The oxidation state of oxygen is −2 in almost all known compounds of oxygen. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of Oxidation of an Atom in a Chemical compound. Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the The oxidation state −1 is found in a few compounds such as peroxides. A peroxide is a compound containing an Oxygen -oxygen single bond. Compounds containing oxygen in other oxidation states are very uncommon: −1/2 (superoxides), −1/3 (ozonides), 0 (elemental, hypofluorous acid), +1/2 (dioxygenyl), +1 (dioxygen difluoride), and +2 (oxygen difluoride). Superoxide is the Anion O2&minus It is important as the product of the one-electron reduction of Dioxygen, which occurs widely in nature Ozonide is an unstable reactive polyatomic Anion O3&minus derived from Ozone, or an organic compound similar to Organic peroxide Hypofluorous acid is the Chemical compound with the formula HOF The dioxygenyl Ion, O2+ is a rarely-encountered Oxycation in which both Oxygen Atoms have an Oxidation state Dioxygen difluoride is a compound with the formula O2F2 This yellow compound is a strong oxidant and decomposes into OF2 and oxygen Oxygen difluoride is the Chemical compound with the formula OF2
Oxygen forms compounds with almost all of the other known elements, including some of the rarest: technetium (TcO4−), promethium (Pm2O3) and neptunium (NpO2); and also with some of the least reactive elements such as xenon (XeO3), gold (Au2O3) and platinum (PtO2). Technetium (tɛkˈniːʃɪəm is the lightest Chemical element with no Stable isotope. The pertechnetate ( technetate(VII) ion is an Oxoanion with the chemical formula TcO4&minus Promethium (prəˈmiːθiəm/ /proʊˈmiːθiəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Pm and Atomic number 61 Promethium(III oxide is a Promethium Compound with the formula Pm2O3 Neptunium (nɛpˈtjuːniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Np and Atomic number 93 Xenon (ˈzɛnɒn or) is a Chemical element represented by the symbol Xe. Xenon trioxide is an unstable compound of Xenon in its +6 Oxidation state. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Gold(III oxide (Au2O3 is the stablest oxide of gold It is a red-brown thermally unstable solid that decomposes at 160 °C Platinum (ˈplætɪnəm is a Chemical element with the Atomic symbol Pt and an Atomic number of 78 Synthetic elements that have known oxides include plutonium (PuO2), americium (AmO2), curium (CuO2), berkelium (BkO3), californium (Cf2O3) and einsteinium (Es2O3). In chemistry the Chemical elements labeled as synthetic are too unstable to be found naturally on Earth. Plutonium(IV oxide is the Chemical compound with the formula PuO2 Americium (ˌæməˈrɪsiəm is a Synthetic element that has the symbol Am and Atomic number 95 This article is about the chemical element Curium for the ancient city also called Curium (located in Cyprus see Kourion Curium (ˈkjuːriəm Bk redirects here For other uses of the abbreviation see BK (disambiguation. Californium (ˌkælɪˈforniəm is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Cf and Atomic number 98 Einsteinium (aɪnˈstaɪniəm is a Metallic Synthetic element. The few elements that oxygen will not react with in typical conditions are noble gases — helium, neon, argon and krypton. History Noble gas is translated from the German noun de ''Edelgas'' first used in 1898 by Hugo Erdmann to indicate their extremely low level of reactivity Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical Neon (ˈniːɒn is the Chemical element that has the symbol Ne and Atomic number 10 This article pertains to the chemical element For other uses see Argon (disambiguation. Krypton (ˈkrɪptən or /ˈkrɪptɒn/ from kryptos "hidden" is a Chemical element with the symbol Kr and Atomic number 36 
Water (H2O) is the oxide of hydrogen and the most familiar oxygen compound. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. An oxide is a Chemical compound containing at least one Oxygen atom as well as at least one other element Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Its bulk properties partly result from the interaction of its component atoms, oxygen and hydrogen, with atoms of nearby water molecules. Hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to oxygen in a water molecule but also have an additional attraction (about 23. 3 kJ mol−1 per hydrogen atom) to an adjacent oxygen atom in a separate molecule.  These hydrogen bonds between water molecules hold them approximately 15% closer than what would be expected in a simple liquid with just Van der Waals forces. A hydrogen bond results from a Dipole-dipole force between an Electronegative atom and a Hydrogen atom bonded to Nitrogen, Oxygen The Van der Waals equation is an Equation of state that can be derived from a special form of the potential between a pair of molecules (hard-sphere repulsion 
Due to its electronegativity, oxygen forms chemical bonds with almost all other free elements at elevated temperatures to give corresponding oxides. Altogether there are sixteen known Iron Oxides and oxyhydroxides Rust is a general term for a series of Iron oxides, usually red oxides formed by the reaction of Iron with Oxygen in the presence of water or air " Electronegativity " is the opposite of " Electropositivity," which describes an element's ability to donate electrons A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between Atoms and Molecules and which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic An oxide is a Chemical compound containing at least one Oxygen atom as well as at least one other element However, some elements, such as iron which oxidises to iron oxide, or rust, Fe2O3, readily oxidise at standard conditions for temperature and pressure (STP). Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Altogether there are sixteen known Iron Oxides and oxyhydroxides In Physical sciences standard conditions for temperature and pressure are Standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to allow comparisons to be made The surface of metals like aluminium and titanium are oxidized in the presence of air and become coated with a thin film of oxide that passivates the metal and slows further corrosion. WikipediaNaming Titanium (taɪˈteɪniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Ti and Atomic number 22 Passivation is the process of making a material "passive" in relation to another material prior to using the materials together Corrosion means the breaking down of essential properties in a material due to Chemical reactions with its surroundings  So-called noble metals, such as gold and platinum, resist direct chemical combination with oxygen, and substances like gold(III) oxide (Au2O3) must be formed by an indirect route. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Platinum (ˈplætɪnəm is a Chemical element with the Atomic symbol Pt and an Atomic number of 78 Gold(III oxide (Au2O3 is the stablest oxide of gold It is a red-brown thermally unstable solid that decomposes at 160 °C
The alkali metals and alkali earth metals all react spontaneously with oxygen when exposed to dry air to form oxides, and form hydroxides in the presence of oxygen and water. Trends The alkali metals show a number of trends when moving down the group - for instance decreasing electronegativity increasing reactivity and decreasing melting and boiling Biological occurrences Beryllium's low aqueous solubility means it is rarely available to biological systems it has no known role in living organisms and when encountered As a result, none of these elements is found in nature as a free metal. Caesium is so reactive with oxygen that it is used as a getter in vacuum tubes. Caesium or cesium (ˈsiːziəm is the Chemical element with the symbol Cs and Atomic number 55 Getters are reactive materials used for removing traces of gas from vacuum systems This article is about the electronic device not an evacuated pipe used for experiments in Free-fall. Although solid magnesium reacts slowly with oxygen at STP, it is capable of burning in air, generating very high temperatures, and its metal powder may form explosive mixtures with air.
Oxygen is present as compounds in the atmosphere in trace quantities in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any Binary compound of Oxygen and Nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds Nitric The earth's crustal rock is composed in large part of oxides of silicon (silica SiO2, found in granite and sand), aluminium (aluminium oxide Al2O3, in bauxite and corundum), iron (iron (III) oxide Fe2O3, in hematite and rust) and other oxides of metals. In Geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere Silicon (ˈsɪlɪkən or /ˈsɪlɪkɒn/ silicium is the Chemical element that has the symbol Si and Atomic number 14 The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. Sand is a naturally occurring Granular material composed of finely divided rock and Mineral particles WikipediaNaming Bauxite is the most important Aluminium Ore. It consists largely of the minerals Gibbsite Al(OH3 Boehmite γ-AlO(OH and Corundum (from Tamil kurundam குருந்தம் or kuruvindam குருவிந்தம் is a Crystalline form of Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Iron(III oxide —also known as ferric oxide, Hematite, red iron oxide, synthetic maghemite, colcothar, or simply Rust —is Hematite, also spelt hæmatite, is the Mineral form of Iron(III oxide (Fe2O3 one of several Iron oxides Rust is a general term for a series of Iron oxides, usually red oxides formed by the reaction of Iron with Oxygen in the presence of water or air The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across
The rest of the Earth's crust is formed also of oxygen compounds, most importantly calcium carbonate (in limestone) and silicates (in feldspars). Quartz (from German) is the most abundant Mineral in the Earth 's Continental crust (although Feldspar is more common in The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide Calcium carbonate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula Ca[[Carbon C]] O 3 Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 For the Artificial intelligence Androids of the 1990s Science fiction series Space Above and Beyond, see Silicate (AI Feldspar is the name of a group of rock-forming Minerals which make up as much as 60% of the Earth 's crust. Water- soluble silicates in the form of Na4SiO4, Na2SiO3, and Na2Si2O5 are used as detergents and adhesives. Solubility is the characteristic Physical property referring to the ability of a given substance the Solute, to dissolve in a Solvent. A detergent (as a noun is a material intended to assist Cleaning. Glue or adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together 
Peroxides retain some of oxygen's original molecular structure(−O-O−). A peroxide is a compound containing an Oxygen -oxygen single bond. White or light yellow sodium peroxide (Na2O2) is formed when metallic sodium (Na) is burned in oxygen. Sodium peroxide, Na2O2 is the normal product when sodium is burned Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22 Each oxygen atom in its peroxide ion may have a full octet of 4 pairs of electrons. An ion is an Atom or Molecule which has lost or gained one or more Valence electrons giving it a positive or negative electrical charge The octet rule is a simple chemical Rule of thumb that states that Atoms tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight Electrons in The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J  Superoxides are a class of compounds that are very similar to peroxides, but with just one unpaired electron for each pair of oxygen atoms (O2−). Superoxide is the Anion O2&minus It is important as the product of the one-electron reduction of Dioxygen, which occurs widely in nature  These compounds form by oxidation of alkali metals with larger ionic radii (K, Rb, Cs). For example, potassium superoxide ( KO2) is an orange-yellow solid formed when potassium (K) reacts with oxygen. Potassium superoxide is the Chemical compound with the formula KO2 Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39 Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be produced by passing a volume of 96% to 98% hydrogen and 2 to 4% oxygen through an electric discharge. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution slightly more Viscous than water Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1  A more commercially-viable method is to allow autoxidation of an organic intermediate, 2-ethylanthrahydroquinone dissolved in an organic solvent, to oxidize to H2O2 and 2-ethylanthraquinone. Anthraquinone ( 910-dioxoanthracene) is an aromatic Organic compound.  The 2-ethylanthraquinone is then reduced and recycled back into the process.
When dissolved in water, many metallic oxides form alkaline solutions, while many oxides of nonmetals form acidic solutions. In Chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي القالي) is a basic, ionic salt of an Alkali metal In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are For example, sodium oxide in solution forms the strong base sodium hydroxide, while phosphorus pentoxide in solution forms phosphoric acid. Sodium oxide is a Chemical compound with the formula Na 2 O. It is used in Ceramics and Glasses Treatment with water Sodium hydroxide ( Na[[hydroxide OH]]) also known as Lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly according to IUPAC nomenclature Phosphorus pentoxide is a Chemical compound with formula P 2 O 5 Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V acid, is a mineral (inorganic acid having the Chemical formula 
Oxygenated anions such as chlorates (ClO3−),perchlorates (ClO4−), chromates (CrO42−), dichromates (Cr2O72−), permanganates (MnO4−), and nitrates (NO3−) are strong oxidizing agents. An ion is an Atom or Molecule which has lost or gained one or more Valence electrons giving it a positive or negative electrical charge The chlorate anion has the formula ClO3− In this case the Chlorine atom is in the +5 Oxidation state. Perchlorates are the salts derived from Perchloric acid ( H[[chlorine Cl]] O4) Chromates and dichromates are Salts of Chromic acid and dichromic acid respectively Chromates and dichromates are Salts of Chromic acid and dichromic acid respectively In Inorganic chemistry, a nitrate is a salt of Nitric acid with an Ion composed of one Nitrogen and three Oxygen atoms Oxygen forms heteropoly acids and polyoxometalate ions with tungsten, molybdenum and some other transition metals, such as phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) and octadecamolybdophosphoric acid (H6P2Mo18O62). A heteropoly acid is a class of Acid made up of a particular combination of Hydrogen and Oxygen with certain Metals and Non-metals The term polyoxometalate (abbreviated POM) is applied to an extremely large group of generally anionic clusters with frameworks built from Transition metal Oxo Tungsten (ˈtʌŋstən also known as wolfram (/ˈwʊlfrəm/ is a Chemical element that has the symbol W and Atomic number 74 Molybdenum (məˈlɪbdənəm from the Greek word for the metal " Lead " is a Group 6 Chemical element with the symbol Mo In Chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings It commonly refers to any element in Phosphotungstic acid ( PTA) tungstophosphoric acid ( TPA) is a Heteropoly acid with the chemical formula 3 1240
One unexpected oxygen compound is dioxygen hexafluoroplatinate, O2+PtF6−, discovered in studying the properties of platinum hexafluoride (PtF6). The dioxygenyl Ion, O2+ is a rarely-encountered Oxycation in which both Oxygen Atoms have an Oxidation state Platinum hexafluoride is the Chemical compound with the formula Pt[[Fluorine F6]]  A change in color when this compound was exposed to atmospheric air suggested that dioxygen was being oxidized (in turn the difficulty of oxidizing oxygen led to the hypothesis that xenon might be oxidized by PtF6, resulting in discovery of the first xenon compound xenon hexafluoroplatinate Xe+PtF6−). Xenon (ˈzɛnɒn or) is a Chemical element represented by the symbol Xe. Xenon hexafluoroplatinate is the description of the product obtained from the combination of Platinum hexafluoride and Xenon in an experiment that proved the chemical The cations of oxygen are formed only in the presence of stronger oxidants than oxygen, which limits them to the action of fluorine and certain fluorine compounds. Simple oxygen fluorides are known. An oxygen fluoride is a compound containing only the Chemical elements Oxygen and Fluorine. 
Among the most important classes of organic compounds that contain oxygen are (where "R" is an organic group): alcohols (R-OH); ethers (R-O-R); ketones (R-CO-R); aldehydes (R-CO-H); carboxylic acids (R-COOH); esters (R-COO-R); acid anhydrides (R-CO-O-CO-R); amides (R-C(O)-NR2). In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon Ether is a class of Organic compounds which contain an ether group — an Oxygen Atom connected to two (substituted Alkyl A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the Functional group characterized by a Carbonyl group (O=C linked to two other Carbon atoms or An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a terminal Carbonyl group. Carboxylic acids are Organic acids characterized by the presence of a Carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=OOH usually written -COOH or -CO2H Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least An acid anhydride is an Organic compound that has two Acyl groups bound to the same Oxygen atom In Chemistry, an amide is one of three kinds of Compounds (sometimes called acid amide the organic Functional group characterized There are many important organic solvents that contain oxygen, among which: acetone, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, furan, THF, diethyl ether, dioxane, ethylacetate, DMF, DMSO, acetic acid, formic acid. A solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid liquid or gaseous Solute, resulting in a Solution. Acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is a colorless mobile flammable Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol, iso, isopro, Rubbing alcohol, or the abbreviation IPA) is a common name for Furan, also known as furane and furfuran, is a heterocyclic Organic compound. "THF" redirects here For other uses see THF (disambiguation. Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear colorless and highly Flammable liquid with a low Boiling point and a Ethyl acetate ( systematically, ethyl ethanoate commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA is the Organic compound with the formula CH3COOCH2CH3 Dimethylformamide is the Organic compound with the formula ( CH3)2NC(OH Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO is the Chemical compound with the formula (CH32SO Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound, giving Vinegar its sour taste Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest Carboxylic acid. Acetone ((CH3)2CO) and phenol (C6H5OH) are used as feeder materials in the synthesis of many different substances. Acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is a colorless mobile flammable Phenol, is a toxic colourless Crystalline Solid with a sweet tarry odor commonly referred to as a "hospital smell" Other important organic compounds that contain oxygen are: glycerol, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, citric acid, acetic anhydride, acetamide, etc. Formaldehyde is a Chemical compound with the formula H2CO It is the simplest Aldehyde —an organic compound containing a terminal Carbonyl Glutaraldehyde is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor used to sterilize medical and dental equipment Citric acid is a weak organic Acid. It is a natural Preservative and is also used to add an acidic or sour taste to foods and Soft drinks Acetic anhydride is the Chemical compound with the formula (CH3CO2O Acetamide (or acetic acid amide or ethanamide) CH3CONH2 the Amide of Acetic acid, is a white crystalline solid in Epoxides are ethers in which the oxygen atom is part of a ring of three atoms. An epoxide is a cyclic Ether with only three ring atoms This ring approximately is an Equilateral triangle, i Ether is a class of Organic compounds which contain an ether group — an Oxygen Atom connected to two (substituted Alkyl
Oxygen reacts spontaneously with many organic compounds at or below room temperature in a process called autoxidation. Organic chemistry is a discipline within Chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure properties composition reactions, and preparation Autoxidation is any Oxidation that occurs in open air or in presence of Oxygen and/or UV radiation and forms Peroxides and Hydroperoxides  Alkaline solutions of pyrogallol, benzene-1,2,3-triol absorb oxygen from the air, and are used in the determination of the atmospheric concentration of oxygen. Pyrogallol or benzene-123-triol is a white crystalline powder and a powerful reducing agent Most of the organic compounds that contain oxygen are not made by direct action of oxygen. An organic compound is any member of a large class of Chemical compounds whose Molecules contain Carbon. Organic compounds important in industry and commerce are made by direct oxidation of a precursor include:
The element is found in almost all biomolecules that are important to, or generated by, life. Antifreeze is a Cryoprotectant used in Internal combustion engines and for many other heat transfer applications such as electronics cooling and Chillers Ethylene glycol ( monoethylene glycol ( MEG) 12-ethanediol, IUPAC name: ethane-12-diol) is an Alcohol with two -OH Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Catalysis is the process in which the rate of a Chemical reaction is increased by means of a Chemical substance known as a catalyst Peracetic acid ( peroxyacetic acid, or PAA) is a Chemical in the Organic peroxide family In Chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a Thermosetting Epoxide Polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks when mixed with a Acetaldehyde, sometimes known as ethanal, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C[[Hydrogen H]]3CH O or MeCHO The molecular mass (abbreviated m of a substance, more commonly referred to as molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the Mass of one Adenosine-5'-triphosphate ( ATP) is a multifunctional Nucleotide that is most important as a " molecular currency" of intracellular Energy A biomolecule is any organic Molecule that is produced by living Organisms including large Polymeric molecules such as Proteins Only a few common complex biomolecules, such as squalene and the carotenes, contain no oxygen. Squalene is a natural Organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from Shark liver oil, though there are botanic sources as well including The term carotene is used for several related substances having the formula C40H56 Of the organic compounds with biological relevance, carbohydrates contain the largest proportion by mass of oxygen (about 50%). Carbohydrates (from ' Hydrates of Carbon ' or saccharides ( Greek σάκχαρον meaning " Sugar " are the most All fats, fatty acids, amino acids, and proteins contain oxygen (due to the presence of carbonyl groups in these acids and their ester residues). Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water In Chemistry, especially Biochemistry, a fatty acid is a Carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched Aliphatic tail ( chain) which In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl In Organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a Functional group composed of a Carbon Atom double-bonded to an Oxygen Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least Furthermore, seven of the amino acids which are incorporated into proteins, have oxygen incorporated into their side-chains, as well. Oxygen also occurs in phosphate (PO43−) groups in the biologically important energy-carrying molecules ATP and ADP, in the backbone and the purines (except adenine) and pyrimidines of RNA and DNA, and in bones as calcium phosphate and hydroxylapatite. A phosphate, an Inorganic chemical, is a salt of Phosphoric acid. Adenosine-5'-triphosphate ( ATP) is a multifunctional Nucleotide that is most important as a " molecular currency" of intracellular Energy Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a Nucleotide. It is an Ester of Pyrophosphoric acid with the Nucleoside Adenosine Purine ( 1) is a heterocyclic Aromatic Organic compound, consisting of a Pyrimidine ring fused to an Imidazole ring Adenine is a Purine with a variety of roles in Biochemistry including Cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich Adenosine Pyrimidine is a Heterocyclic Aromatic Organic compound similar to Benzene and Pyridine, containing two Nitrogen Atoms Ribonucleic acid ( RNA) is a Nucleic acid that consists of a long chain of Nucleotide units Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known Bones are rigid organs that form part of the Endoskeleton of Vertebrates They function to move support and protect the various organs of the body produce Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of Minerals containing Calcium Ions (Ca2+ together with orthophosphates (PO43- Hydroxylapatite, also called hydroxyapatite, is a Mineral. It is a naturally occurring form of calcium Apatite with the formula Ca5(PO43(OH