In modern age, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based See also Marxian economics, Marxism Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in Philosophy Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective International Socialism redirects here For the journal of the same name see International Socialism (journal Proletarian internationalism is a Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought ( is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader The Juche Idea (주체사상 Juche Sasang) is the official state Ideology of North Korea and the Political system based on it Left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the Communist Left, which opposes the political ideas of the Bolsheviks Council communism is a Far-left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s Religious communism is a form of Communism centered on religious principles Eurocommunism was a new trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that National Communism, is an Islamic form of Communism which had a strong Nationalist element The Communist League was the first Marxist international organisation The Second International (1889-1916 was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow The Fourth International ( FI) is a communist international organisation working in opposition to both Capitalism and Stalinism. Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895 was a German social scientist and philosopher, who Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg 5 March 1870 or 1871 15 January 1919 was a Polish-born Jewish German Marxist theorist, socialist Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Anti-capitalism describes a wide variety of movements ideas and attitudes which oppose Capitalism. Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system Communist symbolism consists of a series of Symbols that represent (either literally or figuratively a variety of themes associated with communism Criticisms of Communism can be divided in two broad categories Those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century Communist state and those concerning Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist The " dictatorship of the proletariat " or workers' state is a term employed by Marxists that refers to what they see as a temporary state between the This article intentionally focuses only on the history of communism as a self-contained self-aware political movement Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within Communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. The New Class is a term to describe the privileged Ruling class of Bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist The New Left were the Left-wing movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that unlike the earlier leftist focus on union activism instead adopted a Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic Transition in former Communist states located in parts of Europe and Primitive communism is A term usually associated with Karl Marx, but most fully elaborated by Friedrich Engels (in The Origin of the Family 1884 and referring Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 Socialist economics is a broad and sometimes controversial term Titoism is an adaptation of communist ideology named after Josip Broz Tito, leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, primarily used to describe The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based However, the Leninist concept of a communist party includes not only ideological orientation, but also a wide set of organizational policies.
The communist party is, at least according to Leninist theory, the vanguard party of the working class. Lenin theories on the role of the communist party were developed as the Russian Social Democracy was bifurcated into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction The Mensheviks (Minority (Меньшевик) were a faction of the Russian Revolutionary movement that emerged in 1903 after a dispute between Vladimir Lenin, who was the leader of the Bolshevik ('majority') faction argued that the revolutionary party should be a well-knit vanguardist party with a centralized political command and a strict cadre policy whereas the Menshevik ('minority') faction argued that the party should be a broad-based mass movement. The Bolshevik party, which eventually transformed into the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, took power in Russia after the October Revolution. The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution With the creation of the Communist International, the Leninist concept of Party Building was copied by emerging communist parties worldwide. The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow
There currently exist hundreds, if not thousands, of communist parties, large and small, throughout the world. Their success rates vary widely: some are growing; others are in decline. In five countries (China, Cuba, DPR Korea, Laos, and Vietnam) communist parties retain dominance over the state. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially See the List of Communist Parties for details on the communist parties of today. There are at present a number of Communist parties active in various countries across the world and a number who used to be active
In theory, a party congress would elect a Central Committee to execute the will of the Congress between meetings. A party congress is a general conference of a Political party. Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a Leninist (commonly also Trotskyist) or Communist party, whether ruling or The Central Committee would elect a much smaller Politburo to elect a general secretary and handle day-to-day operations. Politburo, short for Political Bureau, Russian Politicheskoye Buro, is the executive organization for a number of Political parties, most notably The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions parties churches or associations In practice in many countries where communist parties were in government, the flow of power often became the reverse: the Politburo became self-perpetuating, and controlled the composition of the Central Committee, which in turn controlled the party congresses.
Some contemporary communist parties still hold to the democratic centralist tradition. Others have abandoned democratic centralism, often accompanied by a renouncing of Marxism-Leninism overall. Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted
As the membership of the communist party itself was to be limited to active cadres, there was a need for networks of separate organizations to mobilize mass support for the party. Typically communist parties have built up various front organizations, whose membership is often open to non-communists. In many countries the single most important front organization of the communist parties has been its youth wing. During the time of the Communist International the youth leagues were explicit communist organizations, using the name 'Young Communist League'. Later the youth league concept was broadened in many countries, and names like 'Democratic Youth League' were adopted.
Other organizations often connected to communist parties includes trade unions, student, women's, peasant's and cultural organizations. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Traditionally these mass organizations were politically subordinated to the political leadership of the party. However, in many contemporary cases mass organizations founded by communists have acquired a certain degree of independence. In some cases mass organizations have outlived the communist parties in question.
At the international level, the Communist International organized various international front organizations (linking national mass organizations with each other), such as the Young Communist International, Profintern, Krestintern, International Red Aid, Sportintern, etc. Young Communist International was the youth wing of the Communist International (Comintern The Red International of Labour Unions, widely known by its Russian abbreviation Profintern, was an international body established with the aim of co-ordinating Communist Red Peasant International, generally called by its Russian abbreviation Krestintern, was an international peasants organization formed by the Communist International International Red Aid was an international social service organization connected to the Communist International. . These organizations were dissolved in the process of deconstruction of the Communist International. After the Second World War new international coordination bodies were created, such as the World Federation of Democratic Youth, International Union of Students, World Federation of Trade Unions, Womens International Democratic Federation and World Peace Council. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY is a left-wing youth organization recognized by the United Nations as an international youth Non-governmental organization Aim and work areas The aims of the IUS are spelled out in the 1946 preamble to the organization's Constitution: The purpose of the International Union of Students TemplateInfobox Union for usage -->The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU was established in the wake of the Second The World Peace Council (or World Council of Peace) was formed in 1949 in order to promote Peaceful coexistence and Nuclear disarmament.
1. Communist organization must be adapted to the specific historical circumstances of the country in which it operates, and to the specific conditions and purpose of its activity. (For example, it's no use, expecting industrial workers to lead the revolution in a nation composed of small farmers and shopkeepers).
2. Common to all Communist organization is the working class struggle. In other words, the fundamental political task of the working class is to struggle for its rights, against the bourgeoisie, who own the means of production, distribution and exchange.
3. The basic organisational task of a Communist Party is to become the leader of the revolutionary working-class movement through having the closest ties with the working class itself. Without these ties, the leadership will not lead the masses, but, at best, tail after them.
4. Communist activity needs to be centralised. This doesn't mean formal, mechanical centralisation, but rather the building of a leadership which is strong, quick to react, and flexible. Otherwise, the masses will see centralisation as bureaucratisation, and will oppose leadership and discipline.
5. A Communist Party must avoid separation or estrangement between the leadership and the people.
6. The work of the Party should be a working school of revolutionary Marxism, through day-to-day collective work in the organisation. Every member should be expected to devote time and energy to the Party, and always to give the best in service.
7. Communist Party members should attend meetings, at whatever level, regularly. This must be married to concrete tasks, to be carried out in such a way that cadres see their work as useful, desirable and practicable. Otherwise, even the most energetic participation in worker struggles will fail to influence those struggles.
8. Communists should report back to the Party on the political work they have done.
9. Communist propaganda includes: individual discussion, participation in the union movement and its struggles, and through the Party press and literature. It should raise the political understanding and the militancy of those who hear it.
10. As part of its struggle against all capitalist social relations, a Communist Party must make it a priority to develop a comprehensive gender consciousness among its cadres and the working class as a whole. This should be reflected in the Party's work, in relationships between cadres, and as a central component of its propaganda.
A uniform naming scheme of the Communist parties was adopted by the Communist International. All parties were required to use the name 'Communist Party of (name of country)'. Today, there are plenty of cases were the old sections of the Communist International have retained those names. In other cases names have been changed. Common causes for the shift in naming were either moves to avoid state repression or as measures to indicate a broader political acceptance. A typical example of the latter was the renamings of various East European communist parties after the Second World War, as staged 'mergers' of the local Social Democratic parties occurred. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent.  New names in the post-war era included 'Socialist Party', 'Socialist Unity Party', 'Popular Party', 'Workers Party' and 'Party of Labour'.
The naming conventions of communist parties became more diverse as the international communist movement was fragmented due to the Sino-Soviet split in the 1960s. The Sino-Soviet split was a gradual divergence of diplomatic ties between the People's Republic of China (PRC and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR Those who sided with China and/or Albania in their criticism of the Soviet leadership, often added words like 'Revolutionary' or 'Marxist-Leninist' to distinguish themselves from the pro-Soviet parties. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics.