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The Communist Party of Indonesia (in Indonesian: Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) was the largest non-ruling communist party in the world prior to being crushed in 1965 and banned the following year. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The politics of Indonesia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Indonesia Pancasila, (pronounced panʧaˈsila is the official philosophical foundation of the Indonesian state The Constitution of Indonesia ( Indonesian: Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia 1945, UUD '45) is the basis for the government of the Indonesia The President of the Republic of Indonesia ( Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the Head of State as well as the Head of the Government of the Republic This is the list of the presidents of Indonesia. Key General (Ret Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (born September 9, 1949) is an Indonesian retired military general and the sixth President of Indonesia The Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia ( Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the first in the line of succession in the Republic of Indonesia. This is a list of Vice Presidents of Indonesia. The Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia ( Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the second most powerful person Jusuf Kalla (born Watampone, South Sulawesi; May 15, 1942) is the current Vice President of Indonesia and Chairman of the The United Indonesia Cabinet ( Kabinet Indonesia Bersatu) is the official name of the presidential Cabinet of Indonesia led by President The People's Consultative Assembly ( Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat /MPR is the legislative branch in Indonesia's political sytem. The Regional Representatives Council, or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, abbr The People's Representative Council ( Indonesian: Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat / DPR) is the Lower house of the legislature of Indonesia. A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain Ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power usually At a national level Indonesian people elect a Head of state  &ndash the President &ndash and a Legislature. Legislative elections were held in Indonesia on April 5, 2004. Presidential elections were held in Indonesia on Monday July 5, and Monday September 20, 2004. ||-||-||}The Province ( Indonesian: provinsi or propinsi) is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. The Republic of Indonesia is divided into provinces (Provinsi Since independence Indonesian foreign relations have adhered to a "free and active" foreign policy seeking to play a role in regional affairs commensurate with its US$43 billion in International Monetary Fund (IMF aid in 2003 was sent as foreign aid to Indonesia, and this assistance has traditionally been an important part of the central Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of A Political party described as a communist party includes those that advocate the application of the social principles of Communism through a communist form of 
An important early organization was founded by Dutch socialist Henk Sneevliet in 1914, under the name Indies Social Democratic Association (in Dutch: Indische Sociaal-Democratische Vereeniging, ISDV). Hendricus Josephus Franciscus Marie Sneevliet, known as Henk Sneevliet or the Pseudonym Maring (May 13 1883 - April 13 1942 was a Dutch Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname ISDV was constituted essentially by the 85 members of the two Dutch socialist parties, SDAP and SDP, residing in the Dutch East Indies. The Communist Party of the Netherlands ( Dutch: Communistische Partij Nederland, CPN was a Dutch communist Political party. . The Dutch members of the ISDV introduced Marxist ideas to educated Indonesians looking for ways to oppose colonial rule.
In October 1915 ISDV started a publication in Dutch, Het Vrije Woord (The Free Word). The editor was Adolf Baars. The ISDV did not demand independence at the time of its formation. At this point ISDV had around 100 members, out of whom only three were Indonesian. However, it rapidly moved into a radical and anticapitalist direction. ISDV under Sneevliet became uncomfortable for the SDAP leadership in the Netherlands, who distanced themselves from the ISDV. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands In 1917 the reformist section of ISDV broke away, and formed their own Indies Social Democratic Party. Socialist Reformism is the belief that gradual democratic changes in a Society can ultimately change a society's fundamental economic relations and political structures In 1917 ISDV launched its first publication in Indonesian, Soeara Merdeka (The Voice of Freedom). Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of
Sneevliet's ISDV saw the legacy of the October Revolution as the path to follow in Indonesia. The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution The group made inroads amongst Dutch sailors and soldiers stationed in the colony. 'Red Guards' were formed, and within three months they numbered 3 000. In late 1917 soldier and sailors revolted in the major naval base of the archipelago, Surabaya, and formed soviets. Surabaya (formerly spelled as Soerabaja) is Indonesia 's second-largest city, and the capital of the province of East Java. A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. The colonial authorities suppressed the Surabaya soviets and the ISDV. Dutch leaders of ISDV were sent back to the Netherlands, including Sneevliet. The leaders of the soldiers uprising were given sentences of 40 years imprisonment.
Meanwhile, the ISDV established a bloc within the anti-colonialist Sarekat Islam (Islamic Union) organization. Sarekat Islam, formerly Sarekat Dagang Islam, was an Indonesian organization Two SI members from Semarang, Semaun and Darsono were attracted by Sneevliet's ideas. Semarang is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. Semaun (approx 1899&mdash1971 was the first chairman of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI As a result of Sneevliet's "bloc within" strategy, many SI members were persuaded to establish the more revolutionary Marxist-dominated Sarekat Rakjat (People's Union). 
ISDV continued working in a clandestine manner. It launched another publication, Soeara Rakyat (The People's Voice). After the involuntary departure of several Dutch cadres, in combination with the work inside the Sarekat Islam, the membership had moved from Dutch majority to Indonesian majority. Sarekat Islam, formerly Sarekat Dagang Islam, was an Indonesian organization By 1919 it only had 25 Dutch members, out of a total of less than 400.
At the congress of ISDV on 23 May 1920 in Semarang, it took the name Perserikatan Komunis di Hindia (PKH; Communist Association of the Indies). Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Semarang is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. Semaun was the party chairman and Darsosno vice-chairman. Semaun (approx 1899&mdash1971 was the first chairman of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI The secretary, treasurer and three of the five committee members were Dutch.  PKH was the first Asian communist party to become a section of the Communist International. The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow Henk Sneevliet represented the party at the second congress of the Communist International 1921.
In the period leading up to the Sarekat Islam's sixth congress in 1921, members became aware of Sneevliet's strategy and took moves to stop it. Agus Salim, the organization's secretary, introduced a motion banning SI members from holding dual membership of other parties. Haji Agus Salim (Koto Gadang Bukittinggi, Minangkabau, October 8 1884 - Jakarta, November 4 1954) was one of Despite opposition from Tan Malaka and Semaun, the motion passed, forcing the communists to change tactics. Tan Malaka ( 1894 - February 21 1949) was an Indonesian nationalist activist and communist leader At the same time, the Dutch colonial authorities introduced more restrictions on political activity, and Sarekat Islam decided to focus more on religious matters, leaving the communists as the only active nationalist organization. 
With Semaun away in Moscow attending a Far Eastern Labor Conference in early 1922, Tan Malaka tried to turn a strike of government pawnshop workers into a national strike to include all Indonesian labor unions. This failed, Tan Malaka was arrested and given a choice between internal or external exile. He chose the latter and left for Russia. 
In May 1922, Semaun returned after seven months in Russia and began to organize all labor unions into one organization. On 22 September, the Union of Indonesian Labor Organizations (Persatuan Vakbonded Hindia) was formed. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians 
At the fifth Comintern congress in 1924, it was emphasized that "the top priority of communist parties is to gain control of trades unions" as there could be no successful revolution without this. The PKH began concentrate on unions, decided discipline needed improving, and demanded the establishment of a Soviet Republic of Indonesia. 
In 1924 the party name was changed once again, to Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI, Communist Party of Indonesia).
In May 1925, the Exec Committee of Comintern in a plenary session ordered communists in Indonesia to form a united anti-imperialist front with non-communist nationalist organizations, but extremist elements dominated by Alimin & Musso called for a revolution to overthrow the Dutch colonial government. Musso (1897 Kediri East Java - October 31 1948) was an Indonesian communist politician who was leader of the Indonesian Communist Party At a conference in Prambanan, Central Java, communist-controlled trades unions decided the revolution would start with a strike by railroad workers that would signal a general strike and then a revolution would start. Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Central Java in Indonesia, located approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta. Central Java ( Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. This would lead to the PKI replacing the colonial government .
The plan was for the revolution to begin in Padang, Sumatra, but a government security clampdown at the beginning of 1926 that saw the end of the right to assembly and the arrests of PKI members forced the party to go deeper underground. Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470000 km² and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two Splits among PKI leaders as to the timing and course of the revolution resulted in poor planning. Tan Malaka, at the time Comintern's agent for Southeast Asia and Australia did not agree with the plot, partly because he believed the PKI had insufficient mass support. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. As a result of these divisions, in June 1926, the revolution was postponed.
However, there was a limited revolt in Batavia (as Jakarta was then known), which broke out on 12 November. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. Similar actions took place in Padang, Bantam and Surabaya. Surabaya (formerly spelled as Soerabaja) is Indonesia 's second-largest city, and the capital of the province of East Java. In Batavia, the revolt was crushed within a day or two, and after a few weeks it had been comprehensively defeated throughout the country. 
As a result of the failed revolution, 13,000 people were arrested, 4,500 imprisoned, 1,308 interned, and 823 exiled to Digul, West New Guinea.  Several died while in captivity. Many non-communist political activists were also targeted by the colonial authorities, under the pretext of suppressing the communist rebellion. The party was outlawed by the Dutch East Indies government in 1927. See http//enwikipediaorg/wiki/WikipediaFootnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the tags and the template below The PKI went underground and Dutch, and later Japanese, surveillance ensured that it was never a disciplined or coherent organisation for the remainder of the pre-war period. 
During the initial period of illegality PKI kept a somewhat lower profile, with much of its leadership imprisoned. In 1935 the PKI leader Musso returned from his exile in Moscow to reorganize the underground, or "illegal" PKI. Musso (1897 Kediri East Java - October 31 1948) was an Indonesian communist politician who was leader of the Indonesian Communist Party Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of His stay in Indonesia was however rather brief. The party now worked within various fronts, such as Gerindo and trade unions. In Holland PKI started working amongst Indonesian students within the nationalist organization Perhimpunan Indonesia, an organization which was soon to be under the control of the PKI. 
The PKI re-emerged on the political scene after the Japanese surrender in 1945, and it actively took part in the struggle for independence from the Netherlands. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Many armed units were under PKI control or influence. Although PKI militias played an important role in fighting against Dutch, President Sukarno was concerned the growing influence of PKI would eventually threaten his position. Sukarno ( June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. Moreover, the growth of PKI troubled the more right-wing sectors of the Indonesian polity as well as some foreign powers, especially the vigorously anti-communist United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Thus the relationship between the PKI and other forces also fighting for independence was generally a difficult one.
In February 1948 PKI and leftist sectors of the Socialist Party of Indonesia (Partai Sosialis Indonesia) formed a joint front, People's Democratic Front. Socialist Party of Indonesia ( Partai Sosialis Indonesia - PSI was an Indonesian Political party founded by meger of Sutan Sjahrir 's Partai People's Democratic Front ( Front Democrasi Rakjat) a short-lived united front of leftists in Indonesia, founded in February 1948. The front did not last, but the leftist section of PSI later merged with PKI. By this time the Pesindo militias were under the control of PKI. People's Youth ( Indonesian: Pemuda Rakyat) was the youth wing of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI
On August 11, 1948 Musso returned to Jakarta after twelve years in the Soviet Union. Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The PKI politburo was reconstructed, including Dipa Nusantara Aidit, M.H. Lukman and Njoto. Dipa Nusantara Aidit ( July 30, 1923 - November 22, 1965) was a senior leader of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI MH Lukman (1920? - 1965 was the First Deputy Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI Njoto (1925-65 was a top national leader of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI
After signing the Renville Agreement in 1948, many of the Republican armed units returned from zones of conflict. The Renville Agreement was a United Nations Security Council brokered political accord between the Netherlands who were seeking to re-establish their colony in South This gave the Indonesian right-wing some confidence that they would be able to counter PKI militarily. Guerrilla units and militias under the influence of PKI were ordered to disband. In Madiun a group PKI militaries refused to go along with the disarmament were killed in September the same year. Madiun is a city in the western part of the province of East Java Indonesia, an agricultural centre best known as the site of an uprising in 1948 which resulted in The killings sparked a violent uprising. This provided a pretext to clamp down on the PKI. It was claimed by army sources that PKI had announced the proclamation of the 'Soviet Republic of Indonesia' on September 18 with Musso as its president and Amir Sjarifuddin as its prime minister. Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Amir Sjarifuddin ( 27 April 1907 - 19 December 1948) was a socialist politician and one of the Indonesian Republic 's first leaders At the same time PKI had denounced the uprising and appealed for calm. The uprising was suppressed by republican troops and PKI passed through yet another period of repression. On September 30 Madiun was taken over by republican troops of the Siliwangi division. Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Thousands of party cadres were killed and 36 000 were imprisoned. Amongst the executed were several leaders including Musso who was killed on October 31, allegedly while trying to escape from prison. Musso (1897 Kediri East Java - October 31 1948) was an Indonesian communist politician who was leader of the Indonesian Communist Party Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse Aidit and Lukman went into exile in the People's Republic of China. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES However, PKI was not banned and continued to function. The reconstruction of the party began in 1949.
In 1950 the party started publishing again, with the main organs being Harian Rakyat and Bintang Merah. In the 1950s the PKI committed itself to a nationalist position under the leadership of Dipa Nusantara Aidit, supporting the anti-colonialist and anti-western policy of the Indonesian president Sukarno. Sukarno ( June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. Aidit and the section around him, including young leaders such as Sudisman, Lukman, Njoto and Sakirman, who took charge of the party in 1951. None were more than 30 years old at the time. Under Aidit PKI grew rapidly, from around 3-5 000 in 1950, to 165 000 members in 1954 to 1. 5 million in 1959. 
In August 1951 PKI led series of militant strikes, which were followed by clamp-downs in Medan and Jakarta. Medan is the capital of the province of North Sumatra, Indonesia. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. The PKI leadership went underground for a brief period.
Before the election of 1955, PKI favoured Sukarno's plans for 'guided democracy' and was an active supporter of Sukarno.  In the 1955 elections PKI came fourth with 16% of the votes. It won 39 seats (out of 257) and 80 out of 514 in the Constituent Assembly.
Opposition to the continued Dutch control over Irian Jaya was an issue often raised by PKI during the 1950s.
In July 1957 there was a grenade attack on the PKI office in Jakarta. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. In the same month PKI made advances in municipal elections. In September the same year the Islamist Masyumi publicly demanded that PKI should be banned. Masyumi Party ( Partai Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia) was a major Islamic political party in Indonesia. 
On December 3 trade unions, largely under control of PKI, started seizing control of Dutch-owned companies. Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming These seizures paved the way for the nationalization of foreign-owned enterprises. The struggles against foreign capitalists gave the PKI the opportunity to profile itself as a national party.
In February 1958 a coup attempt was made by pro-U.S. forces amongst the military and the political right-wing. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The rebels, based in Sumatra and Sulawesi, proclaimed a Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia (Pemerintah Revolusioner Republik Indonesia) on February 15. Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470000 km² and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two Sulawesi (formerly known as Celebes, ˈsɛlɛbiz is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the The Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia ( Indonesian: Pemerintah Revolusioner Republik Indonesia / PRRI) was a rebel movement led by army Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor This so-called Revolutionary Government immediately began arresting thousands of PKI members in the areas under their control. PKI supported the efforts by Sukarno to quell the rebellion, including introduction of martial law. The rebellion was eventually defeated.
In August 1959 there was an attempt on behalf of the military to prevent the holding of the PKI congress. However the congress was held as scheduled, and was addressed by Sukarno himself. In 1960 Sukarno launched the slogan Nasakom, an abbreviation of Nasionalisme (Nationalism), Agama (Religion), Komunisme (Communism). Thus the role of PKI as a junior partner in the Sukarno polity was institutionalized. The PKI welcomed the launching of the Nasakom concept, seeing it in terms of a multiclass united front.
Although PKI supported Sukarno, it did not lose its political autonomy. In March 1960 the PKI denounced the undemocratic handling of the budget by Sukarno. On July 8 Harian Rakyat carried an article critical of the government. Events 939 - The Major Occultation or Ghaybat el-Kubra of Muhammad al-Mahdi 1099 - First Crusade: 15000 The PKI leadership was arrested by the army, but later released on orders of Sukarno.
When idea of Malaysia was conceived, it was rejected by the PKI as well as the Communist Party of Malaya. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Malayan Communist Party ( MCP) was founded in 1930 Illegal from the outset it advocated an end to British colonial rule and was active in forming Trade
With growing popular support and a membership of about 3 million by 1965, the PKI was the strongest communist party outside the Soviet Union and China. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The party had a firm base in various mass organizations, such as the All-Indonesian Central Labour Organisation (Sentral Organisasi Buruh Seluruh Indonesia), People's Youth (Pemuda Rakyat), Indonesian Women's Movement (Gerakan Wanita Indonesia), Peasants Front of Indonesia (Barisan Tani Indonesia), the League of People's Culture (Lembaga Kebudayaan Rakyat) and the Association of Scholars of Indonesia (Himpunan Sarjana Indonesia). People's Youth ( Indonesian: Pemuda Rakyat) was the youth wing of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI Gerwani (from Gerakan Wanita Indonesia, Indonesian Women's Movement was an organization of communist women active in Indonesia in the 1950s Peasants Front of Indonesia (Barisan Tani Indonesia was a peasant mass organization connected to the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI Estimates claim that the total membership of the party and its frontal organizations might have at its peak organized a fifth of the Indonesian population.
In March 1962 PKI joined the government. PKI leaders Aidit and Njoto were named advisory ministers. In April PKI held its party congress. In 1963 the governments of Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines engaged in discussions on territorial disputes and the possibility of a Maphilindo Confederation, an idea launched by the Philippine president Macapagal. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Maphilindo (for Malaya, the Philippines, and Indonesia) was to be a nonpolitical confederation uniting the Malay race. The PKI rejected the ideas of Maphilindo and Malaysian federation. PKI militants crossed over into Malaysia and engaged in combat against British and Australian forces there. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Some groups reached Malaya, to join the struggle there. The Federation of Malaya (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu was a federation of 11 states formed on January 31 1948 from the nine Malay states and the British However, most of them were captured on arrival. Most of the PKI combat units were active in border regions of Borneo. Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia.
In January 1964 PKI started confiscating British properties owned by British companies in Indonesia.
The growing influence of the PKI concerned the United States and other anti-communist western powers, and Sukarno's constant balancing act between the PKI, the military, nationalist factions, and Islamic groups was threatened by the PKI's rise. Indonesia's transition to the " New Order " in the mid-1960s ousted the country's first president Sukarno after 22 years in the position The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
At the same time the political and economic situation turned ever more volatile. Inflation sky-rocketed and living conditions for ordinary people worsened. In December 1964 Chaerul Saleh of the Murba Party (formed by former PKI leader Tan Malaka) claimed that PKI waspreparing a coup d'état. Tan Malaka ( 1894 - February 21 1949) was an Indonesian nationalist activist and communist leader The PKI demanded a ban on the Murba Party, which was enforced by Sukarno in early 1965.
In the context of Konfrontasi with Malaysia, the PKI called for 'arming the people'. Large sectors of the army were opposed to this. Sukarno remained officially non-committal. In July around 2000 PKI members started military training near Halim Air Force Base. Notably the concept of 'arming the people' had won support amongst the Air Force and the Navy.
On September 8 PKI demonstrators initiated a two-day siege of the US Consulate in Surabaya. Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz On September 14 Aidit addressed a PKI rally, urging members to be vigilant to things to come. Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus.
On September 30 Pemuda Rakyat and Gerwani, both PKI-associated organizations, held a mass rally in Jakarta against the inflation crisis. Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Gerwani (from Gerakan Wanita Indonesia, Indonesian Women's Movement was an organization of communist women active in Indonesia in the 1950s Later in the night, six of Indonesia's top anti-Communist generals were killed and thrown down a well, and the PKI was blamed for instigating a supposed coup attempt. The kidnappers of the generals announced that the new Revolutionary Council had seized power. This was the Communist and anti-Communist understanding of the PKI's attempt at a political takeover.  The events and supposed coup plotters of that night are referred to as "G30S", an abbreviation of "Gerakan 30 September" (30 September Movement). On the night of September 30 1965, six senior Indonesian army generals were murdered and the next morning Indonesians woke up to find an organization calling Concrete evidence linking the PKI to the generals' assassinations is limited, leading to speculation that their involvement was very limited or even that Suharto organized the events and scapegoated the communists. Suharto, also spelled Soeharto (June 8 1921 &ndash January 27 2008 was an Indonesian military leader and the second President of Indonesia, holding  The PKI was subsequently severely repressed, as General Suharto forced Sukarno aside and consolidated influence over the military and the country.
On October 2 the Halim base was "captured" by the army. Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule The Harian Rakyat issue carried an article in support of the G30S coup, but speculation later arose concerning whether it actually represented the opinions of PKI. Otherwise the official line of PKI at the time was that the G30S was an internal affair within the armed forces.
On October 6 the Sukarno's cabinet held its first meeting since September 30. Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus PKI ministers attend. A resolution denouncing G30S was passed. Njoto was arrested directly after the meeting.
A massive manifestation was held in Jakarta two days later, demanding a ban on the PKI. The main office of PKI was burned down. On October 13 the Islamic organization Ansor held anti-PKI rallies across Java. Events 54 - Nero ascends to the Roman throne 409 - Vandals and Alans crossed the Pyrenees Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. On October 18 around a hundred PKI were killed by Ansor. Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid The systematic extermination of the party had begun.
Between 300,000 and one million Indonesians were killed in the mass killings that followed.   The victims included non-Communists who were slain because of mistaken identity or "guilt by association. " However, the lack of information makes it impossible to pinpoint an exact figure of casualties. Many scholars today suggest that the figure is between 200,000 and 500,000.  Lists of suspected communists were supplied to the Indonesian military by the CIA. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all A CIA study of the events in Indonesia assessed that "In terms of the numbers killed the anti-PKI massacres in Indonesia rank as one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century. . . " .
It must also be noted that the CIA was not the only party to the issue, and there was also British involvement in the events.
Communists, red sympathizers and their families are being massacred by the thousands. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Backlands army units are reported to have executed thousands of communists after interrogation in remote jails. Armed with wide-bladed knives called parangs, Moslem bands crept at night into the homes of communists, killing entire families and burying their bodies in shallow graves. The murder campaign became so brazen in parts of rural East Java, that Moslem bands placed the heads of victims on poles and paraded them through villages. The killings have been on such a scale that the disposal of the corpses has created a serious sanitation problem in East Java and Northern Sumatra where the humid air bears the reek of decaying flesh. Travelers from those areas tell of small rivers and streams that have been literally clogged with bodies.
In some instances entire communities thought to be associated with the PKI  were killed, but more often there were blacklists that had the names of specific targets. These victims were killed nearby their villages and dumped in shallow graves or caves.  In some cases a victim was mutilated after death, based on Islamic beliefs. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. According to these beliefs, damaging a body after death also damages the soul, and condemns it, therefore preventing its return for revenge. 
Although the motives for the killings seemed political, some scholars argue that the events were caused by a state of panic and political uncertainty. Part of the anti-Communist force that was responsible for the massacres were made up of members of the criminal underworld, given permission to engage in senseless acts of violence.  Other motives have been explored, such as running amok or an allusion to Javanense puppet-play (wayang). Running amok, sometimes referred to as simply amok (also spelled amuck or amuk) is derived from the Malay / Indonesian /Filipino word Wayang is an Indonesian and Malay word for Theatre. When the term is used to refer to kinds of puppet theater sometimes the puppet itself is referred
Amongst the worst affected areas was the island of Bali, where PKI had grown rapidly prior to the crackdown. Bali is an Indonesian Island located at, the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to On November 11 clashes erupted between the PKI and PNI, ending in massacres of PKI accused members and sympathizers. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare The Indonesian National Party ( Partai Nasional Indonesia/PNI) is the same used by several political parties in Indonesia from 1927 until the present day Whereas much of the anti-PKI pogroms in the rest of the country were carried out by Islamic political organizations in the name of jihad, the killings in Bali were done in the name of Hinduism. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Bali stood out as the only place in the country where local soldiers in some way intervened to lessen the slaughter.
On November 22, Aidit was captured and killed. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran
In December the military proclaimed that Aceh had been cleared of communists. See also Sultanate of Aceh Aceh (ʔaˈtɕɛh generally anglicized as ˈɑːtʃeɪ is a special territory ( daerah istimewa) of Indonesia Simultaneously, Special Military Courts were set up to try jailed PKI members. On March 12, the party was formally banned by Suharto, and the pro-PKI trade union SOBSI was banned in April. Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving
Some of these tumultuous events were fictionalized in the popular novel and film The Year of Living Dangerously (1982). The Year of Living Dangerously is a 1982 Peter Weir film adapted from the novel of the same name by its author Christopher Koch, Weir and
In spite of initial sporadic resistance, PKI stood paralysed after the 1965-1966 killings. In September 1966 the remnants of the party politburo issued a statement of self-criticism, criticizing the previous cooperation with the Sukarno regime.
After the killings of Aidit and Njoto, Sudisman took over party leadership. In 1967 he was sentenced to death.
Some cadres of PKI had taken refuge in Blitar, Eastern Java, following the crackdown on the party. Blitar is a city and also the capital of the regency of the same name on East Java, Indonesia, about 73 kilometers from Malang and 167 kilometers Amongst the leaders present were the youth leader Sukatno, the deputy chairman of SOBSI, Ruslan Widjayasastra and Professor Iskandar Subekti, assistant to Aidit. Blitar was an underdeveloped area were PKI had strong support amongst the peasantry. The military was unaware that PKI had been able to consolidate itself there. But in March 1968 violence erupted in Blitar, as local peasants attacked leaders and cadres of Nahdatul Ulama, as a revenge for the role it had played in anticommunist persecutions. Nahdlatul Ulama (also Nahdatul Ulama or NU) is a conservative Sunni Islam group in Indonesia. Around 60 NU cadres were killed. It is however unlikely that the killings of NU cadres in Blitar had been conducted on the orders of PKI. The military became aware of the PKI enclave and crushed it. Sukatno, Ruslan and Iskandar Subekti were captured and sentenced to death.
Some party cadres were temporarily outside Indonesia at the time of the September 30 events. Notably a sizeable delegation had travelled to the People's Republic of China to participate in the anniversary celebrations of the Chinese Revolution. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Others had left Indonesia to pursue studies in Eastern Europe. In exile a party apparatus continued to function. It was, however, largely isolated from political developments inside Indonesia. In Java, some villages that were known to be refuges for members or suspected sympathisers were identified by authorities and were kept under careful watch for a considerable time.
As of 2004, former PKI members remain blacklisted from many occupations including government jobs. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " During his presidency Abdurrahman Wahid invited former PKI exiles to return to Indonesia in 1999, and proposed removing restrictions on open discussion of the communist ideology. Abdurrahman Wahid (also known as Gus Dur) (born September 7 1940 is an Indonesian Muslim religious and political leader who served as the President In arguing for the removal of the ban, Wahid cited Indonesia's original 1945 constitution, which did not prohibit or even specifically mention communism. Wahid's proposal was vigorously opposed by some sectors of Indonesian society, especially conservative Islamic groups. In an April 2000 protest, a group called the Indonesian Islamic Front rallied ten thousand people in Jakarta against Wahid's proposal. The Army did not immediately reject the proposal, but promised a "comprehensive and meticulous study" of the idea. The Armed Forces of Indonesia ( Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI, formerly Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia, best known by