Commuting is the process of travelling between one's place of residence and regular place of work. is a Train station located in Shinjuku and Shibuya wards in Tokyo, Japan. The of East Japan Railway Company (JR East is one of Tokyo 's busiest and most important Commuter rail lines Travel is the change in location of people on a trip through the means of Transport from one location to another Students who are enrolled at a college or university but who live off-campus are also typically referred to as commuters; institutions that have few dormitories are called commuter schools in the United States. College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Dormitory typically refers in the United States to residence halls which are sleeping quarters or entire buildings primarily providing sleeping and residential quarters for The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Prior to the 19th century most workers lived less than an hour's walking distance from their workplace, whereas modern commuting may refer to people travelling, usually daily, to workplaces beyond their own towns, cities and villages. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar
Commuting is largely a phenomenon of industrialised societies, where access to modern modes of travel such as automobile, trains, buses and bicycles has enabled people to live far from their workplace, sometimes by choice, sometimes when forced to do so by the high cost of housing in city centres. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Mode of transport (or means of transport or transport mode or transport modality or form of transport) is a general term for the different A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another The bicycle, cycle, or bike is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind
The advent of modern commuting has had a large impact on life. It has allowed cities to expand to sizes which were previously not practical, and it has led to the proliferation of suburbs. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California.
Many large cities or conurbations are surrounded by commuter belts, also known as metropolitan areas, where people who work in the city live. A conurbation is an Urban area or Agglomeration comprising a number of Cities, large Towns and larger urban areas that through Population A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central The inner city is the central area of a major city or metropolis These regions are often called commuter towns, dormitory towns, or bedroom communities. A commuter town is an urban community that is primarily residential from which most of the Workforce commute out to earn their livelihood
As urban sprawl pushes farther and farther away from central business districts, new businesses can appear in outlying cities, leading to the existence of the reverse commuter who lives in a core city but works in the suburbs, and to a type of secondary commuter who lives in a more distant exurb and works in the outlying city or industrial suburb. Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is the spreading of a city and its Suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area A central business district ( CBD) is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city Edge city is an American term for a relatively new concentration of business shopping and entertainment outside a traditional Urban area in what had recently been A reverse commute is a Round trip, regularly taken from a metropolitan area to a Suburban one in the morning and returning in the evening A commuter town is an urban community that is primarily residential from which most of the Workforce commute out to earn their livelihood
Because most commuters are travelling at the same time of day, commuting gives rise to the morning and evening "rush hours", with congestion on roads and public transport systems not designed or maintained well enough to cope with today's peak demands.
Cars with a single occupant use fuel and roads less efficiently per person than shared cars or public transport. Hence, commuting by car is a major contributing factor to traffic congestion and air pollution. Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort In response, some governments and employers have introduced employee travel reduction programs that encourage such alternatives as carpooling and telecommuting. Carpooling (also known as car-sharing, ride-sharing, lift-sharing) is the shared use of a car by the driver and one or more passengers usually Telecommuting, e-commuting, e-work, telework, working at home (WAH, or working from home (WFH is a work arrangement in
The word 'commuter' was originally used for travellers paying a reduced or 'commuted' fare for an advance-purchase rail season ticket valid for a fixed number of days, weeks, or months. Such tickets usually allow the traveller to repeat the same journey as often as they like during the period of validity: usually, the longer the period, the cheaper the cost per day.