Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more powerful broadcast groups. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. The term has somewhat different meanings in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and Australia. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. In the UK, the idea for originating community radio came in part from the situation of many illegal pirate radio stations having been established by the influx of Afro-Caribbean immigrants in cities such as London, Birmingham, Bristol, and Manchester in the 1970s. The term pirate radio usually refers to illegal or unregulated radio transmissions London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. Therefore, "community radio" remains synonymous with "pirate radio" for many people there, but despite the intentions being similar, the results are vastly different. In America, community radio is more commonly non-profit and non-commercial, often using licensed class D FM band transmitters, although pirate radio outlets have been operated in many places. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage A non-commercial enterprise is work that values other considerations above and beyond that of making a profit This is a list of broadcast station classes applicable in much of North America under international agreements between the United States, Canada and In most of the world the FM broadcast band, used for Broadcasting FM Radio stations goes from 87 Canadian and Australian community stations operate somewhat similarly to their American counterparts. Pirate radio is virtually unknown in Australia because of the strictly controlled allocation of broadcasting frequencies, and the likely application of severe, legislated penalties, including jail, for offenders.
Modern-day community radio stations often serve their listeners by offering a variety of music selections that are not necessarily catered for by larger commercial radio stations. Community radio outlets may also carry news and information programming geared toward the local area, particularly immigrant or minority groups that are poorly served by other major media outlets. News is any new information or information on Current events which is presented by print, broadcast, Internet, or Word of mouth Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term Unfortunately, when these broadcasters are illegal pirate radio outlets, they sometimes refuse to respect other legal radio stations and other entities, such as emergency services, and interfere with their transmissions. This can give community stations and conscientious pirate stations a disreputable image. Pirate radio stations can apply for a broadcasting licence, but they will usually need to go off air for a time to present a legal case. Community stations and pirate stations (where they are tolerated) can be valuable assets for a region. Community radio stations typically avoid content found on commercial outlets, such as Top 40 music, sports, and "drive-time" personalities. The Top Forty or Top 40 is a music industry shorthand for the currently most-popular songs in a particular genre.
Philosophically two distinct approaches to community radio can be discerned, though the models are not necessarily mutually exclusive. One stresses service or community-mindedness, a focus on what the station can do for the community. The other stresses involvement and participation by the listener.
Within the service model localism is often prized, as community radio, as a third tier, can provide content focused on a more local or particular community than larger operations. Sometimes, though, the provision of syndicated content that is not already available within the station's service area, is seen as a desirable form of service. Within the United States, for example, many stations syndicate content from groups such as Pacifica Radio, such as Democracy Now!, on the basis that it provides a form of content not otherwise available, because of such a program's lack of appeal to advertisers or (especially in Pacifica's case) politically controversial nature. Pacifica Radio is a network of five independently operated non-commercial listener-supported Radio stations in the United States that is known for its progressive
Within the access or participatory model, the participation of community members in producing content is seen as a good in itself. While this model does not necessarily exclude a service approach, there is a tension between the two, as outlined, for example, in Jon Bekken's Community Radio at the Crossroads.
Community Broadcasting is Australia’s third media sector. As at June 2005 there were 442 fully-licensed community radio stations (including remote Indigenous services). The community radio sector in Australia fulfills a broad, but largely unacknowledged role in the Australian media landscape, particularly as a source of local content.
A 2002 report, found that 20,000 (or 0. 1% of all Australians) are involved as volunteers in the community radio sector on a regular basis and volunteers equate for more than $145 million in unpaid work each year; Nationally more than 7 million Australians (or 45% of people over 15) listen to community radio in each month (source: McNair Ingenuity).
The role of community broadcasting in Australia, according to the Community Broadcasting Association of Australia is to provide a diverse range of services meeting community needs in ways that are not met by other sectors. The Community Broadcasting Association of Australia ( CBAA) is the Peak body and the national representative organisation for Community radio and television Community broadcasting is sustained by the principles of access and participation, volunteerism, diversity, independence and localism.
Although stations raise much of their resources through their own means, Government funding in the past ten years has greatly assisted stations in key areas such as transmission infrastructure, program development/distribution, online development and training. ”
53% of community radio stations serve an array of different communities of interest including: Indigenous and Ethnic, people with a print disability, young people, older people, arts/fine music, religious, gay and lesbian.
The remaining stations provide service which may be described as generalist, which address the interests of communities in particular geographic locations but will still address a range of diverse specialty interests.
Community broadcasting more than any other form of media in this country shapes and reflects the national character in all its diversity. The sector is unique in its capacity to provide fresh programming by and for Indigenous, Ethnic and RPH communities.
Community broadcasting stations also have a strong commitment to local news, information; the promotion of local and Australian music, arts and culture; and to providing training in media skills.
When a not-for-profit community group applies to the regulator, the Australia Communications and Media Authority, for a community broadcasting licence they specify what community interest they intend to serve. Licensees are selected by the regulator on the basis of suitability and on the merits of the licence application and the capacity to serve identified community interests. Upon grant of a 5 year renewable licence each station is then required to continue to serve the community interest for which the licence was granted.
One of the most famous examples of community radio is miners' radios in Bolivia. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. They are funded by trade union dues and operate mainly at a local and regional level. There were more than 25 such radio stations during the period from about 1960 to 1985. Changes in government policy eliminated many unionised mining jobs after 1985 and some radios were sold or ceased to exist. In spite of many difficulties five stations continue to broadcast.
La Voz del Minero Radio Pío XII RadioVanguardia de Colquiri Radio Animas Radio 21 de Diciembre Radio Nacional deHuanuni. . . these were some of the mostimportant radio stations created, funded and managed by Bolivian mining workers. It all started in 1949, with one radio station in the mining district of Catavi. During the next 15 years, other districts followed: they bought the equipment, they trained young people from their villages, and the workers themselves funded the experience by giving a percentage of their salary to sustain their radio stations.
Most of the radio stations started small and precariously, only equipped by very simple means. A few of them managed to get foreign support and evolved into more sophisticated radio stations, with better equipment and installations. A few, even built a theatre next to the premises, so union meetings would take place and betransmitted live through the radio. Radio Vanguardia for example, had a beautiful theatre decorated with large murals narrating thestory of the Colquiri mining centre. One particular scene on the mural depicts the attack by Bolivian Air Force planes in 1967, when the country was under military rule.
In the early 1970s, 26 radio stations were in operation, all in the mining districts of the highlands of Bolivia. At that time miners' unions in Bolivia were still very powerful and considered among the most important and politically advanced in Latin America.
In times of peace and democracy miners' radio stations were integrated into the daily life of the community. They became the closest and most effective replacement for telephone and postal services.
People would get their mail through the stations and post messages of all kinds, which were read several times during the day: calls for a meeting of women from the Comité de Amas de Casa (Housewives Committee); messages from the union leaders about their negotiations with the government in the capital; messages of love among youngsters; announcing a new play by Nuevos Horizontes drama group (often staged on the platform of a big truck, with workers illuminating the scene with their own lamps); announcements of sport activities, burials, births and festivities.
In times of political upheaval the union radio stations would become the only trustworthy source of information. As the military captured newspapers, radio and TV stations in the capital and othercities, the only information available would come from the miner'sradio stations. All of them would join the cadena minera until thearmy would penetrate the mining camps and assault the stations, which were usually defended to the death by the workers. A film by Bolivian filmmaker Jorge Sanjinés, The Courage of the People, re-enacts the attack on the mining district of Siglo XX by the army in June 1967. Another film, a documentary, by Alfonso Gumucio Dagron and Eduardo Barrios, titled Voices of the Mine and produced by UNESCO, describes their political and social importance. Alfonso Gumucio Dagron (born in Bolivia, 1950 is a Writer, Filmmaker, Journalist, Photographer and Development communication United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16
In times of political and social crisis the miners' radio stations would air reports on the political situation; they would also link for live transmissions when an important sporting or cultural event took place in the mining district. Other than that, each station had full independence from the next.
Certainly, miners' radio stations were important because miners were important. But also, Bolivian miners were more influential than ever because during several decades they had powerful means to communicate their ideas. As the importance of mining in Bolivia declined in the 1980s, the unions were weakened and some of the radio stations disappeared along with the mining districts.
Community radio stations in Canada most commonly target commercially underserved minority language communities such as Franco-Ontarians, Acadians or the First Nations, although some communities also have English language community stations. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Franco-Ontarians (franco-ontarien are French Canadian or Francophone residents of the Canadian province of Ontario. This article is about the Acadian people and culture The Acadians (Acadiens are the descendants of the seventeenth-century French First Nations is a term of Ethnicity that refers to the Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States These stations are often volunteer-run and operated by cooperatives or other not-for-profit corporations. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage
In larger cities, community-oriented programming more commonly airs on campus radio stations. Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of Radio station that is run by the students of a college Some cities do, however, have community radio stations as well. Most community stations in Canada are members of the National Campus and Community Radio Association, or NCRA. The National Campus and Community Radio Association/L'Association nationale des radios étudiantes et communautaires ( NCRA/ANREC) is a Non-profit organization of Most of Canada's French language community radio stations are members of either l'Association des Radiodiffuseurs Communitaire du Quebec (ARCQ) or l’Alliance des radios communautaires du Canada inc(l'ARC). French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people
The province with the largest number of community radio stations in Canada is Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan (səˈskætʃəwən) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588276 The majority of those stations are affiliated with Missinipi Broadcasting Corporation, an aboriginal public radio network. Missinipi Broadcasting Corporation, or MBC Radio, is a Radio network in Canada, serving First Nations and Métis communities Aboriginal people in Canada, also known as Canadian aboriginal citizens, are people who belong to recognized indigenous groups in the Canadian Constitution Act Public broadcasting refers to radio television and other electronic media outlets that receive some or all of their funding from the public
Community stations are subject to the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission's (CRTC) community radio policy, . CRTC may also stand for Cathode Ray Tube Controller. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission ( CRTC, in French Conseil
In this policy, the CRTC requires community stations to
It also requires stations to offer diverse programming that reflects the needs and interests of the community including:
The CRTC maintains a list of community stations, . In Canada, call letters and frequencies are regulated by Industry Canada’s Spectrum Management . In Broadcasting and Radio communications a call sign (also known as a callsign or call letters, or abbreviated as a call, or otherwise Frequency is a measure of the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit Time. Industry Canada is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for regional economic development investment and innovation/ Research and development
In Ecuador many community radio stations are operated by religious groups. This is a list of Community radio stations in Canada. Many community radio stations in Canada are First Nations stations They include Catholic, Protestant and Bahá'í stations. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind The amount of community participation and self-management varies. Radio Latacunga was associated with a project in which indigenous organizations were supplied with simple equipment to record weekly programs for broadcast in the early morning. Also in Ecuador some indigenous groups operate their own radios. This is the case for the Shuar Federation in the tropical rainforest, and the community of Simiatug in Bolívar Province. Shuar, in the Shuar language, means " People." The people who speak the Shuar language live in Tropical rainforest between the upper mountains Tropical rainforests are generally found near the Equator. They are common in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America, Central Unlike Bolivia, trade-union radio has historically been weak in Ecuador.
In India, the campaign to legitimise community radio began in the mid 1990s, soon after the Supreme Court of India ruled in judgement of 1995 that "airwaves are public property". India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. This came as an inspiration to groups across the country, but to begin with, only educational (campus) radio stations were allowed, under somewhat stringent conditions.
Anna FM is India's first campus 'community' radio, launched on 1 February 2004, which is run by Education and Multimedia Research Centre (EM²RC), and all programmes are produced by the students of Media Sciences at Anna University
On 16 November 2006, the government of India notified a new Community Radio Policy which permits NGOs and other civil society organizations to own and operate community radio stations. Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Anna University (அண்ணா பல்கலைக்கழகம் is one of India 's premier engineering universities Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. About 6,000 community radio licenses are on offer across India. Under the new policy, any not-for-profit 'legal entity' - except individuals, political parties and their affiliates, criminal and banned organizations - can apply for a CR license. Central funding is not available for such stations, and there are stringent restrictions on fundraising from other sources. Only organisations that are registered for a minimum of three years old and with a 'proven' track record of local community service can apply. License conditions implicitly favour well-funded stations as against inexpensive low power operations, several of which (e. g. Mana Radio in Andhra and Raghav FM in Bihar) ran successfully on shoe-string budgets before the imposition of any community radio policy.
The licence entitles them to operate a 100 watt (ERP) radio station, with a coverage area of approximately 12 kilometres radius. A maximum antenna height of 30 meters is allowed. Community radio stations are expected to produce at least 50% of their programmes locally, as far as possible in the local language or dialect. The stress is on developmental programming, though there is no explicit ban on entertainment. News programmes are banned on community radio in India, as also on commercial FM radio. 5 minutes of advertising per hour is allowed. Sponsored programs are not allowed except when the program is sponsored by the Government at the Centre or State.
Activists and community workers from across the country have banded together under the aegis of an informal 'Community Radio Forum' in order to coordinate training and support for community radio stations, as well as to continue to petition for a more proactive community radio policy. In the meantime, mobile telephone operators have begun to offer commercial broadcast services over GSM, evading completely government restrictions built around traditional concepts of broadcasting technology.
Ireland has had self-described community radio stations since the late 1970s, though it was not until 1995 that the first 11 licensed stations came on air as part of a pilot project run by the Independent Radio and Television Commission. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The Broadcasting Commission of Ireland ( BCI) (Coimisiún Craolacháin na hÉireann is the regulator of the commercial broadcasting sector in Ireland. Early stations were represented by the National Association of Community-Radio Broadcasters, which in 1988 published a guide to setting up new stations. More recently licensed stations have formed CRAOL as a representative group. CRAOL (The Irish word for 'broadcast' is the name given to the Community Radio Forum of Ireland
Japan has a series of low power community radio stations across the country. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
The first community radio was established in Jordan using the internet. Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern AmmanNet. net was established in November 2000 as a means of bypassing government restrictions on private non governmental radio. In 2005 AmmanNet radio received license as an FM station and was able to broadcast to the people of Jordan's capital Amman. AmmanNet has also been involved in the training of other community radio stations in Jordan, one as part of evillage in the twin villages of Lib and Mleih and another as part of King Hussein University in the southern city of Maan. Also AmmanNet is involved in training Arab media activists in Internet radio. A program was launced to train and launch nine gulf-based radio stations as part of khaleejnet. net
Two new community radio stations were recently established in Jordan. Yarmouk FM is located at Yarmouk University in Irbed as part of the school's Journalism & Mass Communications program. Yarmouk University is a University in Jordan. It was established in 1976. Irbid (إربد known in ancient times as Arabella, is The capital and largest city of the Irbid Governorate, it is also the third largest city in Jordan Farah FM is currently under construction but has a license to broadcast in Amman and Zarqa, Jordan's second largest city. Amman (ɑˈmɑːn sometimes spelled Ammann ( Arabic عمان ʿAmmān) is the Capital city of the Hashemite Kingdom Zarqa ( BGN: Az Zarqāʼ; local pronunciation ez-Zergā or ez-Zer'a) is a city in Jordan located to the northeast of Amman This station will focus primarily on youth and women's issues.
The very famous community radio in the Philippines is Radyo Natin. Radyo Natin is a set of radio stations in the Philippines. Its stations nationwide broadcast a live Manila feed through satellite. But sometimes some stations air local programming, cutting the Manila feed. It is considered a community network because local programs are being aired in different RN stations. Radyo Natin is owned by Manila Broadcasting Company.
From shortly after the end of the Second World War, the country's repressive State policies gave the SABC (South African Broadcasting Corporation) an effective monopoly. For almost half a century, it was the only broadcaster permitted to operate legally and faced no independent radio competition on South African territory until the early 1990s' transition to democracy. The first legally-permitted, non-SABC, broadcast was that of 1991's 'Festival Radio' from the campus radio studios at Rhodes University in Grahamstown. An Independent Broadcast Authority was created to oversee the freeing up of the country's airwaves with small, community radio stations being permitted to broadcast for the first time. Applications were discussed in open session to ensure transparency and accountability. Notable early community broadcasters included Bush Radio in Cape Town and Radio Unitra in Umtata. The Independent Communications Authority (ICASA) now regulates the telecomms and broadcasting sector.
Korean government licensed a few small power community radio stations in the year of 2005. Maximum power is 1 Watt and it reaches 5 km.
In Sweden, community radio (närradio) was introduced in 1978 with test transmissions. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Regular transmissions started next year. Commercials were not allowed until 1993.
Community radio in Thailand saw fast growth during the government of Thaksin Shinawatra, taking advantage of a delay in the establishment of a regulatory authority. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj (ทักษิณ ชินวัตร IPA tɕʰinnawát Chinese: 丘[[wikt 達|達]] 新, Qiū Dáxīn nicknamed by the media as แม้ว Thailand's 2,000-3,000 community radio stations, often operating unlicensed, have been accused of causing interference with air traffic radio and other radio stations. However, selected community radio stations have been the target of police crackdowns, causing critics to accuse the government of political interference. Freedom of speech in Thailand was guaranteed in the articles 39 40 41 in the 1997 Constitution. 
Community radio stations were in operation on cable systems from the early 1970s onwards and mostly situated in new town areas and staffed and operated by volunteers. In the United Kingdom, community radio refers to a recently-established system of licensing small micro-local non-profit radio stations In the late 80s and early 90s the then newly formed Radio Authority awarded licences (termed "Incremental" by the outgoing Independent Broadcasting Authority) to a number of new, ex-pirate and cable based community ventures. Notable stations included the championing Spectrum Radio and Radio Thamesmead (AKA - RTM Radio) one of the first cable radio stations which started on the Radiofusion cable system in South East London area in the mid 1970's. Thamesmead is a " New town " in London, England built on the southern bank of the River Thames, 9 
The old breed of community radio stations could raise funding by selling air space and by receiving donations or grants.
U.S. community radio stations are usually staffed by volunteers and air a wide variety of programming. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the They generally have smaller budgets than National Public Radio (NPR) network outlets, due to the small audience of potential contributors and/or business donors. Community radio stations are distinct from NPR stations in that most community radio programming is locally produced by non-professional disc jockeys and producers, where NPR tends to rely more on syndicated programming, both from its own sources and other outlets such as PRI; NPR stations almost always have paid staffs to handle most duties. Public Radio International ( PRI) is a Minneapolis -based American Public radio organization with locations in Boston, New York Community stations often try, as a matter of principle, to reduce their dependence on financial contributions from corporations (and even governments) in comparison with other public broadcasters. Many community stations are licensed as full-power FM stations, while others - especially newer community stations - are licensed under low-power broadcasting rules. Low-power broadcasting is the concept of Broadcasting at very low power and low cost to a small community area Many of the former were founded in the 1960s and 1970s, when cultural experimentation (e. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. g. , the New Left) in the U. The New Left were the Left-wing movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that unlike the earlier leftist focus on union activism instead adopted a S. had a significant following, particularly among the young.
The National Federation of Community Broadcasters was formed in 1970 as an umbrella organization for community-oriented, non-commercial radio stations. The National Federation of Community Broadcasters (or NFCB) is an a national membership organization of community-oriented non-commercial Radio stations producers Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The NFCB publishes handbooks for stations and lobbies on behalf of community radio at the federal level. It has been criticized for encouraging the homogenization of community stations through its Healthy Station Project. The project encouraged stations to scale back volunteers' power over management and the content of their programs, as well as embrace more predictable "strip" programming.  The Grassroots Radio Coalition is a very loose coalition of stations that formed as a reaction against increasing commercialization of public radio and lack of support for volunteer-based stations (including in the NFCB). Grassroots Radio Coalition is a loose coalition of community media activists Commercialization is the process of introducing a new product into the market Some stations are part of both groups.