The colonization of the Moon is the proposed establishment of permanent human communities on the Moon. Science fiction writers and advocates of space exploration have seen settlement of the Moon as a logical step in the expansion of humanity beyond the Earth. History First orbital flights The first successful orbital launch was of the Soviet unmanned Sputnik A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established permanent residence there often to colonize the area EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001
Permanent human habitation on a planetary body other than the Earth is one of science fiction's central themes. As technology has advanced, and concerns about the future of humanity on Earth have increased, the argument that space colonization is an achievable and worthwhile goal has gained momentum. Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, Space habitation, etc  Because of its proximity to Earth, the Moon has been seen as a prime candidate for the location of humanity's first permanently occupied extraterrestrial base.
Should attempts at colonization go ahead, economic concerns are likely to lead to settlements being created near mines and processing centers, or near the poles where a continuous source of solar energy can be harnessed. While it would be relatively easy to resupply a lunar base from Earth, in comparison to a Martian base, the Moon is likely to play a large role in the development of long-duration closed-loop life support systems. Duplicating the ecology of Earth so that wastes can be recycled is essential to any long term effort of space exploration. The wealth and knowledge gained by extracting and refining resources on the Moon would positively affect efforts to build colonies elsewhere in the Solar System. The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity.
The notion of siting a colony on the Moon originated before the space age; Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, among others, suggested such a step. Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, Space habitation, etc Mercury has been suggested as one possible target for Space colonization of the inner Solar system, along with Mars, Venus, the Moon The colonization of Venus has been a subject of much speculation and many works of science fiction since before the dawn of Spaceflight, and is still much discussed Lagrange Point Colonization is the colonization of the five equilibrium points in the orbit of a planet or moon its primary called Lagrange points The most obvious points for Mars is the focus of much speculation and serious study about possible human colonization which might be possible Ceres has been proposed as one possible target for human colonization in the inner Solar system. The Asteroids or more properly the Minor planets, have long been suggested as possible sites for human colonization Some of the moons of the outer planets of the Solar system are large enough to be suitable places for colonization The colonization of Jupiter refers to having a permanent human presence on Jupiter Europa, the fourth-largest moon of the Gas giant Jupiter, is a subject in both Science fiction and scientific speculation for future human NASA performed a study called HOPE (Revolutionary Concepts for H uman O uter P lanet E xploration regarding the future exploration of Some of the moons of the outer planets of the Solar system are large enough to be suitable places for colonization Saturn’s orange moon Titan is one of several candidates for a possible future colonization of the outer planets in the solar system Advantages of Pluto Based on current theory Pluto is a potential dwarf planet to colonize because its surface is similar to the rock of Earth and Freeman Dyson has proposed that Trans-Neptunian Objects, rather than Planets are the major potential habitat of life in space  From the 1950s onwards, a number of concepts and designs have been suggested by scientists, engineers and others.
Noted science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke proposed a lunar base of inflatable modules covered in lunar dust for insulation in 1954. Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008 was a British Science fiction Author, Inventor, and  A spaceship, assembled in low Earth orbit, would be launched towards the Moon, and astronauts would set up the igloo-like modules and an inflatable radio mast. An igloo ( Inuit language: iglu, Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᒡᓗ "house" plural iglooit or igluit, but in English Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Subsequent steps would include the establishment of a larger, permanent dome; an algae-based air purifier; a nuclear reactor for the provision of power; and electromagnetic cannons to launch cargo and fuel to interplanetary vessels in space. Algae ( sing. alga are a large and diverse group of simple typically Autotrophic organisms ranging from Unicellular to Multicellular forms An air purifier is a device which removes Contaminants from air This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled A mass driver or electromagnetic Catapult is a method of Non-rocket spacelaunch that would use a Linear motor to Accelerate Cargo (or freight) refers to goods or produce transported generally for Commercial gain by ship, aircraft, train, Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy
In 1959, John S. Rinehart suggested that the safest design would be a structure that could "[float] in a stationary ocean of dust," since there were, at the time this concept was outlined, theories that there could be mile-deep dust oceans on the Moon.  The design proposed consisted of a half-cylinder with half-domes at both ends, with a micrometeoroid shield placed above the base.
The Project Horizon was a 1959 study regarding the U.S. Army's plan to establish a fort on the Moon by 1967. Project Horizon was a study to determine the feasibility of constructing a Military base on the Moon. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities.  H. H. Koelle, a German rocket engineer of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) was leading the Project Horizon study. The first landing would be carried out by two "soldier-astronauts" in 1965 and more construction workers would soon follow. Through numerous launches (61 Saturn I and 88 Saturn V), 245 tons of cargo would be transported to the outpost by 1966.
Exploration of the lunar surface by spacecraft began in 1959 when the Soviet Luna 2 mission crash-landed into the surface. The physical exploration of the Moon began when Luna 2, a Space probe launched by the Soviet Union, impacted the surface of the Moon on The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Luna 2 (E-1A series was the second of the Soviet Union's Luna program spacecraft launched in the direction of the Moon. The same year, the Luna 3 mission radioed photographs to Earth of the Moon's hitherto unseen far side, marking the beginning of a decade-long series of unmanned lunar explorations. The Soviet spaceprobe Luna 3 (E-3 series was the third spacecraft sent successfully to the Moon and was an early triumph in the human exploration of outer space A photograph (often shortened to photo) is an Image created by Light falling on a light-sensitive surface usually Photographic film or an electronic Far Side of the Moon, in original French, La face cachée de la lune, is a 2003 film by Robert Lepage.
Responding to the Soviet program of space exploration, US President John F. Kennedy in 1961 told the U.S. Congress on May 25: "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal before this decade is out of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the Earth. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Events 1085 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo Spain back from the Moors. " The same year the Soviet leadership made some of its first public pronouncements about landing a man on the Moon and establishing a lunar base.
In 1962, John DeNike and Stanley Zahn published their idea of a sub-surface base located at the Sea of Tranquility. Mare Tranquillitatis ( Latin for Sea of Tranquility) is a Lunar mare that sits within the Tranquillitatis basin on Earth 's Moon  This base would house a crew of 21, in modules placed 4 meters below the surface, which was believed to provide radiation shielding as well as the Earth's atmosphere does. Radiation, as in Physics, is Energy in the form of waves or moving Subatomic particles emitted by an atom or other body as it changes from a higher energy They favored nuclear reactors for energy production, because they are more efficient than solar panels, and would also overcome the problems with the long lunar nights. This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled In the field of Photovoltaics, a photovoltaic module is a packaged interconnected assembly of photovoltaic cells also known as Solar cells An installation of For life support system, an algae-based gas exchanger was proposed.
Manned exploration of the lunar surface began in 1968 when the Apollo 8 spacecraft orbited the Moon with three astronauts on board. This was mankind's first direct view of the far side. The following year, the Apollo 11 lunar module landed two astronauts on the Moon, proving the ability of humans to travel to the Moon, perform scientific research work and bring back sample materials. Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter.
Additional missions to the Moon continued this exploration phase. The Apollo 12 mission landed next to the Surveyor 3 spacecraft, demonstrating precision landing capability. Surveyor 3 was the third lander of the Surveyor program that explored the Moon. Following the near-disaster of Apollo 13, Apollo 14 was the last mission on which astronauts were quarantined on their return from the Moon. For other uses see Quarantine (disambiguation Quarantine is voluntary or compulsory isolation typically to contain the spread of something The use of a manned vehicle was demonstrated with the Lunar Rover during Apollo 15. The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV or lunar rover was a type of surface exploration rover used on the Moon during the Apollo program. Apollo 16 made the first landing within the rugged lunar highlands.
However, interest in further exploration of the Moon was beginning to wane among the American public. Apollo 17 was the final Apollo lunar mission, and further planned missions were scrapped at the directive of President Nixon. Instead, focus was turned to the Space Shuttle and manned missions in near Earth orbit. NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States Responding to this new direction, the Soviet government also decided to direct their energies toward building a matching shuttle system, though in the 1970s they did land two robotic rovers on the Moon in the Lunokhod program and returned three lunar soil samples as part of the Luna program. Lunokhod ( Russian Луноход "Moonwalker") 1 and 2 were a pair of by the Soviet robotic lunar rovers landed on the The Luna programme (from the Russian word "Luna" meaning "Moon" occasionally called Lunik or Lunnik, was a series of Robotic spacecraft 1974 also saw the end of the Soviet Moonshot, two years after the last American manned landing. This article deals only with preparations for manned flight to the Moon by the USSR.
In the decades following, interest in exploring the Moon faded considerably, and only a few dedicated enthusiasts supported a return. However, evidence of lunar ice at the poles gathered by NASA's Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions rekindled some discussion, as did the potential growth of a Chinese space program that contemplated its own mission to the Moon. Lunar ice is water ice that is hypothesised to exist on the surface of the Moon, delivered over geological timescales by the regular bombardment of the Moon by Spacecraft design The spacecraft was an octagonal prism 188 m high and 1 The Lunar Prospector mission was the third selected by NASA for full development and construction as part of the Discovery Program.  Subsequent research suggested that there was far less ice present (if any) than had originally been thought, but that there may still be some usable deposits of hydrogen in other forms. 
In 2004, U.S. President George W. Bush called for a plan to return manned missions to the Moon by 2020. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by U Propelled by this new initiative, NASA issued a new long-range plan that includes building a base on the Moon as a staging point to Mars. This plan envisions a Lunar outpost at one of the moon's poles by 2024 which, if well-sited, might be able to continually harness solar power; at the poles, temperature changes over the course of a lunar day are also less extreme, and reserves of water and useful minerals may be found nearby. The Lunar outpost will be an inhabited facility on the surface of the Moon which NASA currently plans to construct over the five years between 2019  The European Space Agency, also, has a plan for a permanently manned lunar base by 2025. The European Space Agency ( ESA) established in 1975 is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 17 member  Russia has also announced similar plans to send a man to the moon by 2025 and establish a permanent base there several years later. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending 2025 ( MMXXV) will be a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian Calendar. 
A Chinese space scientist has said that the People's Republic of China could be capable of landing a human on the moon by 2022 (see Chinese Lunar Exploration Program), and Japan and India also have plans for a lunar base by 2030. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES 2022 ( MMXXII) will be a Common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Chinese Lunar Exploration Program ( CLEP) ( is a program of robotic explorations and human missions to the Moon undertaken by China National Space Administration For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country 2030 ( MMXXX) will be a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.  Neither of these plans involves permanent residents on the Moon. Instead they call for sortie missions, in some cases followed by extended expeditions to the lunar base using rotating crew members, as is currently done for the International Space Station.
Putting aside the general questions of whether a human colony beyond the Earth is feasible or scientifically desirable in light of cost-efficiency, proponents of space colonization point out that the Moon offers both advantages and disadvantages as a site for such a colony. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001
Placing a colony on a natural body would provide an ample source of material for construction and other uses, including shielding from radiation. In the fields of Architecture and Civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the Building or assembling of Infrastructure Radiation, as in Physics, is Energy in the form of waves or moving Subatomic particles emitted by an atom or other body as it changes from a higher energy The energy required to send objects from the Moon to space is much less than from Earth to space. This could allow the Moon to serve as a construction site or fueling station for spacecraft.  Some proposals include using electric acceleration devices (mass drivers) to propel objects off the Moon without building rockets. A mass driver or electromagnetic Catapult is a method of Non-rocket spacelaunch that would use a Linear motor to Accelerate Others have proposed momentum exchange tethers (see below). Furthermore, the Moon does have some gravity, which, experience to date indicates, may be vital for fetal development and long-term human health. Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another Health is a state of complete physical mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity  Whether the Moon's gravity (roughly one sixth of Earth's) is adequate for this purpose, however, is uncertain.
In addition, the Moon is the closest large body in the solar system to Earth. The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity. While some Earth-crosser asteroids occasionally pass closer, the Moon's distance is consistently within a small range close to 384,400 km. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand This proximity has several benefits:
There are several disadvantages to the Moon as a colony site:
Three criteria that a lunar outpost should meet are:
While a colony might be located anywhere, potential locations for a lunar colony fall into three broad categories.
There are two reasons why the lunar poles might be attractive as locations for a human colony. First, there is evidence that water may be present in some continuously shaded areas near the poles.  Second, because the Moon's axis of rotation is almost perfectly perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, it may be possible to power polar colonies exclusively with solar energy. A rotation is a movement of an object in a circular motion A two- Dimensional object rotates around a center (or point) of rotation The ecliptic is the apparent path that the Sun traces out in the sky during the year Power collection stations can be located so that at least one is in sunlight at all times. Some sites have nearly continuous sunlight. For example, Malapert mountain, located near the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole, offers several advantages as a site:
NASA chose to use a south-polar site for the lunar outpost reference design in the Exploration Systems Architecture Study chapter on Lunar Architecture. The Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS is the official title of a large-scale system level study conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA 
At the north pole, the rim of Peary crater has been proposed as a favorable location for a base. Peary is the closest large lunar Impact crater to the lunar North pole.  Examination of images from the Clementine mission appear to show that parts of the crater rim are permanently illuminated by sunlight (except during lunar eclipses). Spacecraft design The spacecraft was an octagonal prism 188 m high and 1  As a result, the temperature conditions are expected to remain very stable at this location, averaging −50 °C (−58 °F).  This is comparable to winter conditions in the Pole of Cold in Siberia, or in some parts of Antarctica. The Poles of Cold are the places in the Northern and Southern hemispheres where the lowest air temperatures were recorded Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving The Peary crater interior may also harbor hydrogen deposits. 
Although hydrogen appears to be concentrated at the poles, the presence of lunar ice has not yet been confirmed. Lunar ice is water ice that is hypothesised to exist on the surface of the Moon, delivered over geological timescales by the regular bombardment of the Moon by A bistatic radar experiment performed during the Clementine mission suggested the presence of water ice around the south pole. Spacecraft design The spacecraft was an octagonal prism 188 m high and 1  The Lunar Prospector spacecraft reported enhanced hydrogen abundances not only at the south pole, but also at the north pole — actually more so. The Lunar Prospector mission was the third selected by NASA for full development and construction as part of the Discovery Program.  On the other hand, results reported using the Arecibo radio telescope have been interpreted by some to indicate that the anomalous Clementine radar signatures are not indicative of ice, but surface roughness. The Arecibo Observatory is a very sensitive Radio telescope located approximately south-southwest from the town of Arecibo in Puerto Rico.  This interpretation, however, is not universally agreed upon. 
The lunar equatorial regions are likely to have higher concentrations of helium-3 (rare on Earth but much sought after for use in nuclear fusion research) because the solar wind has a higher angle of incidence. This article is about the elemental isotope For the record label Helium 3 see Muse or A&E Records.  They also enjoy an advantage in launching material from the Moon, but the advantage is slight due to the Moon's slow rotation.
Several probes have landed in the Oceanus Procellarum area. Oceanus Procellarum (oʊˈsiːənəs ˌprɒsəˈlɛərəm Latin for "Ocean of Storms" is a vast Lunar mare on the western edge of the near side of There are many areas and features that could be subject to long-term study, such as the Reiner Gamma anomaly and the dark-floored Grimaldi crater. Reiner Gamma (γ is an Albedo feature that is located on the Oceanus Procellarum, to the west of the crater Reiner on the Moon. Grimaldi is a large basin located near the western limb of the Moon.
The lunar far side lacks direct communication with Earth, though a communication satellite at the L2 Lagrangian point, or a network of orbiting satellites, could enable communication between the far side of the Moon and Earth. Far Side of the Moon, in original French, La face cachée de la lune, is a 2003 film by Robert Lepage. A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial Satellite stationed in space for the purposes of Telecommunications.  The far side is also a good location for a large radio telescope because it is well shielded from the Earth.  Due to the lack of atmosphere, the location is also suitable for an array of optical telescopes, similar to the Very Large Telescope in Chile. An optical telescope is a Telescope which is used to gather and focus light mainly from the visible part of the Electromagnetic spectrum The Very Large Telescope ( VLT) is a system of four separate Optical telescopes (the Antu telescope, the Kueyen telescope, the Melipal Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the  To date, there has been no ground exploration of the far side.
Scientists have estimated that the highest concentrations of helium-3 will be found in the maria on the far side, as well as near side areas containing concentrations of the titanium-based mineral ilmenite. The lunar maria (singular mare, two syllables are large dark Basaltic plains on Earth 's Moon, formed by ancient Volcanic eruptions Titanium (taɪˈteɪniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Ti and Atomic number 22 A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic titanium-iron oxide Mineral which is iron-black or steel-gray On the near side the Earth and its magnetic field partially shields the surface from the solar wind during each orbit. But the far side is fully exposed, and thus should receive a somewhat greater proportion of the ion stream. 
There have been numerous proposals regarding habitat modules. The designs have evolved throughout the years as mankind's knowledge about the Moon has grown, and as the technological possibilities have changed. The proposed habitats range from the actual spacecraft landers or their used fuel tanks, to inflatable modules of various shapes. Early on, some hazards of the lunar environment such as sharp temperature shifts, lack of atmosphere or magnetic field (which means higher levels of radiation and micrometeoroids) and long nights, were recognized and taken into consideration.
Some suggest building the lunar colony underground, which would give protection from radiation and micrometeoroids. This is not the only advantage to this option. The average temperature on the moon is about −5 degrees Celsius. The day period (two weeks) has an average temperature of about 107 degrees Celsius (225 degrees Fahrenheit), although it can rise as high as 123 degrees Celsius (253 degrees Fahrenheit). The night period (also two weeks) has an average temperature of about −153 degrees Celsius (−243 degrees Fahrenheit).  Underground, both periods would be around 24 degrees Celsius (75 degrees Fahrenheit), and humans could install ordinary air conditioners.  The construction of such a base would probably be more complex; one of the first machines from Earth might be a remote controlled boring machine to excavate living quarters. Once created, some sort of hardening would be necessary to avoid collapse, possibly a spray-on concrete-like substance made from available materials. Shotcrete and gunite are two commonly used terms for substances applied via Pressure hoses Shotcrete is mortar or (usually Concrete conveyed Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag  A more porous insulating material also made in situ could then be applied. Inflatable self-sealing fabric habitats might then be put in place to retain air. As an alternative to excavating, it is possible that large underground extinct lava tubes might exist on the Moon. Lava tubes are natural conduits through which Lava travels beneath the surface of a lava flow expelled by a Volcano during an eruption 
A possibly easier solution would be to build the lunar base on the surface, and cover the modules with lunar soil. Others have put forward the idea that the lunar base could be built on the surface and protected by other means, such as improved radiation and micrometeoroid shielding. Artificial magnetic fields have been proposed as a means to provide radiation shielding for long range deep space manned missions, and it might be possible to use similar technology on a lunar colony. Some regions on the Moon possess strong local magnetic fields that might partially mitigate against exposure to charged solar and galactic particles. 
A lunar base would need power for its operations — from fuel production and communications to life support systems and scientific research.
A nuclear fission reactor might fulfill most of the base's power requirements. This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled The advantage of a fission reactor over a fusion reactor is that the technology already exists. This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled Fusion power is power generated by Nuclear fusion reactions In this kind of reaction two light atomic nuclei fuse A fusion reactor has the advantage that helium-3, which is required for a certain type of fusion reaction, is abundant on the Moon. This article is about the elemental isotope For the record label Helium 3 see Muse or A&E Records. However, fusion reactors are far from being a practical power source at present and may not be available at the time of lunar colonization. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators could be used as backup and emergency power sources for solar powered colonies. A radioisotope thermoelectric generator ( RTG, RITEG) is an Electrical generator which obtains its power from Radioactive decay.
Solar energy is a strong candidate. It could prove to be a relatively cheap source of power for a lunar base, especially since many of the raw materials needed for solar panel production can be extracted on site. However, the long lunar night (14 Earth days) is a drawback for solar power on the Moon's surface. This might be solved by building several power plants, so that at least one of them is always in daylight. Another possibility would be to build such a power plant where there is constant or near-constant sunlight, such as at the Malapert mountain near the lunar south pole, or on the rim of Peary crater near the north pole. Peary is the closest large lunar Impact crater to the lunar North pole. A third possibility would be to leave the panels in orbit, and beam the power down as microwaves. Space-based solar power (SBSP or SSP is the conversion of solar energy into power usable either in space or on earth from a location in space usually Geosynchronous
The solar energy converters need not be silicon solar panels. Silicon (ˈsɪlɪkən or /ˈsɪlɪkɒn/ silicium is the Chemical element that has the symbol Si and Atomic number 14 In the field of Photovoltaics, a photovoltaic module is a packaged interconnected assembly of photovoltaic cells also known as Solar cells An installation of It may be more advantageous to use the larger temperature difference between sun and shade to run heat engine generators. A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts Thermal energy to mechanical output Concentrated sunlight could also be relayed via mirrors and used in Stirling engines or solar trough generators, or it could be used directly for lighting, agriculture and process heat. A Stirling engine is a closed-cycle regenerative Heat engine with a Gaseous working fluid A parabolic trough is a type of Solar thermal energy collector The focused heat might also be employed in materials processing to extract various elements from lunar surface materials.
For colonies away from the lunar poles and not using nuclear power, some way to store energy for the long lunar night would be needed. One possibility would be to use solar energy to convert water into hydrogen and oxygen and then use the stored gases to run fuel cells or internal combustion engines during the night.
Fuel cells on the Space Shuttle have operated reliably for up to 17 days at a time. NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States On the Moon, they would only be needed for 13. 7 days — the length of the lunar night. Fuel cells produce water directly as a waste product. Current fuel cell technology is more advanced than the Shuttle's cells — PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) cells produce considerably less heat (though their waste heat would likely be useful during the lunar night) and are physically lighter, and thus more economical to launch from Earth. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells, also known as Proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells (PEMFC are a type of Fuel cell being developed for transport
Combining fuel cells with electrolysis would provide a 'perpetual' source of electricity - solar energy could be used to provide power during the Lunar 'day', and fuel cells at night. During the Lunar 'day', solar energy would also be used to electrolise the water created in the fuel cells - virtually perpetual electricity production; although there would be small losses of gases that would have to be replaced.
Conventional rockets have been used for most lunar exploration to date. A rocket or rocket vehicle is a Missile, Aircraft or other Vehicle which obtains Thrust by the reaction of the The ESA's SMART-1 mission from 2003 to 2006 used Hall effect thrusters. SMART-1 was a Swedish -designed European Space Agency Satellite that Orbited around the Moon. In Spacecraft propulsion, a Hall thruster is a type of Ion thruster in which the Propellant is accelerated by an electric field NASA will use chemical rockets on its Ares V booster and Lunar Surface Access Module, being developed for a planned return to the Moon around 2019. The Ares V (formerly known as the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV is the cargo launch component of Project Constellation. Name On December 13, 2007, NASA's Lunar Surface Access Module was retitled "Altair" after the 12th brightest star in the northern hemisphere's night The construction workers, location finders, and other astronauts vital to building, will be taken in NASA's Orion spacecraft. Orion is a Spacecraft design currently under development by the United States space agency NASA.
Lunar colonists will want the ability to move over long distances, to transport cargo and people to and from modules and spacecraft, and to carry out scientific study of a larger area of the lunar surface for long periods of time. Proposed concepts include a variety of vehicle designs, from small open rovers to large pressurised modules with lab equipment, and also a few flying or hopping vehicles.
Rovers could be useful if the terrain is not too steep or hilly. The only rovers to have operated on the surface of the Moon (as of 2008) are the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), developed by Boeing, and the robotic Soviet Lunokhod. The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV or lunar rover was a type of surface exploration rover used on the Moon during the Apollo program. The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E Lunokhod ( Russian Луноход "Moonwalker") 1 and 2 were a pair of by the Soviet robotic lunar rovers landed on the The LRV was an open rover for a crew of two, and a range of 92 km during one lunar day. One NASA study resulted in the Mobile Lunar Laboratory concept, a manned pressurised rover for a crew of two, with a range of 396 km. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program The Soviet Union developed different rover concepts in the Lunokhod series and the L5 for possible use on future manned missions to the Moon or Mars. These rover designs were all pressurised for longer sorties. 
If multiple bases were established on the lunar surface, they could be linked together by permanent railway systems. Both conventional and magnetic levitation (Mag-Lev) systems have been proposed for the transport lines. Magnetic levitation, maglev, or magnetic suspension is a method by which an object is suspended with no support other than Magnetic fields The Mag-Lev systems are particularly attractive as there is no atmosphere on the surface to slow down the train, so the vehicles could achieve velocities comparable to aircraft on the Earth. A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another One significant difference with lunar trains, however, is that the cars would need to be individually sealed and possess their own life support systems. The trains would also need to be highly resistant to derailment, as a punctured car could lead to rapid loss of life.
For difficult areas, a flying vehicle may be more suitable. Bell Aerosystems proposed their design for the Lunar Flying Vehicle as part of a study for NASA. The Bell Aircraft Corporation was an Aircraft manufacturer of the United States, a builder of several types of Fighter aircraft for World War Bell also developed the Manned Flying System, a similar concept.
A lunar base will need efficient ways to transport people and goods of various kinds between the Earth and the Moon and, later, to and from various locations in interplanetary space. One advantage of the Moon is its relatively weak gravity field, making it easier to launch goods from the Moon than from the Earth. The lack of a lunar atmosphere is both an advantage and a disadvantage; while it is easier to launch from the Moon because there is no drag, aerobraking is not possible, which makes it necessary to bring extra fuel in order to land. Aerobraking is a Spaceflight maneuver that reduces the high point of an Elliptical orbit ( Apoapsis) by flying the vehicle through the Atmosphere An alternative, which may work for supplies, is to surround the payload with impact-absorbing materials, something that was tried in the Ranger program. The Ranger program was a series of Unmanned space missions by the United States in the 1960s whose objective was to obtain the first close-up images of the surface This can be efficient if the impact protection is made of needed lighter elements that are absent from the Moon (Ranger used balsa wood).
One way to get materials and products from the Moon to an interplanetary waystation might be with a mass driver, a magnetically accelerated projectile launcher. A mass driver or electromagnetic Catapult is a method of Non-rocket spacelaunch that would use a Linear motor to Accelerate Cargo would be picked up from orbit or an Earth-Moon Lagrangian point by a shuttle craft using ion propulsion, solar sails or other means and delivered to Earth orbit or other destinations such as near-Earth asteroids, Mars or other planets, perhaps using the Interplanetary Transport Network. An ion thruster is a form of Electric propulsion used for Spacecraft propulsion that creates thrust by accelerating Ions Ion thrusters are characterized Solar sails (also called light sails or photon sails, especially when they use Light sources other than the Sun) are a proposed form of The Interplanetary Transport Network (ITN is a collection of Gravitationally determined pathways through the Solar system that require very little Energy If a lunar space elevator is ever built, it could transport people, raw materials and products to and from an orbital station at Lagrangian points L1 or L2. A lunar space elevator (also called a moonstalk) is a proposed cable running from the surface of the Moon into space A space station is an artificial structure designed for Humans to live in Outer space.
A cislunar transport system has been proposed using tethers to achieve momentum exchange. Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies.  This system requires zero net energy input, and could not only retrieve payloads from the lunar surface and transport them to Earth, but could also soft land payloads on to the lunar surface.
For long term sustainability, a space colony should be close to self sufficient. On site mining and refining of the Moon's materials could provide an advantage over deliveries from Earth – for use both on the Moon and elsewhere in the solar system – as they can be launched into space at a much lower energy cost than from Earth. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Refining (also called affining) is the process of Purification of a substance. It is possible that vast sums of money will be spent in interplanetary exploration in the 21st century, and the cost of providing goods from the Moon might be attractive. 
In the long term, the Moon is likely to be very important in supplying construction facilities with raw materials.  Zero gravity allows materials to be processed in ways impossible or difficult on Earth, such as 'foaming' metals, where a gas is injected into a molten metal, and then the metal is annealed slowly. A metal foam is a cellular structure consisting of a solid Metal - frequently Aluminum - containing a large volume fraction of gas-filled Pores The pores On Earth, the gas bubbles rise and burst, but in a zero gravity environment, that does not happen. Weightlessness is a phenomenon experienced by people during Free-fall. Annealing is a process that requires large amounts of energy, as a material is kept very hot for an extended period of time. This allows the molecular structure to align in the strongest possible way. Materials which cannot be alloyed or mixed on Earth because of the gravity field effects on density differences could be combined in space, resulting in composites which could have exceptional qualities. No one knows, because no one has been able to experiment along these lines on any scale. However, it is possible that a material or process will be identified which will be highly valuable on Earth, but impossible to make here.
Exporting material to Earth in trade from the Moon is more problematic due to the high cost of transportation. One suggested candidate is Helium-3 from the solar wind, which has accumulated on the Moon's surface over billions of years, and which is rare on Earth. This article is about the elemental isotope For the record label Helium 3 see Muse or A&E Records. The solar wind is a Stream of charged particles&mdasha plasma &mdashthat are ejected from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. Helium is present in the lunar regolith in quantities of ten to a hundred (weight) parts per million, and 0. Regolith ( Greek: "blanket rock" is a layer of loose Heterogeneous material covering solid rock. 003 to 1 percent of this amount (depending on soil). 2006 market price for He3 was about $46,500 per troy ounce ($1500/gram, $1. 5M/kg), more than 120 times the value per unit weight of Gold and over eight times the value of Rhodium. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Rh redirects here For other uses see Rh (disambiguation Rhodium (ˈroʊdiəm is a Chemical element with the symbol
In the long term future He3 may prove to be a desirable fuel in thermonuclear fusion reactors. In Physics and Nuclear chemistry, nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple- like charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus Fusion power is power generated by Nuclear fusion reactions In this kind of reaction two light atomic nuclei fuse
Gerald Kulcinski's group at the Fusion Technology Institute of the University of Wisconsin-Madison has operated an experimental He3 fusion reactor for an extended period, on a non-governmental research budget, however the reactor has not achieved energy balance or breakeven.
Other economic possibilities include the tourism industry; manufacturing that requires a sterile, low-gravity environment in a vacuum; research and processing of potentially dangerous life forms or nanotechnology, and long-term storage of radioactive materials. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel Nanotechnology, sometimes shortened to nanotech, refers to a field of Applied science whose theme is the control of matter on an Atomic and Molecular Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. The low gravity may find health uses such as allowing the physically disabled to continue to enjoy an active lifestyle. Large, pressurized domes or caverns would permit human-powered flight, which may result in new sports activities.
Technology developed for a Lunar colony would likely have application to other potential space venues, including near-Earth asteroids and Mercury, which has many similarities to the Moon.
Gerard O'Neill, noting the problem of high launch costs in the early 1970s, came up with the idea of building Solar Power Satellites in orbit with materials from the Moon. A solar power satellite, or SPS or Powersat, as originally proposed would be a Satellite built in High Earth orbit that uses Microwave  Launch costs from the Moon are about 100 times lower than from Earth, due to the lower gravity and lack of atmosphere. Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another This 1970s proposal was predicated on the then advertised future launch costs of NASA's space shuttle.
On 30 April 1979 the Final Report "Lunar Resources Utilization for Space Construction" by General Dynamics Convair Division under NASA contract NAS9-15560 concluded that use of lunar resources would be cheaper than terrestrial materials for a system comprising as few as thirty Solar Power Satellites of 10 GW capacity each. 
In 1980, when it became obvious NASA's launch cost estimates for the space shuttle were grossly optimistic, O'Neill et al published another route to manufacturing using lunar materials with much lower startup costs.  This 1980s SPS concept relied less on human presence in space and more on partially self-replicating systems on the lunar surface under telepresence control of workers stationed on Earth. See also Presence (telepresence Telepresence refers to a set of Technologies which allow a person to feel as if they were present to give the appearance