The Comics Code Authority (CCA) is part of the Comics Magazine Association of America (CMAA), and was created to regulate the content of comic books in the United States. The Comics Code Authority ( CCA) is part of the Comics Magazine Association of America (CMAA and was created to regulate the content of comic books in the United An American comic book is a small Magazine originating in the United States and containing a Narrative in the Comics form Member publishers submit comic books to the CCA, which screens them for conformance to its Comics Code, and authorizes the use of their seal on the cover if the books comply. At the height of its influence, it was a de facto censor for the U. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor S. comic book industry.
The CCA was created in 1954 as part of the CMAA in response to public concern about what was deemed inappropriate material in many comic books. This included graphic depictions of violence and gore in crime and horror comics, as well as the sexual innuendo of what aficionados refer to as good girl art. Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes Graphic violence is the depiction of especially vivid brutal and realistic acts of violence in visual media such as Literature, Film, Television Crime comics are a Genre of American Comic books that were popular in the 1940s and 1950s Horror fiction is broadly Fiction in any medium intended to scare unsettle or horrify the audience An innuendo (also called insinuation) is a remark or question typically disparaging that works obliquely by Allusion. Good girl art ( GGA) is found in drawings or paintings which feature a strong emphasis on attractive women no matter what the subject or situation Dr. Fredric Wertham's book Seduction of the Innocent rallied opposition to this type of material in comics, arguing that it was harmful to the children who made up a large segment of the comic book audience. Fredric Wertham ( March 20, 1895 November 18, 1981) was a German-American Psychiatrist and crusading author who protested Seduction of the Innocent is a book by Dr Frederic Wertham, published in 1954, that warned that Comic books were a bad form of popular Literature The Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency hearings in 1954, which focused specifically on comic books, had many publishers concerned about government regulation, prompting them to form a self-regulatory body instead. The United States Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency was established by the United States Senate in 1953 to investigate the problem of Juvenile delinquency
The CCA code was based upon the largely unenforced code drafted by the Association of Comics Magazine Publishers in 1948, which in turn was modeled loosely after the 1930 Hollywood Production Code. The Association of Comics Magazine Publishers (ACMP was an American Industry trade group formed July 1, 1948 to regulate the content of For the television broadcasting term please see Production code number. The CCA, however, imposed many more restrictions than its predecessor.
Like the previous code, the CCA prohibited the presentation of "policemen, judges, government officials, and respected institutions . . . in such a way as to create disrespect for established authority. " But it added the requirements that "in every instance good shall triumph over evil" and discouraged "instances of law enforcement officers dying as a result of a criminal's activities. " Specific restrictions were placed on the portrayal of kidnapping and concealed weapons. In Criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or Asportation of a person against the person's will usually to hold the person in False imprisonment In the United States, carrying a concealed weapon ( CCW, also known as concealed carry) is the legal authorization for private citizens to carry
Depictions of "excessive violence" were forbidden, as were "lurid, unsavory, gruesome illustrations. " Vampires, werewolves, ghouls and zombies could not be portrayed. Vampires are mythological or folkloric revenants who subsist by feeding on the blood of the living See also Lycanthropy (disambiguation Werewolves, also known as lycanthropes, are mythological or folkloric humans with the ability to A ghoul is a Monster from ancient Arabian folklore that dwells in burial grounds and other uninhabited places zombie is a reanimated human corpse Stories of zombies originated in the Afro-Caribbean spiritual belief system of Vodou, which told of the people being controlled In addition, comics could not use the words "horror" or "terror" in their titles. The use of the word "crime" was subject to numerous restrictions.
Where the previous code had condemned the publication of "sexy, wanton comics," the CCA was much more precise: depictions of "sex perversion", "sexual abnormalities", and "illicit sex relations" as well as seduction, rape, sadism, and masochism were specifically forbidden. In Sociology, seduction (also called inveigling or wheedling) is the process of deliberately enticing a person to engage in some sort of behavior frequently Rape, also referred to as Sexual assault, is an Assault by a person involving Sexual intercourse with or Sexual penetration of another person Sadism refers to Sexual or non-sexual gratification in the infliction of Pain or humiliation upon or by another person In words echoing the Hollywood Production Code, love stories were enjoined to emphasize the "sanctity of marriage" and those portraying scenes of passion were advised to avoid stimulating "lower and baser emotions. "
Advertisements for liquor, tobacco, knives, fireworks, nude pin-ups, postcards, and "toiletry products of questionable nature" were all prohibited. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. A knife is a handheld sharp-edged instrument consisting of handle attached to a Blade used for cutting A firework is classified as a low explosive pyrotechnic device used primarily for aesthetic and entertainment purposes A pin-up girl or pin-up model is a model whose mass-produced pictures see wide appeal as Pop culture. A postcard or post card is a rectangular piece of thick Paper or thin cardboard intended for writing and mailing without an Envelope and
The CCA had no legal authority over other publishers, but magazine distributors often refused to carry comics without the CCA's seal of approval. Some publishers thrived under these restrictions, others adapted by canceling titles and focusing on Code-approved content, and others went out of business.
Publisher William Gaines believed that clauses forbidding the words "crime", "horror" and "terror" in comic book titles had been deliberately aimed at his own best-selling titles Crime SuspenStories, The Vault of Horror and The Crypt of Terror. William Maxwell Gaines ( March 1, 1922 &ndash June 3, 1992) (more frequently referred to as Bill Gaines) was the publisher and co-editor Crime SuspenStories was a bi-monthly anthology crime comic published by EC Comics in the early 1950s These restrictions, as well as those banning vampires, werewolves and zombies, helped make EC Comics unprofitable; all of its titles except MAD were cancelled in the year following the CCA's introduction. Entertaining Comics, more commonly known as EC Comics, was an American Publisher of Comic books specializing in Crime fiction, Mad is a monthly American Humor Magazine founded by editor Harvey Kurtzman and publisher William Gaines in 1952
Psychiatrist Dr. Fredric Wertham dismissed the Code as an inadequate half-measure. Fredric Wertham ( March 20, 1895 November 18, 1981) was a German-American Psychiatrist and crusading author who protested 
In the late 1960s, the underground comics scene arose, with artists creating comics that delved into subject matter explicitly banned by the Code. Underground comics (or comix) are Small press or self-published Comic books that began to appear in the US in the late 1960s However, these comics were distributed largely through unconventional channels, such as head shops, making CCA approval unnecessary for their success. head shop is a retail outlet specializing in paraphernalia related to consumption of cannabis, other recreational drugs and New Age herbs as well
In 1971, Marvel Comics editor-in-chief Stan Lee was approached by the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare to do a comic book tale of drug abuse. Eli Katz ( April 6, 1926, Riga, Latvia – January 31, 2000, Miami Florida, United States) who Marvel Comics is an American comic book company owned by Marvel Publishing Inc Stan Lee (born Stanley Martin Lieber; December 28, 1922) is an American Writer, editor, creator of comic book characters Lee agreed and wrote a three-part Spider-Man story portraying drug use as dangerous and unglamorous. Spider-Man is a Fictional character appearing in Comic books published by Marvel Comics. The CCA refused to approve the story because of the presence of narcotics, deeming the context of the story irrelevant. Confident that the original government request would give him creditability, and with the approval of his publisher, Martin Goodman, Lee published the story in The Amazing Spider-Man #96-98 (May-July 1971), without CCA approval. Martin Goodman (born January 18, 1908; died June 6, 1992, Palm Beach Florida) was an American Publisher of The Amazing Spider-Man is the name of several media Presentations which feature the Marvel Comics Superhero Spider-Man, The storyline was well-received and the CCA's argument for denying approval was deemed counterproductive. "That was the only big issue that we had" with the Code, Lee recalled in a 1998 interview:
|“||I could understand them; they were like lawyers, people who take things literally and technically. The Code mentioned that you mustn't mention drugs and, according to their rules, they were right. So I didn't even get mad at them then. I said, 'Screw it' and just took the Code seal off for those three issues. Then we went back to the Code again. I never thought about the Code when I was writing a story, because basically I never wanted to do anything that was to my mind too violent or too sexy. I was aware that young people were reading these books, and had there not been a Code, I don't think that I would have done the stories any differently. ||”|
The Code subsequently was revised in 1971 to permit the depiction of "narcotics or drug addiction" if presented "as a vicious habit". Also newly allowed were "vampires, ghouls and werewolves. . . when handled in the classic tradition such as Frankenstein, Dracula, and other high calibre literary works written by Edgar Allan Poe, Saki, Conan Doyle and other respected authors whose works are read in schools around the world". Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus, generally known as Frankenstein, is a Novel written by the British author Mary Shelley Dracula is an 1897 novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, featuring as its primary Antagonist the vampire Count Dracula. Edgar Allan Poe (January 19 1809 – October 7 1849 was an American poet, short-story Writer, editor and Literary critic, Hector Hugh Munro ( December 18, 1870 – November 14, 1916) better known by the Pen name Saki, was a British Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930 was an Anglo-Scottish Author most noted for his stories about the Zombies, lacking the requisite "literary" background, remained taboo. However, Marvel skirted the zombie restriction in the mid-1970s by calling the apparently deceased, mind-controlled followers of various Haitian super-villains "zuvembies". This practice carried over to Marvel's super-hero line. In the Avengers comic, when the reanimated super-hero Wonder Man returned from the dead, he was also referred to as a "zuvembie". The Avengers is a team of fictional Superhero characters in Comic books published by Marvel Comics.
At the 1974 New York Comic Art Convention panel "Marvel Comics: The Method and the Madness", Marv Wolfman told the audience that when he began writing for DC, he was forbidden to use the name "Wolfman" in print due to the Comics Code Authority's ban on werewolves. The City of New York The Comic Art Convention was an American, Comic book Fan convention held annually New York City, New York, over Independence Marvin A "Marv" Wolfman (born May 13, 1946) is an award-winning American Comic book Writer.  In 2007 Wolfman elaborated that in House of Secrets #83 (Jan. The House of Secrets is the name of several mystery -suspense Anthology Comic book series published by DC Comics. 1970), the narrator introduced Wolfman's story "The Stuff that Dreams are Made of" as having been told by "a wandering wolfman". The CCA rejected the story and flagged the "wolfman" reference as a violation. Editor Gerry Conway explained to the CCA how the story's author was in fact named Wolfman, and asked whether it would still be in violation if his name were clearly stated on the first story page. Gerard F "Gerry" Conway ( September 10, 1952 -) is an American Writer of Comic books and Television shows The CCA said it would then not violate the Code, so Conway gave Wolfman a writer's credit for the story. Afterward, other DC writers began asking for similar published credits.
Despite periodic revisions to the Code to reflect changing attitudes about appropriate subject matter (e. g. , the ban on referring to homosexuality was revised in 1989 to allow non-stereotypical depictions of gays and lesbians), its influence on the medium continued to wane, and publishers gradually reduced the prominence of the seal on their covers. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality. A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women The development of new distribution channels, especially "direct market" comics specialty shops, provided additional means for non-Code books to reach a large audience, while newsstand distribution — a shrinking component of industry sales — became less important. The direct market is the dominant distribution and retail network for North American Comic books.
A new generation of publishers emerged in the 1980s and '90s, distributing solely to specialty shops and not wanting CCA membership or approval. DC Comics, Marvel Comics, and other CCA sponsors began to publish comics for adult audiences, without the CCA seal. DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company Marvel Comics is an American comic book company owned by Marvel Publishing Inc For example, in the 1990s Milestone Media's Milestone imprint (published through DC Comics) submitted its books to the CCA, but published them regardless of the CCA's ruling, placing the seal only on issues that passed. Milestone Media is a company best known for creating the Milestone Comics Imprint (that was published through DC Comics) and the Static Shock In 2001, Marvel Comics, the world's largest comics publisher, withdrew from the CCA in favor of its own ratings system. The Marvel Rating System is a system for rating the content of Comic books, with regard to appropriateness for different age groups As of 2007, DC Comics and Archie Comics are the only major publishers submitting comics for Code approval; DC only submits comics from their Johnny DC and DC Universe superhero lines, but DC Universe titles are sometimes published without Code approval. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Archie Comics is an American Comic book publisher known for its many series featuring the fictional teenage Archie Andrews, Betty Cooper Johnny DC is a character that DC Comics has used at various times as a mascot for its lines of comic books and occasionally as Metafictional character who comments The DC Universe ( DCU) is the fictional Shared universe where most of the comic stories published by DC Comics take place
- Crimes shall never be presented in such a way as to create sympathy for the criminal, to promote distrust of the forces of law and justice, or to inspire others with a desire to imitate criminals.
- If crime is depicted it shall be as a sordid and unpleasant activity.
- Criminals shall not be presented so as to be rendered glamorous or to occupy a position which creates a desire for emulation.
- In every instance good shall triumph over evil and the criminal punished for his misdeeds.
- Scenes of excessive violence shall be prohibited. Scenes of brutal torture, excessive and unnecessary knife and gunplay, physical agony, gory and gruesome crime shall be eliminated.
- No comic magazine shall use the word horror or terror in its title.
- All scenes of horror, excessive bloodshed, gory or gruesome crimes, depravity, lust, sadism, masochism shall not be permitted.
- All lurid, unsavory, gruesome illustrations shall be eliminated.
- Inclusion of stories dealing with evil shall be used or shall be published only where the intent is to illustrate a moral issue and in no case shall evil be presented alluringly, nor so as to injure the sensibilities of the reader.
- Scenes dealing with, or instruments associated with walking dead, torture, vampires and vampirism, ghouls, cannibalism, and werewolfism are prohibited.
- Profanity, obscenity, smut, vulgarity, or words or symbols which have acquired undesirable meanings are forbidden.
- Nudity in any form is prohibited, as is indecent or undue exposure.
- Suggestive and salacious illustration or suggestive posture is unacceptable.
- Females shall be drawn realistically without exaggeration of any physical qualities.
- Illicit sex relations are neither to be hinted at nor portrayed. Violent love scenes as well as sexual abnormalities are unacceptable.
- Seduction and rape shall never be shown or suggested.
- Sex perversion or any inference to same is strictly forbidden.
- Nudity with meretricious purpose and salacious postures shall not be permitted in the advertising of any product; clothed figures shall never be presented in such a way as to be offensive or contrary to good taste or morals.
In the Marvel Comics universe, a fictional Marvel publishes comic books based on the "real-life" exploits of superheroes. The Marvel Universe is the fictional Shared universe where most of the comic stories published by Marvel Comics take place A superhero (sometimes rendered super-hero or super hero) is a Fictional character "of unprecedented physical prowess dedicated to acts of derring-do The 2000s series She-Hulk established that the fictional Marvel submitted its publications to the Comics Code Authority for approval, until breaking with the CCA in 2001 as the real-life Marvel did. She-Hulk ( Jennifer Susan Walters) is a Marvel Comics superheroine Created by writer Stan Lee and artist John Buscema, she This fictional CCA is vaguely identified as a federal agency, and CCA comics based on "true" events are considered to be legal documents usable as evidence in a court of law. The fictional law firm of Goodman, Lieber, Kurtzberg & Holliway in She-Hulk has an extensive library of CCA-approved Marvel comics for reference purposes. Goodman Lieber Kurtzberg & Holliway is the name of a Fictional law firm featured in the pages of the She-Hulk comic books published by Marvel Comics
In the 1990s Marvel series The Sensational She-Hulk, the title character is asked how, despite the fact her clothes are frequently being torn up, she always remains "decent". She-Hulk responds by showing the label in her clothing: the Comics Code seal.