon. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, (أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي Crise du canal de Suez מבצע קדש Kadesh The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. 
The view of the IDF as an army of defense came into serious question only following the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in 1967, when the army took up the job of keeping a sizable Palestinian population under Israeli rule by force, often involving what were perceived by a considerable number of Israelis as violations of human rights. The West Bank (الضفة الغربية, הגדה המערבית Hagadah Hamaaravit) also referred to in Israel as " Judea and Samaria The Gaza Strip (قطاع غزة, רצועת עזה Retzu'at 'Azza) is a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt on the south-west Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Moreover, a growing amount of the troops' time and energy was devoted to the safeguarding of an increasing number of settlements erected on Palestinian land acquired in ways which many in the Israeli society considered highly questionable. Israeli settlements are communities inhabited by Israelis in territory that was captured as a result of Jordanian attacks during the 1967 Six-Day War.
The invasion of Lebanon in 1982 was launched with the proclaimed goal of "creating a new order in the Middle East" and without a visible existential threat to Israel, precipitated a mass anti-war movement (comparable in many ways to the American movement against the Vietnam War) of which a major component was an organised movement by thousands of soldiers (especially reserve soldiers) refusing service in Lebanon. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia This movement was continued during the First Intifada, the Second Intifada and the Second Lebanon War of 2006, and has become a permanent feature of Israeli social and political life up to the present. The First Intifada (1987–1993 (also " Intifada " and "war of the stones" was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli Background See also Israel-Lebanon conflict The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO had engaged in cross-border attacks from Southern Lebanon Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
While some of the individuals and groups involved fit with the definition of conscientious objection common in other countries, the phenomenon of "selective refusal," soldiers who remain in the army but refuse particular orders or postings, especially to Lebanon or the Occupied Territories, seems more widespread in Israel than anywhere else. A longstanding debate continues, of which there is no definitive conclusion, on whether or not this constitutes conscientious objection in a strict sense or should be treated as a separate phenomenon.
Since the establishment of the Republic of Korea, thousands of young men, conscientious objectors, had no choice but to be imprisoned as criminals. Refusal to serve in the Israeli military includes both refusal to obey specific orders and refusal to serve in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF in any capacity due to pacifistic The Israeli peace camp is a self-described collection of movements which claim to strive for Peace with the Arab neighbours of Israel (including the Palestinians Conscription in Australia, or mandatory Military service also known as National Service, has a controversial history dating back to the first years of nationhood The Malaysian National Service, or Program Latihan Khidmat Negara (PLKN, is Malaysia 's compulsory military service program and Conscription into the Compulsory Military Training (CMT a form of Conscription, has been used in New Zealand during a number of historical periods National Service ( NS) is the name given to the compulsory Conscription in Singapore of all male Singaporean citizens and second-generation permanent The Republic of China (Taiwan has maintained a policy of Conscription for all qualified males of military age since 1949, primarily as a means South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː (On September 2007) the South Korea government announced a program to give conscientious objectors an opportunity to participate in alternative civilian service. The program stipulates three years of civilian service that is not connected with the military in any way. (As of October 2007), 803 Jehovah's Witnesses are in prison and 90 are on trial. 
As of 2005, conscientious objectors in several countries may serve as field paramedics in the army (although some do not consider this a genuine alternative, as they feel it merely helps to make war more humane instead of preventing it). Military service in the National Guard of the Republic of Cyprus is mandatory for males born of a Cypriot father members of the Greek Cypriot community Alternatively, they may serve without arms, although this, too, has its problems. In certain European countries such as Austria, Germany, Greece and Switzerland, there is the option of performing Civilian Service, subject to the review of a written application or after a hearing about the state of conscience (see below). Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. As of 2008 Greece (Hellenic Republic has mandatory Military service ( Conscription) of 12 months for men between the ages of 18 and 45 Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation In Greece, Civilian Service is twice as long as the corresponding military service and in Switzerland, the Civilian Service is one and one-half times longer. As of 2008 Greece (Hellenic Republic has mandatory Military service ( Conscription) of 12 months for men between the ages of 18 and 45 Civilian service is a Swiss institution created in 1996 as an alternative to military service. In 2005, the Swiss parliament considered whether willingness to serve one and a half times longer than an army recruit was sufficient proof of sincerity, citing that the cost of judging the state of conscience of a few thousand men per year was too great.
In the United States, military personnel who come to a conviction of conscientious objection during their tour of duty must appear in front of a panel of experts, which consists of psychiatrists, military chaplains and officers. In Switzerland, the panel consists entirely of civilians, and military personnel have no authority whatsoever. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation In Germany, objections to military service are filed in writing, and an oral hearing is scheduled only if the written testimonials have been unconvincing; in practice, due to the heavy workload—about half of all draftees in a given year file as conscientious objectors—the competent authority reviews written applications only summarily, and it denies the alternative of a civilian service only in cases of grave shortcomings or inconsistencies in the written testimonials. Commonly, once an objector is summoned to a hearing, he has to explain what experiences drove him to recognize a conflict concerning his conscience.
These are common questions from Swiss hearings.  By and large, these are asked in many other countries. They help to determine if the objector is politically motivated or if he is just too lazy to serve the country; or if he truly has a conflict stemming from his conscience. Arguments like "The army is senseless," "It is not just to wage wars," or opposition to involvement in a specific war (World War II, the Vietnam War, the Iraq War; a hypothetical war of West Germany against fellow Germans from the GDR during the Cold War) will hardly ever be accepted. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the He has only, and convincingly, to show that his conscience does not allow participation in an organisation which is intended to use violence.
In hearings about one's personal conflicts of conscience, certain subtleties may arise. One example from interrogations in Germany is about a plank of wood floating on the sea, and you, shipwrecked, need cling to it in order to save your life. Another person swims nearby and he also is in need of this plank. If you deny him the plank, you are, according to the interrogators ready to accept the death of a fellow human being, and therefore able to serve in the military. Otherwise, if you are willing to allow the other person use of the plank you are willing to die and therefore not credible.
In other examples, the interviewers would ask if one was ready to kill in self-defense or in the defense of a friend or family member or why one had not revoked their driver's license, for driving carries a risk of accidentally killing someone.
In Britain during World War I, there was an argument put forth by a conscientious objector of note. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All He asked the people who were part of the tribunal if they were Christian, when they all replied in the positive he then remarked, "Could you imagine Christ in khaki running out into no-mans land?" None of the panelists could, and the man was given total exemption due to 'religious beliefs'. Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " 
In various places, questions about such hypothetical situations have come into disuse because they do not explore the present-day state of the objector's conflict of conscience, but possible future actions which, with a great probability, will never take place. In the 1980s, these types of questions were abolished in Germany after the Federal Constitutional Court found them unconstitutional. The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht BVerfG) is a special Court established by the Basic Law for the Federal Republic
Similar hearings and questions about hypothetical situations were in use in Finland for most of the history of Finnish conscientious objection, from its introduction in the 1930s to the 1980s, when they were abolished. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Today, draftees have to specify whether they are objecting for religious or ethical reasons by marking the appropriate checkbox on a form, but hearings are no longer held. If conscripts turn into conscientious objectors during their service, the Defense Force will inquire of their reasons for internal research purposes, but the objectors are not required to answer unless they wish to do so. Usually, a conscientious objector will be released from the military within a few hours of making the claim.