A comprehensive school is a secondary school and State school for children from the age of 11 to at least 16 that does not select children on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude. Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational Institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling known as Secondary education, takes State school is an expression used in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom to distinguish schools provided by the government from privately The term is commonly used in relation to the United Kingdom, where comprehensive schools were introduced in the late 1960s to the early 1970s. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located It corresponds to the high school in the United States (ages 14 to 18). High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Some 90% of British pupils are educated at comprehensive schools.
Since a comprehensive school teaches a comprehensive range of subjects across the academic and vocational spectrum it is commonly understood that the school will need to be of a large size and to take children from a wide ability range.
Comprehensive schools are usually neighbourhood schools taking their students from a defined local catchment area. In Human geography: a catchment area is the area and population from which a city or individual service attracts visitors or customers In England and Wales, parents have an element of choice in choosing a secondary school and it is not uncommon, especially in towns and cities, for students to travel some distance to school.
Most schools use setting to group children by ability in individual subjects. Tracking (also called ability grouping or streaming) is the practice in Education, of placing students into different groups within a School There has been a recent trend to designate Comprehensive schools as specialising in particular areas e. g. technology.
All comprehensive schools take pupils from the age of 11 to at least 16. Some have a sixth form, entry to which is often on an open basis, with some pupils taking A levels which include subjects such as Maths, Physics, Chemistry and Further Maths. The sixth form, in the English, Welsh and Northern Irish education systems Commonwealth West Indian countries such as Barbados, Belize The A-level, short for Advanced Level, is a General Certificate of Education qualification in England, Northern Ireland and Wales, Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Further Mathematics is the title given to a number of advanced secondary Mathematics courses Others students follow vocational programmes in specified subjects which, whilst adhering to a subject specification and are rigorous, generally require less academic aptitude in order to obtain the qualification. These vocational subjects include Business Studies, Health and Social Care, ICT and the Performing Arts. Business studies is the name of an academic subject taught at higher level in Australia Ireland and the United Kingdom (at both GCSE and In the UK Health and Social Care is a broad term that relates to integrated services that are available from health and social care providers Information technology ( IT) as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA is "the study design development implementation support The performing arts are those forms of Art which differ from the Plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own Body, Face and presence
Before the Second World War, secondary education provision was both patchy and expensive. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including After the war secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland was provided free to at least the age of 14 and managed under the Tripartite System introduced by Conservative secretary of state for education Rab Butler. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of The Tripartite System, known colloquially as the grammar school system was the structure by which Secondary education was organised in England and Wales between the The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Richard Austen Butler Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, KG CH DL PC (9 December 1902&ndash8 Children took the eleven plus examination in their last year of primary education and were sent to secondary modern, secondary technical or grammar schools, depending on their perceived ability. In the United Kingdom the Eleven Plus or Transfer Test is an Examination administered to some students in their last year of primary education A Secondary Modern School is a type of Secondary school that existed in most of the United Kingdom from 1944 until the early 1970s under the Tripartite System A Secondary Technical School was a type of secondary school in the United Kingdom that existed in the mid-20th century under the Tripartite System of education A grammar school is one of several different types of School in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries In the event technical schools were never widely implemented, and for 20 years there was a virtual bipartite system, with fierce competition for the available grammar school places, which varied between 15% and 25% depending on location.
Controversy around the eleven plus exam combined with increasing dissatisfaction with the education offered by the secondary modern schools led to experiments with comprehensive schools from the early 1950s. In some low-population areas—such as the town of Settle—the creation of a tripartite structure was not physically viable and comprehensive schools had been gradually spreading across the country, from Anglesey to the West Riding. Settle is a small Market town within the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England.
These schools were an obvious alternative to the Tripartite System, and had already proven successful in Sweden and parts of the US. The Tripartite System, known colloquially as the grammar school system was the structure by which Secondary education was organised in England and Wales between the Political and administrative support for general introduction of comprehensive schools was strongest in London: London County Council (LCC) Education Officer Graham Savage, influenced by the US High School system, was a powerful advocate. London County Council (LCC was the principal local government body for the County of London, throughout its 1889-1965 existence and the first London-wide general municipal High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution
The first comprehensive school was Ysgol Gyfun Llangefni in Anglesey in 1954. Ysgol Gyfun Llangefni is the Comprehensive school in the west of Llangefni, Anglesey. History There are numerous Megalithic monuments and Menhirs present on Anglesey testifying to the presence of mankind in prehistory Other places that experimented with comprehensives included Coventry, Sheffield, Leicestershire, West Riding. Coventry ( is a city and Metropolitan borough in the County of West Midlands in England. Sheffield ( is a city and Metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England Leicestershire (ˈlɛstəʃə(r or ˈlɛstəʃɪə(r abbreviation Leics The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire, England.
In London, the LCC sought to build an entire system of equal-access secondary schools. The first purpose-built comprehensive in the country, Kidbrooke School in Greenwich, was opened in 1954 at a cost of £560,000. Kidbrooke School opened in 1954 as the first purpose-built Comprehensive school in Britain. Greenwich ( ˈɡrɛnɪtʃ GREN-itch /ˈɡrɛnɪdʒ/ GREN-idge or /ˈɡrɪnɪdʒ/ GRIN-idge is a district in south-east London, The first purpose-built comprehensive school in Wales was Sandfields Comprehensive School which opened in 1958. Sandfields is a mainly residential district of Port Talbot, Wales.
These early comprehensives modelled themselves firmly on the grammar school, with teachers in gowns and lessons in a very formal style. The opening of the Risinghill Comprehensive School in Islington in 1960 offered an alternative to this model. Islington is the central district of the London Borough of Islington. Embracing the progressive ideals of sixties education, the school abandoned corporal punishment and brought in a much more liberal attitude to discipline. Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of international social and political philosophies. Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain intended to Punish a person or change his/her behavior
The largest expansion of comprehensive schools resulted from a policy decision taken in 1965 by Anthony Crosland, secretary of state for education in the 1964-1970 Labour government, a fervent supporter of Comprehensive education. Charles Anthony Raven Crosland (29 August 1918 - 19 February 1977 was a member of the Labour Party and an important socialist theorist The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the The policy decision was implemented by Circular 10/65, an instruction to local education authorities to plan for conversion. Circular 10/65 was a document issued by the Department of Education and Science (DES requesting Local Education Authorities (LEAs in England and Wales to begin converting
In 1970 the Conservative Party re-entered government. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Margaret Thatcher became secretary of state for education and ended the compulsion on local authorities to convert. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 However, many local authorities were so far down the path that it would have been prohibitively expensive to attempt to reverse the process, and more comprehensive schools were established under Mrs Thatcher than any other education secretary. However, she went on to be a vociferous critic of comprehensive education. By 1975 the majority of local authorities in England and Wales had abandoned the 11 plus examination and moved to a comprehensive system.
Over that 10 year period many secondary modern schools and grammar schools were amalgamated to form large neighbourhood comprehensives, whilst a number of new schools were built to accommodate a growing school population. A Secondary Modern School is a type of Secondary school that existed in most of the United Kingdom from 1944 until the early 1970s under the Tripartite System A grammar school is one of several different types of School in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries By 1968 around 20% of children had been in comprehensives, and by the mid seventies, the system had been almost fully implemented. Nearly all new schools were built as comprehensives, and existing grammar and modern schools had either been closed (see for example the Liverpool Institute) or amalgamated with neighbouring secondary moderns to produce comprehensive schools. The Liverpool Institute High School for Boys was an all-boys Grammar school in the English port city of Liverpool.
Note: Cumbria and Telford have one selective school. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Telford ( ˈtɛlfɚd is a large new town in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England, Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Leicestershire (ˈlɛstəʃə(r or ˈlɛstəʃɪə(r abbreviation Leics Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Boundaries and divisions Cumbria is neighboured by Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the Lieutenancy Sheffield ( is a city and Metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Suffolk (ˈsʌfək is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in East Anglia, England. History The area that is now Derbyshire was first visited probably briefly by humans 200000 years ago during the Aveley Interglacial as evidenced by a Middle Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a County in England that forms part of the East of England region. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Newcastle upon Tyne ( (often shortened to Newcastle) is a city and Metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, England Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Wildlife Hampshire has wildlife typical of the island of Great Britain Lincoln (ˈlɪŋkən is a Cathedral city and County town of Lincolnshire, England. Hertfordshire (ˈhɑːtfədʃə(r, abbreviated Herts) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of History Cambridgeshire is noted as the site of some of the earliest known Neolithic permanent settlement in the United Kingdom, along with sites at Fengate Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire Retford is a Market town in Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands of England, located 31 miles from the County town of Nottingham Northamptonshire (or archaically the County of Northampton; abbreviated Northants Shropshire (ˈʃrɒpʃɪə/ /-ʃə alternatively known as Salop or abbreviated in print only Shrops, is a county in the Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. History See also History of Portsmouth There have been settlements in the area since before Roman times mostly being offshoots of Portchester, which Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Leicester (ˈlɛstə is the largest city and Unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and is the traditional Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common History Early history Present-day Peterborough is the latest in a series of settlements which have at one time or other benefited from its situation where the Nene Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Worcestershire (ˈwʊstəʃə abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a county in North West England. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Barrow-in-Furness is an industrial town and Seaport in Cumbria, England. Norfolk (ˈnɔrfək is a low-lying county in East Anglia, England, United Kingdom.
In 1976 the future Labour prime minister James Callaghan gave a speech at Oxford's Ruskin College. Leonard James Callaghan Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005 was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 Ruskin College is an independent educational institution in Oxford, England. He launched what became known as the 'great debate' on the education system. He went on to list the areas he felt needed closest scrutiny: the case for a core curriculum, the validity and use of informal teaching methods, the role of school inspection and the future of the examination system. Callaghan was not the first to raise these questions. A 'black paper' attacking liberal theories in education and poor standards in comprehensive schools had appeared in 1969, to be followed by a second in 1971. The authors were the academics Brian Cox and A E Dyson. They were supported by ex-headteachers, led by Dr. Rhodes Boyson, who later became a Conservative MP. Sir Rhodes Boyson (born 11 May 1925 in Lancashire) is an author and politician in the United Kingdom, and former Conservative The black papers called for a return to traditional teaching methods and an end to the comprehensive experiment.
Comprehensive schools remain the most common type of state secondary school in England, and the only type in Wales. Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational Institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling known as Secondary education, takes They account for around 90% of pupils, or 64% if one does not count schools with low-level selection. This figure varies by region.
Since the 1988 Education Reform Act, parents have a right to choose which school their child should go to. Government policy is currently promoting 'specialisation' where parents choose a secondary school appropriate for their child's interests and skills. Most initiatives focus on parental choice and information, implementing a pseudo-market incentive to encourage good schools. This logic has underpinned the controversial league tables of school performance. A league table is a Chart or list which compares sports teams institutions or companies by ranking them in order of ability or achievement
Both Conservative Party and Labour governments have been experimenting with alternatives to the original neighbourhood comprehensive since the mid 1980s. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the
Experiments have included:
Currently, following the advice of Sir Cyril Taylor - former businessman and Conservative politician and chairman of the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT) - in the mid 1990s, both major parties have backed the creation of a specialist schools, which focus on excellence in a particular subject and are theoretically allowed to select up to 10% of their intake. In England, City Technology Colleges (CTCs are independent schools which charge no fees as their recurrent costs are borne by the Department for Education and Skills The specialist schools programme is a UK government initiative which encourages Secondary schools in England to specialise in certain areas of the curriculum This policy consensus rejects the original logic of the neighbourhood comprehensive - that all children will go to their local school - and assume that parents will send their child to the school they feel they are most suited to.
These new school types mean that it is open to debate whether the comprehensive system is still in operation; but it could be argued that the new forms of school are best characterised as developments from, rather than challenges to, comprehensive education.
Supporters of comprehensive education argue that it is unacceptable on both moral and practical grounds to select or reject children on the basis of their academic ability. They also argue that comprehensive schools in the UK have allowed millions of children to gain access to further and higher education after the age of 16 years, and that the previous selective system relegated children who failed the eleven plus examination to a second class and inferior education and therefore worse employment prospects. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In the United Kingdom the Eleven Plus or Transfer Test is an Examination administered to some students in their last year of primary education
Critics of comprehensive schools argue that the reality has been a levelling down of provision and a denial of opportunity to able children from disadvantaged backgrounds, who might once have expected to pass the eleven plus exam and have the advantage of a grammar school education. A grammar school is one of several different types of School in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries The most straightforward way for parents to ensure that their children attend what is perceived to be a "good" school, is to purchase a house within the catchment area of that school. This has led to selection by financial means of parents rather than their children's ability at passing exams.
During the late 1960s there was heated debate about the merits of streaming pupils. In grammar schools pupils were taught in different classes according to their perceived ability. A grammar school is one of several different types of School in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries At first the comprehensives copied this structure, but the failings of streaming, principally that it failed to reflect the spread of abilities in different subjects, led to experiments with other methods. One controversial method, mixed ability teaching, was widely adopted. Over time however it was supplanted in many schools by 'setting', where children are grouped by ability in different subjects, allowing the possibility of being in the 'top' set for mathematics, but the 'bottom set' for history.
Scotland has a very different educational system from England though also based on comprehensive education. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It has different ages of transfer, different examinations and a different philosophy of choice and provision. (See Education in Scotland for detail. Scotland has a long history of universal provision of Public education, and the Scottish education system is distinctly different from other parts of the United ) All publicly funded primary and secondary schools are comprehensive. The Scottish Government has rejected plans for specialist schools as of 2005. The Scottish Government (SG ( Scottish Gaelic: Riaghaltas na h-Alba) is the executive arm of the government of Scotland. The specialist schools programme is a UK government initiative which encourages Secondary schools in England to specialise in certain areas of the curriculum
These schools were introduced into the Republic of Ireland in 1966 by an initiative by Patrick Hillery, Minister for Education, to give a broader range of education compared to that of the vocational school system which was then the only system of schools completely controlled by the state. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Patrick John "Paddy" Hillery (Pádraig Seán Ó hIrighile 2 May 1923 &ndash 12 April 2008 was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician and the sixth President of Ireland The Minister for Education and Science (An Aire Oideachais agus Eolaíochta is the senior minister at the Department of Education and Science in the Government ATTENTION *** This article is not "Vocational education in the United States" Until this time education in Ireland was largely dominated by religious persuasion, and in particular the voluntary secondary school system was a particular realisation of this. A voluntary secondary school (alternatively secondary school) in Ireland is a type of Secondary education school that is privately owned and managed The comprehensive school system is still relatively small and to an extent has been superseded by the community school concept. For the article on The Community School in Sun Valley Idaho, see Community School (Idaho.
In Ireland comprehensive schools were an earlier model of State schools introduced in the late 1960s and largely replaced by the secular community model of the 1970s. The comprehensive model generally incorporated older schools which were under Roman Catholic or Protestant ownership and the various denominations continued, and continue, to manage the school as patrons or trustees. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The State owns the school property, but it is vested in the trustees in perpetuity. The model was adopted to make State schools more acceptable to a largely conservative society of the time. The last proposed comprehensive school in Ireland was Gonzaga College SJ in Dublin. However late in the negotiations the Department of Education declined to extend this model to the Society of Jesus and the proposal was dropped. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order
The introduction of community school model in the 1970s controversially removed the denominational basis of the schools, though religious interests were invited to be represented on the Boards of Management. Community schools are divided into two models, the community school vested in the Minister for Education and Science, and the community college vested in the local Vocational Education Committee. The Minister for Education and Science (An Aire Oideachais agus Eolaíochta is the senior minister at the Department of Education and Science in the Government A Vocational Education Committee ( VEC) (Coiste Gairm Oideachais is a statutory local education body in the Republic of Ireland that administers some secondary Community colleges tended to be amalgamations of unviable local schools under the umbrella of a new community school model, whereas community colleges have tended to be entirely new foundations.
Sweden had used mixed-ability schools for some years before they were introduced into England and Wales, and was chosen as one of the models.
Finland has used comprehensive schools since 1970s.
Germany has a comprehensive school known as the Gesamtschule. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. This can be attended as an alternative to the three-school system. (See Education in Germany. Responsibility for German education system lies primarily with the states while the federal government only has a minor role )