- See Communist League (disambiguation) for other groups of the same name. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based See also Marxian economics, Marxism Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in Philosophy Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective International Socialism redirects here For the journal of the same name see International Socialism (journal Proletarian internationalism is a A Political party described as a communist party includes those that advocate the application of the social principles of Communism through a communist form of Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought ( is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Titoism is an adaptation of communist ideology named after Josip Broz Tito, leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, primarily used to describe The Juche Idea (주체사상 Juche Sasang) is the official state Ideology of North Korea and the Political system based on it Left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the Communist Left, which opposes the political ideas of the Bolsheviks Council communism is a Far-left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s Religious communism is a form of Communism centered on religious principles Eurocommunism was a new trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that National Communism, is an Islamic form of Communism which had a strong Nationalist element The Second International (1889-1916 was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow The Fourth International ( FI) is a communist international organisation working in opposition to both Capitalism and Stalinism. Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895 was a German social scientist and philosopher, who Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg 5 March 1870 or 1871 15 January 1919 was a Polish-born Jewish German Marxist theorist, socialist Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Anti-capitalism describes a wide variety of movements ideas and attitudes which oppose Capitalism. Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system Communist symbolism consists of a series of Symbols that represent (either literally or figuratively a variety of themes associated with communism Criticisms of Communism can be divided in two broad categories Those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century Communist state and those concerning Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist The " dictatorship of the proletariat " or workers' state is a term employed by Marxists that refers to what they see as a temporary state between the This article intentionally focuses only on the history of communism as a self-contained self-aware political movement Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within Communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. The New Class is a term to describe the privileged Ruling class of Bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist The New Left were the Left-wing movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that unlike the earlier leftist focus on union activism instead adopted a Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic Transition in former Communist states located in parts of Europe and Primitive communism is A term usually associated with Karl Marx, but most fully elaborated by Friedrich Engels (in The Origin of the Family 1884 and referring Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 Socialist economics is a broad and sometimes controversial term Titoism is an adaptation of communist ideology named after Josip Broz Tito, leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, primarily used to describe The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
The Communist League was the first Marxist international organisation. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It was founded originally as the League of the Just by German workers in Paris in 1836. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city This was initially a utopian socialist and Christian communist grouping devoted to the ideas of Gracchus Babeuf. Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought Christian Communism is a form of Religious communism centered around Christianity. François-Noël Babeuf ( November 23, 1760 - May 27, 1797) known as Gracchus Babeuf (in tribute to the Roman reformers It became an international organisation, which Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and Johann Eccarius later joined. Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895 was a German social scientist and philosopher, who Johann Eccarius (1818 - 1889 was a Thuringian tailor and labour activist
The motto of the League of the Just (Bund der Gerechten) was "All Men are Brothers" and its goals were "the establishment of the Kingdom of God on Earth, based on the ideals of love of one's neighbour, equality and justice". . The League of the Just was itself a splinter group from the League of Outlaws (Bund der Geaechteten) created in Paris in 1834 by Theodore Schuster, Wilhelm Weitling and others German emigrants, mostly journeymen. Wilhelm Weitling ( October 5, 1808 – January 24 1871) was important early German anarchist, communist or A journeyman is a trader or crafter who has completed an Apprenticeship. Schusterr was inspired by the works of Philippe Buonarroti. Filippo Giuseppe Maria Ludovico Buonarroti more usually referred to under the French version Philippe Buonarroti (1761 - 1837 was an Italian The latter league had a pyramidal structure inspired by the secret society of the Republican Carbonari, and shared ideas with Saint-Simon and Charles Fourier's utopic socialism. Secret society is a term used to describe a variety of organizations The Carbonari ("charcoal burners" were groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th-century Italy. François Marie Charles Fourier ( April 7, 1772 - October 10, 1837) was a French Utopian Their aim was to establish a "Social Republic" in the German states which would respect "freedom", "equality" and "civic virtue".
The League of Justs participated in the Blanquist uprising of May 1839 in Paris . Louis Auguste Blanqui (born February 8, 1805 in Puget-Théniers, France, died January 1, 1881) was a French Hereafter expelled from France, the League of the Just moved to London where they founded a front group, the Educational Society for German Working-men, in 1840. While Weitling moved to Switzerland, Bauer and Schapper escaped to London.
The League of Outlaws numbered approximatively 100 in Paris and 80 in Frankfurt, but by 1847 its successor the League of the Just numbered about 1,000, including members in Latin America .
Wilhelm Weitling's 1842 book, Guarantees of Harmony and Freedom, which criticized private property and bourgeois society, was one of the bases of the League of Just's social theory.
Creation of the Communist League
The Communist League was created in London in June 1847 out of a merger of the League of the Just and of the fifteen-man Communist Correspondence Committee of Bruxelles, headed by Karl Marx . The birth conference was attended by Friedrich Engels, who convinced the League to change its motto to Karl Marx's phrase, Working Men of All Countries, Unite!. Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895 was a German social scientist and philosopher, who At the same conference, the organisation was renamed the Communist League and was restructured significantly. In particular, Marx did away with all "superstitious authoritarianism," as he called the rituals pertaining to secret societies . The conference itself was counted as the first congress of the new League.
The Communist League held a second congress, also in London, in November and December 1847. Both Marx and Engels attended, and they were mandated to draw up a manifesto for the organisation. This became The Communist Manifesto. Manifesto of the Communist Party ( often referred to as The Communist Manifesto, was first published on February 21, 1848, and is
The League was not able to function effectively during the 1848 revolution, despite temporarily abandoning its clandestine nature. " Germany " at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 had been a collection of 39 States loosely bound together in the German Confederation. The Workers' Brotherhood was established in Germany by members of the League, and became the most significant revolutionary organisation there. During the revolution Marx edited the radical journal the Neue Rheinische Zeitung. The Neue Rheinische Zeitung ("New Rhenish Newspaper" was a German (specifically Rhenish from the Rhineland) daily Newspaper, published Engels fought in the Baden campaign against the Prussians (June and July 1849) as the aide-de-camp of August Willich. August Willich (November 19 1810 &ndash January 22 1878 born Johann August Ernst von Willich, was a military officer in the Prussian Army and a leading early
The Communist League reassembled in late 1849, and by 1850 they were publishing the Neue Rheinische Zeitung Revue journal, but by the end of the year, publication had ceased amid disputes between the leading members of the group. In 1852, the organisation was ended formally.
In 1850, the German master spy Wilhelm Stieber broke into Marx's house and stole register of the League's members, which he sent to France and several German states. Wilhelm Johann Carl Eduard Stieber ( 3 May 1818 &ndash January 29, 1882) was Otto von Bismarck 's master Spy and director This caused the imprisonment of several members.
- ^ The Basics of Marxist-Leninist Theory, G. Bruno Bauer ( September 6, 1809 – April 13, 1882) was a German theologian, Philosopher and Historian Johann Eccarius (1818 - 1889 was a Thuringian tailor and labour activist Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895 was a German social scientist and philosopher, who Wilhelm Weitling ( October 5, 1808 – January 24 1871) was important early German anarchist, communist or Joseph Arnold Weydemeyer ( February 2, 1818 &ndash August 26, 1866) was an officer in the Kingdom of Prussia and the August Willich (November 19 1810 &ndash January 22 1878 born Johann August Ernst von Willich, was a military officer in the Prussian Army and a leading early N. Volkov et al. , 1979, Progress Publishers
- ^ Marx and the Permanent Revolution in France: Background to the Communist Manifesto by Bernard Moss, p. 10, in The Socialist Register, 1998
- ^ Numbers given by Murray Rothbard pp. Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2 1926 – January 7 1995 was an American economist of the Austrian School who helped define modern Libertarianism 164-165 in Karl Marx: Communist as Religious Eschatologist, published in The Review of Austrian Economics, vol. 4, 1990
- ^ Murray Rothbard, "Karl Marx: Communist as Religious Eschatologist," p. 166
- ^ See Eric Hobsbawm, Primitive Rebels, chapter titled "Rituals in Social Movements", p. 169 of the 1965 edition by Norton Library
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