A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. Milstar (originally an acronym for Military Strategic and Tactical Relay ', but now a name with no inherent meaning is a United States government Satellite communications This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including geostationary orbits, Molniya orbits, other elliptical orbits and low (polar and non-polar) Earth orbits. A geostationary orbit (GEO is a Geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earth 's Equator (0° Latitude) with a period equal to the Earth's A Molniya orbit is a type of Highly elliptical orbit with an Inclination of 63 In Astrodynamics or Celestial mechanics an elliptic orbit is a Kepler orbit with the eccentricity greater than 0 and less than 1 A polar orbit is an Orbit in which a Satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the body (usually a planet such as the Earth, but possibly
For fixed (point-to-point) services, communications satellites provide a microwave radio relay technology complementary to that of fiber optic submarine communication cables. Point-to-point telecommunications generally refers to a connection restricted to two endpoints usually host computers Microwave radio relay is a technology for transmitting digital and analog signals, such as long-distance Telephone calls and the relay of An optical fiber (or fibre) is a Glass or Plastic fiber that carries Light along its length A submarine communications cable is a cable laid beneath the sea to carry Telecommunications between countries They are also used for mobile applications such as communications to ships, vehicles, planes and hand-held terminals, and for TV and radio broadcasting, for which application of other technologies, such as cable, is impractical or impossible.
The first satellite equipped with on-board radio-transmitter that worked on two frequences, 20. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. For biologic transmitters see Transmitter substance. A transmitter is an electronic device which usually with the aid of an antenna 005 and 40. 002 MHz was the Soviet Sputnik 1, launched in 1957. Sputnik 1 ( "Спутник-1", "Satellite-1" ПС-1 ( PS-1, i The first American satellite to relay communications was Project SCORE in 1958, which used a tape recorder to store and forward voice messages. Project SCORE (Signal Communications Orbit Relay Equipment was the world’s first Communications satellite. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Store and forward is a Telecommunications technique in which Information is sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final It was used to send a Christmas greeting to the world from U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general NASA launched an Echo satellite in 1960; the 100-foot aluminized PET film balloon served as a passive reflector for radio communications. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program The Echo satellites were NASA 's first passive Communications satellite experiment Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Biaxially-oriented Polyethylene terephthalate (boPET Polyester film is used for its high Tensile strength, Chemical and dimensional Stability Courier 1B, (built by Philco) also launched in 1960, was the world’s first active repeater satellite. Courier 1B Philco, the Philadelphia Storage Battery Company (formerly known as the Spencer Company and later the Helios Electric Company) was a pioneer in early battery
Telstar was the first active, direct relay communications satellite. Telstar was the first active Communications satellite (launched in 1962 and the first Satellite designed to transmit telephone and high-speed data communications Belonging to AT&T as part of a multi-national agreement between AT&T, Bell Telephone Laboratories, NASA, the British General Post Office, and the French National PTT (Post Office) to develop satellite communication, it was launched by NASA from Cape Canaveral on July 10, 1962, the first privately sponsored space launch. Before proposing a merge request please see Talk and see if the merger you propose has recently been made and Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) is the Research organization France Télécom () is the main Telecommunication company in France and one of the largest in the world Cape Canaveral from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a headland in Brevard County Florida, United States, near the center of that Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Telstar was placed in an elliptical orbit (completed once every 2 hours and 37 minutes), rotating at a 45° angle above the equator. In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the
An immediate antecedent of the geostationary satellites was Hughes’ Syncom 2, launched on July 26, 1963. Hughes Aircraft Company was a major aerospace and defense company founded by Howard Hughes. Syncom (for "synchronous communication satellite" started as a 1961 NASA program for active Geosynchronous Communication satellites all of which Events 657 - Battle of Siffin. 811 - Battle of Pliska; Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Syncom 2 revolved around the earth once per day at constant speed, but because it still had north-south motion, special equipment was needed to track it.
A satellite in a geostationary orbit appears to be in a fixed position to an earth-based observer. A geostationary orbit (GEO is a Geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earth 's Equator (0° Latitude) with a period equal to the Earth's A geostationary orbit (GEO is a Geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earth 's Equator (0° Latitude) with a period equal to the Earth's A geostationary orbit (GEO is a Geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earth 's Equator (0° Latitude) with a period equal to the Earth's A geostationary satellite revolves around the earth at a constant speed once per day over the equator.
The geostationary orbit is useful for communications applications because ground based antennas, which must be directed toward the satellite, can operate effectively without the need for expensive equipment to track the satellite’s motion. Especially for applications that require a large number of ground antennas (such as direct TV distribution), the savings in ground equipment can more than justify the extra cost and onboard complexity of lifting a satellite into the relatively high geostationary orbit.
The concept of the geostationary communications satellite was first proposed by Arthur C. Clarke, building on work by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and on the 1929 work by Herman Potočnik (writing as Herman Noordung) Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums - der Raketen-motor. Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008 was a British Science fiction Author, Inventor, and Herman Potočnik ( Pseudonym Hermann Noordung) ( December 22, 1892 - August 27, 1929) was a Slovene rocket Herman Potočnik ( Pseudonym Hermann Noordung) ( December 22, 1892 - August 27, 1929) was a Slovene rocket In October 1945 Clarke published an article titled “Extra-terrestrial Relays” in the British magazine Wireless World. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Wireless World was the pre-eminent British Magazine for Radio and Electronics enthusiasts The article described the fundamentals behind the deployment of artificial satellites in geostationary orbits for the purpose of relaying radio signals. This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. Thus Arthur C. Clarke is often quoted as being the inventor of the communications satellite. An inventor is a person who creates or discovers a new method form device or other useful means
The first truly geostationary satellite launched in orbit was the Syncom 3, launched on August 19, 1964. Syncom (for "synchronous communication satellite" started as a 1961 NASA program for active Geosynchronous Communication satellites all of which Events 43 BC - Octavian, later known as Augustus compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul. It was placed in orbit at 180° east longitude, over the International Date Line. Longitude (ˈlɒndʒɪˌtjuːd or ˈlɒŋgɪˌtjuːd symbolized by the Greek character Lambda (λ is the east-west Geographic coordinate measurement It was used that same year to relay television coverage on the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo to the United States, the first television transmission sent over the Pacific Ocean. The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions
Shortly after Syncom 3, Intelsat I, aka Early Bird, was launched on April 6, 1965 and placed in orbit at 28° west longitude. Syncom (for "synchronous communication satellite" started as a 1961 NASA program for active Geosynchronous Communication satellites all of which Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird for the Proverb "The early bird catches the worm" was the first (commercial communications Satellite to be Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. It was the first geostationary satellite for telecommunications over the Atlantic Ocean.
On November 9, 1972, North America's first geostationary satellite serving the continent, Anik A1, was launched by Telesat Canada, with the United States following suit with the launch of Westar 1 by Western Union on April 13, 1974. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Anik satellites are Geostationary Communications satellites launched by Telesat Canada for Television in Canada. Telesat Canada is a Canadian Satellite communications company founded on May 2, 1969. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Westar 1 was the first commercially-launched American Geosynchronous communications satellite launched by Western Union and NASA on April 13 The Western Union Company ( is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. Events 1111 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1204 - The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople
On December 19, 1974, the first geostationary communications satellite in the world to be three-axis stabilized was launched : the franco-German Symphonie. Events 324 - Licinius abdicates his position as Roman Emperor. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. The Symphonie satellites are the first Communications satellites built by France and Germany and the first in the world which were three-axis stabilized
After the launchings of Telstar, Syncom 3, Early Bird, Anik A1, and Westar 1, RCA Americom (later GE Americom, now SES Americom) launched Satcom 1 in 1975. SES Americom is a major commercial satellite operator based in the United States. "Satcom" is also an acronym of and generic term for Satellite communications. It was Satcom 1 that was instrumental in helping early cable TV channels such as WTBS (now TBS Superstation), HBO, CBN (now ABC Family), and The Weather Channel become successful, because these channels distributed their programming to all of the local cable TV headends using the satellite. TBS is an American Cable television network that shows sports and a variety of programming with a focus on comedy The Christian Broadcasting Network, or CBN, is a Christian Television broadcasting network in the United States. ABC Family is an American Cable television network currently owned by Disney-ABC Television Group, a division of The Walt Disney Company The Weather Channel (also TWC) is a commercially-sponsored US Cable television headend is a master facility for receiving Television signals for processing and distribution over a Cable television system Additionally, it was the first satellite used by broadcast TV networks in the United States, like ABC, NBC, and CBS, to distribute their programming to all of their local affiliate stations. The American Broadcasting Company ( ABC) is an American Television network. The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. Satcom 1 was so widely used because it had twice the communications capacity of the competing Westar 1 in America (24 transponders as opposed to Westar 1’s 12), resulting in lower transponder usage costs. "Satcom" is also an acronym of and generic term for Satellite communications. A Communications satellite ’s channels are called transponders because each is a separate Transceiver or Repeater. Satellites in later decades tended to even higher transponder counts.
By 2000 Hughes Space and Communications (now Boeing Satellite Development Center) had built nearly 40 percent of the satellites in service worldwide. Hughes Aircraft Company was a major aerospace and defense company founded by Howard Hughes. The Boeing Satellite Development Center is a major business unit of Boeing Integrated Defense Systems. Other major satellite manufacturers include Space Systems/Loral, Lockheed Martin (owns former RCA Astro Electronics/GE Astro Space business), Northrop Grumman, Alcatel Space, now Thales Alenia Space, with the Spacebus series, and EADS Astrium. Space Systems/Loral ( SS/L) of Palo Alto California, is the wholly owned manufacturing Subsidiary of Loral Space & Communications. Lockheed Martin Space Systems is one of the 4 major business divisions of Lockheed Martin. Northrop Grumman Corporation ( is an Aerospace and defense technology company formed by the 1994 purchase of Grumman by Northrop. Thales Alenia Space is the company born after Thales had bought the participation of Alcatel in the two Joint-ventures between Alcatel and Finmeccanica Spacebus is the name given to a family of geostationary telecommunications satellites developed starting in the 1980s by Aerospatiale, now Thales Alenia Space, in EADS Astrium is an Aerospace subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS based in Hampshire England
A Low Earth Orbit (LEO) typically is a circular orbit about 400 kilometres above the earth’s surface and, correspondingly, a period (time to revolve around the earth) of about 90 minutes. A Low Earth Orbit (LEO is generally defined as an Orbit within the locus extending from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2000 km A Low Earth Orbit (LEO is generally defined as an Orbit within the locus extending from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2000 km A Low Earth Orbit (LEO is generally defined as an Orbit within the locus extending from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2000 km Because of their low altitude, these satellites are only visible from within a radius of roughly 1000 kilometres from the sub-satellite point. In addition, satellites in low earth orbit change their position relative to the ground position quickly. So even for local applications, a large number of satellites are needed if the mission requires uninterrupted connectivity.
Low earth orbiting satellites are less expensive to position in space than geostationary satellites and, because of their closer proximity to the ground, require lower signal strength (Recall that signal strength falls off as the square of the distance from the source, so the effect is dramatic). So there is a trade off between the number of satellites and their cost. In addition, there are important differences in the onboard and ground equipment needed to support the two types of missions.
A group of satellites working in concert thus is known as a satellite constellation. A group of electronic Satellites working in concert is known as a satellite constellation. Two such constellations which were intended for provision for satellite phone services, primarily to remote areas, were the Iridium and Globalstar. A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a type of Mobile phone that connects to orbiting Satellites instead of terrestrial The Iridium Satellite constellation is a system of 66 active communication Satellites with spares in orbit and on the ground Globalstar is a Low Earth orbit (LEO Satellite constellation for Satellite phone and low-speed data communications somewhat similar to the Iridium The Iridium system has 66 satellites. Another LEO satellite constellation known as Teledesic, with backing from Microsoft entrepreneur Paul Allen, was to have over 840 satellites. Teledesic was a company founded in the 1990s to build a commercial Broadband Satellite constellation for Internet services Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer Paul Gardner Allen (born January 21 1953 is an American computer programmer and entrepreneur who co-founded Microsoft with Bill Gates. This was later scaled back to 288 and ultimately ended up only launching one test satellite.
It is also possible to offer discontinuous coverage using a low Earth orbit satellite capable of storing data received while passing over one part of Earth and transmitting it later while passing over another part. This will be the case with the CASCADE system of Canada’s CASSIOPE communications satellite. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Cassiope is a Genus of 9-12 small Shrubby Species in the family Ericaceae. Another system using this store and forward method is Orbcomm
As mentioned, geostationary satellites are constrained to operate above the equator. Store and forward is a Telecommunications technique in which Information is sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final ORBCOMM ( is a company that offers M2M global asset monitoring and messaging services from its constellation of 29 LEO Communications satellites A Molniya orbit is a type of Highly elliptical orbit with an Inclination of 63 A Molniya orbit is a type of Highly elliptical orbit with an Inclination of 63 As a consequence, they are not always suitable for providing services at high latitudes: for at high latitudes a geostationary satellite may appear low on the horizon, affecting connectivity and causing multipathing (interference caused by signals reflecting off the ground into the ground antenna). In Wireless Telecommunications multipath is the propagation phenomenon that results in Radio signals reaching the receiving The first satellite of Molniya series was launched on April 23, 1965 and was used for experimental transmission of TV signal from Moscow uplink station to downlink stations, located in Siberia and Russian Far East, in Norilsk, Khabarovsk, Magadan and Vladivostok. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. In Telecommunications transmission is the process of sending propagating and receiving an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or In Telecommunication, signalling (UK spelling or signaling (US spelling has the following meanings The use of signals for controlling communications Uplink An uplink (UL or U/L is the portion of a communications link used for the transmission of signals from an Earth terminal Uplink An uplink (UL or U/L is the portion of a communications link used for the transmission of signals from an Earth terminal Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving Norilsk (Нори́льск is a major city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. Khabarovsk (Хаба́ровск xʌ'barɘfsk) is the administrative center and the largest city of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. Magadan (Магада́н is a Port town on the Sea of Okhotsk and gateway to the Kolyma region Vladivostok ( is Russia 's largest port city on the Pacific Ocean and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai. In November of 1967 Soviet engineers created a unique system of national TV network of satellite television, called Orbita, that was based on Molniya satellites. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek systēma is a set of interacting or interdependent Entities, real or abstract A television network is a distribution network for Television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many Television stations Satellite television is Television delivered by the means of Communications satellites as compared to conventional Terrestrial television and Cable Orbita is a Soviet-Russian System of broadcasting and delivering TV signals via satellites
Molniya orbits can be an appealing alternative in such cases. The Molniya orbit is highly inclined, guaranteeing good elevation over selected positions during the northern portion of the orbit. (Elevation is the extent of the satellite’s position above the horizon. Thus a satellite at the horizon has zero elevation and a satellite directly overhead has elevation of 90 degrees).
Furthermore, the Molniya orbit is so designed that the satellite spends the great majority of its time over the far northern latitudes, during which its ground footprint moves only slightly. Its period is one half day, so that the satellite is available for operation over the targeted region for eight hours every second revolution. In this way a constellation of three Molniya satellites (plus in-orbit spares) can provide uninterrupted coverage.
Molniya satellites are typically used for telephony and TV services over Russia. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Another application is to use them for mobile radio systems (even at lower latitudes) since cars travelling through urban areas need access to satellites at high elevation in order to secure good connectivity, e. g. in the presence of tall buildings.
The first and historically most important application for communication satellites was in intercontinental long distance telephony. The Iridium Satellite constellation is a system of 66 active communication Satellites with spares in orbit and on the ground Long distance in Telecommunications, refers to Telephone calls made outside a certain area usually characterized by an Area code outside of a Local The fixed Public Switched Telephone Network relays telephone calls from land line telephones to an earth station, where they are then transmitted to a geostationary satellite. The public switched telephone network ( PSTN) is the network of the world's public circuit-switched Telephone networks in much the same way that the A telephone call is a connection over a Telephone network between the Calling party and the Called party. A landline, main line or fixed-line is a Telephone line which travels through a solid medium either metal Wire or Optical fibre The downlink follows an analogous path. Improvements in Submarine communications cables caused a decline in the use of satellites for fixed telephony in the late 20th century but they still serve remote islands such as Ascension Island and Saint Helena where no submarine cable is in service. A submarine communications cable is a cable laid beneath the sea to carry Telecommunications between countries Ascension Island is an island in the South Atlantic Ocean, around from the coast of Africa Saint Helena (pronounced saint he-LEE-na) named after St Helena of Constantinople, is an island of volcanic origin and a British overseas territory
Satellite phones connect directly to a constellation of geostationary or low earth orbit satellites. A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a type of Mobile phone that connects to orbiting Satellites instead of terrestrial Calls are then forwarded to a teleport connected to the PSTN network or another satellite phone. Teleportation is the movement of objects from one place to another more or less instantaneously either by Paranormal means or through technological artifice The public switched telephone network ( PSTN) is the network of the world's public circuit-switched Telephone networks in much the same way that the
Television became the main market, its demand for simultaneous delivery of relatively few signals of large bandwidth to many receivers being a more precise match for the capabilities of geosynchronous comsats. Two satellite types are used for North American television and radio:
A direct broadcast satellite is a communications satellite that transmits to small DBS satellite dishes (usually 18 to 24 inches in diameter). Direct broadcast satellite (DBS is a term used to refer to Satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception also referred to more broadly as direct-to-home Direct broadcast satellites generally operate in the upper portion of the microwave Ku band. The Ku band ( pronounced "kay-yoo") is a portion of the Electromagnetic spectrum in the Microwave range of frequencies DBS technology is used for DTH-oriented (Direct-To-Home) satellite TV services, such as DirecTV and DISH Network in the United States, Bell ExpressVu in Canada, and Sky Digital in the UK, Republic of Ireland and New Zealand. Direct broadcast satellite (DBS is a term used to refer to Satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception also referred to more broadly as direct-to-home DirecTV (trademarked as "DIREC' TV' " is a Direct broadcast satellite (DBS service based in El Segundo California, USA, that was founded Not be confused with Indian Service Dish TV DISH Network is a Direct broadcast satellite (DBS service that provides Satellite television The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Sky Digital is the brand name for British Sky Broadcasting 's digital Satellite television service transmitted from SES Astra satellites located at 28
Fixed Service Satellites use the C band, and the lower portions of the Ku bands. Fixed Service Satellite (or FSS) is the official classification (used chiefly in North America for Geostationary Communications satellites used for broadcast C band is a name given to certain portions of the Electromagnetic spectrum, as well as a range of Wavelengths of Light, used for communications They are normally used for broadcast feeds to and from television networks and local affiliate stations (such as program feeds for network and syndicated programming, live shots, and backhauls), as well as being used for distance learning by schools and universities, business television (BTV), Videoconferencing, and general commercial telecommunications. In Broadcast engineering, a remote broadcast (usually just called a remote or a live remote) is Broadcasting done from a location away from the In the context of Broadcasting, backhaul refers to uncut program content that is transmitted point-to-point to an individual television or Radio Distance education, or distance learning, is a field of education that focuses on the Pedagogy and Andragogy, technology and instructional systems design A videoconference (also known as a videoteleconference) is a set of interactive Telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact FSS satellites are also used to distribute national cable channels to cable television headends. Cable television headend is a master facility for receiving Television signals for processing and distribution over a Cable television system
Operating at lower frequency and power than DBS, FSS satellites require a much larger dish for reception (3 to 8 feet (1 to 2. 5m) in diameter for Ku band, and 12 feet (3. 6m) or larger for C band). They use linear polarization for each of the transponders' RF input and output (as opposed to circular polarization used by DBS satellites). In Electrodynamics, linear polarization or plane polarization of Electromagnetic radiation is a confinement of the Electric field vector or In Electrodynamics, circular polarization (also circular polarisation) of Electromagnetic radiation is a Polarization such that the tip of the FSS satellite technology was also originally used for DTH satellite TV from the late 1970s to the early 1990s in the United States in the form of TVRO (TeleVision Receive Only) receivers and dishes (also known as big-dish, or more pejoratively known as "BUD" or "Big ugly dish" systems). Television receive-only, or TVRO is a term used in North America to refer to the reception of Satellite television from FSS -type satellites A C-Band Dish (often abbreviated to BUD or Big Ugly Dish) is a Colloquial Name for a TVRO Satellite dish used to receive Satellite It was also used in its Ku band form for the now-defunct Primestar satellite TV service. PrimeStar was a US direct broadcast satellite broadcasting company formed in 1991 by a consortium of cable television system operators
This all changed when the first American DBS provider, DirecTV, was established in 1994, stealing the limelight from FSS satellite technology for DTH programming (due to DirecTV's smaller 18-inch diameter dishes and lower equipment cost). However, FSS satellites on the C and Ku bands still are used by cable and satellite channels such as CNN, The Weather Channel, HBO, Starz, and others, for distribution to cable TV headends (as mentioned earlier), and to the DBS providers themselves such as DirecTV and DISH Network who then re-distribute these channels over their own DBS systems. Cable News Network, usually referred to by its Initialism CNN, is a major English language Television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner The Weather Channel (also TWC) is a commercially-sponsored US Starz (originally "Starz!" it dropped the exclamation point in 2005 is a US Pay TV network which features mainly first-run Motion pictures Head end may refer to A central control device required by some networks (e
The fact that these channels still exist on FSS satellites (more so for reception and re-distribution by cable TV and DBS systems, instead of for DTH viewers) makes TVRO systems for DTH viewing a still-viable option for satellite TV, often being a much-cheaper alternative to DBS, as far as monthly subscription fees are concerned. TVRO-oriented programming packages sold by companies such as National Programming Services, Bigdish.com, and Skyvision, are often quite a bit cheaper than their DBS equivalents. Motorola still makes digital 4DTV receivers for DTH TVRO use, and analog TVRO receivers are still available. Motorola Inc ( is an American, multinational Fortune 100, Telecommunications company based in Schaumburg Illinois. 4DTV is the name of the digital TVRO Communications satellite receiver technology manufactured by Motorola for use with large-diameter parabolic dish antennas
However, the hardware for a brand-new TVRO system (dish and receiver, along with a VideoCipher or DigiCipher descrambler, or an integrated receiver/decoder (IRD) like a 4DTV system, instead of a separate receiver and descrambler/decoder) nowadays costs quite a bit more than a DBS system (about US$1500–2000, including installation). VideoCipher is a brand name of analog scrambling equipment for satellite television invented in 1983 by Linkabit Corporation which was bought out by MA/COM in 1985 DigiCipher 2, or simply DCII, is a digital signal compression standard used on many Communications satellite Television and audio signals An integrated receiver / Decoder ( IRD) is an electronic device used to pick-up a radio-frequency signal and convert Digital But most older used TVRO systems can be had almost for free, due to most people converting over to DBS systems over the years. Unlike DBS, big-dish TVRO satellite TV also provides a plethora of unscrambled and unencrypted channels such as Classic Arts Showcase, and feeds of syndicated TV shows for reception by local TV stations. Classic Arts Showcase is a Television channel in the United States promoting the Fine arts The content includes prepared media and recorded live performances In Broadcasting, syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast Radio shows and Television shows to multiple individual stations without going through
Free-to-air satellite TV channels are also usually distributed on FSS satellites in the Ku band. Free-to-air (FTA Television (TV and Radio broadcasts are sent unencrypted and may be received via any suitable receiver Free-to-view The Intelsat Americas 5, Galaxy 10R and AMC 3 satellites over North America provide a quite large amount of FTA channels on their Ku band transponders. Galaxy 25 ( G-25) launched in 1997 formerly known as Intelsat Americas 5 ( IA-5) until February 15 2007 when it was renamed as result of the merger between AMC-3 (formerly GE-3) is a Communications satellite owned by SES Americom currently in Geostationary orbit. In Telecommunication, the term transponder (short-for Trans mitter-res ponder and sometimes abbreviated to XPDR XPNDR TPDR or TP has the following meanings
The American Dish Network DBS service has also recently utilized FSS technology as well for their programming packages requiring their SuperDish antenna, due to Dish Network needing more capacity to carry local television stations per the FCC's "must-carry" regulations, and for more bandwidth to carry HDTV channels. Not be confused with Indian Service Dish TV DISH Network is a Direct broadcast satellite (DBS service that provides Satellite television The SuperDISH was deployed by DISH Network in November 2003 as a means to provide more channels for subscribing customers High-definition television (HDTV is a Digital television Broadcasting system with higher resolution than traditional television systems (standard-definition
Satellites for communication have now been launched that have transponders in the Ka band, such as DirecTV's SPACEWAY-1 satellite, and Anik F2. The Ka band (Pronounced "Kay-A Band" covers the frequencies of 26 See also HughesNet SPACEWAY DirecTV SPACEWAY-2 Boeing's Original Spaceway The Anik satellites are Geostationary Communications satellites launched by Telesat Canada for Television in Canada. NASA as well has launched experimental satellites using the Ka band recently. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program
The definitions of FSS and DBS satellites outside of North America, especially in Europe, are a bit more ambiguous. Most satellites used for direct-to-home television in Europe have the same high power output as DBS-class satellites in North America, but use the same linear polarization as FSS-class satellites. Examples of these are the Astra, Eutelsat, and Hotbird spacecraft in orbit over the European continent. SES Astra SA, is a corporate Subsidiary of SES, based in Betzdorf, in eastern Luxembourg, that owns and operates the Astra Eutelsat SA is a French -based satellite provider Providing coverage over the entire European continent as well as the Middle East Africa India and significant Hot Bird is the common name of a family of Satellites operated by Eutelsat, located at 13 °E over the Equator ( orbital position and Because of this, the terms FSS and DBS are more so used throughout the North American continent, and are uncommon in Europe.
See broadcast satellites for further information on FSS and DBS satellites in orbit. This is the list of satellites in Geosynchronous orbit. Those satellites are commonly used for communication purposes such as Radio and Television
Initially available for broadcast to stationary TV receivers, by 2004 popular mobile direct broadcast applications made their appearance with that arrival of two satellite radio systems in the United States: Sirius and XM Satellite Radio Holdings. Some manufacturers have also introduced special antennas for mobile reception of DBS television. Using GPS technology as a reference, these antennas automatically re-aim to the satellite no matter where or how the vehicle (that the antenna is mounted on) is situated. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth These mobile satellite antennas are popular with some recreational vehicle owners. In North American English the term recreational vehicle, and its acronym RV, are generally used to refer to an enclosed piece of equipment dually used as both Such mobile DBS antennas are also used by JetBlue Airways for DirecTV (supplied by LiveTV, a subsidiary of JetBlue), which passengers can view on-board on LCD screens mounted in the seats. LiveTV is a major provider of airline In-flight entertainment systems
Amateur radio operators have access to the OSCAR satellites that have been designed specifically to carry amateur radio traffic. Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a Hobby and a service in which participants called "hams" use various types of Radio communications OSCAR is an acronym for Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio. Most such satellites operate as spaceborne repeaters, and are generally accessed by amateurs equipped with UHF or VHF radio equipment and highly directional antennas such as Yagis or dish antennas. A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and Retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power or onto the other side of an obstruction Very high frequency (VHF is the Radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. An antenna is a Transducer designed to transmit or Receive electromagnetic waves In other words antennas convert electromagnetic waves into A Yagi-Uda Antenna, commonly known simply as a Yagi antenna or Yagi, is a Directional antenna system consisting of an array of a dipole Due to the limitations of ground-based amateur equipment, most amateur satellites are launched into fairly low Earth orbits, and are designed to deal with only a limited number of brief contacts at any given time. Some satellites also provide data-forwarding services using the AX.25 or similar protocols. AX25 is a Data link layer protocol derived from the X25 protocol suite and designed for use by Amateur radio operators
After the 1990s, satellite communication technology has been used as a means to connect to the Internet via broadband data connections. Satellite Internet services are used in locations where terrestrial Internet access is not available and in locations which move frequently The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks This can be very useful for users who are located in very remote areas, and cannot access a wireline broadband or dialup connection. The term broadband can have different meanings in different contexts Dial-up Internet Access is a form of Internet access via Telephone lines The user's computer or Router uses an attached Modem connected to a
Communications satellites are used for military communications applications, such as Global Command and Control Systems. Military communications, or Signals ( not to be confused with military Line of communications (LOC is a field of Military activities tactics Global Command and Control System (GCCS is a collection of SOA systems and applications which was developed to replace the Worldwide Military Command and Control System