Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status Bonds remained close, and took specific forms.
The Phoenicians were the major trading power in the Mediterranean in the early part of the first millennium BCE. Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce. Power in international relations is defined in several different ways They had trading contacts in Egypt and Greece, and established colonies as far west as modern Spain, at Gadir (modern Cádiz). This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Cádiz ( Spanish:) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the province of the same name, a province which is one of eight From Gadir they controlled access to the Atlantic Ocean and the trade routes to Britain. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The most famous and successful of Phoenician colonies was Kart-Hadasht, a colony founded from Tyre. Tyre ( Arabic صور Ṣūr, Phoenician Phoenician wawsvg|12px|ו]] Ṣur, Hebrew It would eventually be known as Carthage. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers
In Ancient Greece, colonies were sometimes founded by vanquished peoples, who left their homes to escape subjection at the hand of a foreign enemy; sometimes as a sequel to civil disorders, when the losers in internecine battles left to form a new city elsewhere; sometimes to get rid of surplus population, and thereby to avoid internal convulsions. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca But in most cases the motivation was to establish and facilitate relations of trade with foreign countries and further the wealth of the mother-city (in Greek, metropolis). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly A metropolis (from the Greek μήτηρ mētēr meaning 'mother' and πόλις pólis meaning 'city/town' is a big City, in most cases with
Several city-states (more than thirty) of ancient Greece had multiple colonies of settlement throughout the Mediterranean world, with the most active being Miletus, with ninety colonies stretching throughout the Mediterranean Sea, from the shores of the Black Sea and Anatolia (modern Turkey) in the east, to the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula in the west, as well as several colonies on the northern coast of Africa with the overall sum being 1500 from the late ninth, up to the 5th century BC. Miletus (mī lē' təs ( Ancient Greek: Μίλητος literally Transliterated Milētos, Latin Miletus) was an Ancient The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC.
There were two similar kinds of colonies, apoikiai and emporia. The first were city-states on their own; the second were Greek trading-colonies.
The Greek city-states began establishing colonies around 800 BC, at Al Mina on the coast of Syria and the Greek emporium Pithekoussai at Ischia in the Bay of Naples, both established about 800 BCE. Al Mina was an ancient city on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria, in the estuary of the Orontes, near present-day Samandag. The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the Ocean. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية For the comune see Ischia (comune. For the part of the human hip see Ischium Ischia is a Volcanic Island in the The Gulf of Naples is located in the south western coast of Italy ( Province of Naples, Campania region
Two flushes of new colonists set out from Greece at the transition between the "Dark Ages" and the start of the Archaic Period, one in the early 8th century BC and a second burst of the colonizing spirit in the sixth century. The Dark Ages (ca 1150 BC–800 BC refers to Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean civilization in the 11th century The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC. Population growth and cramped spaces at home seem an insufficient explanation, while the economical and political dynamics produced by the competitive spirit between the frequently kingless, newly introduced concept of the Greek city-states, striving to expand their sphere of economical influence better fits as their true incentive. Through this Greek expansion the use of coins flourished throughout the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea.
Influential Greek colonies in the western Mediterranean included Cyme (Aeolis), Rhegium (Rhegion) by Chalcis and Zankle (ca eighth century), Syracuse by Corinth/Tenea (ca 734 BC), Naxos by Chalkis (ca. This article is about the ancient Ionian city see also Kymi for the Greek form of Cyme Cyme (or Kymi, also Phriconis Reggio di Calabria (Italian pronunciation /ˈrɛʤo ˌdikaˈlabrja/ Calabrian dialect: Rìggiu, Greek-Calabrian: Righi, Greek: Chalcis or Chalkida, Halkida, Halkis or Chalkis ( Greek, Modern Χαλκίδα xal'ciða Ancient/ Katharevousa: -ίς Syracuse (Siracusa Sicilian: Sarausa, Classical Greek: / transliterated Syrakousai) is a historic City in Corinth, or Korinth ( Greek Κόρινθος ( is a city in Greece. Tenea ( Greek:Τενέα is an ancient city in North-East Peloponnese, Greece. Events and trends 739 BC — Hiram II becomes king of Tyre. 738 BC — King Tiglath-Pileser III of Naxos or Naxus ( Ancient Greek) was an ancient city of Sicily, on the east coast of the island between Catana (modern Catania) and Messana (modern 734 BCE), Massalia (France) by Phokaia (ca. Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. This article is about the ancient city For the modern city see Foça Phocaea, or Phokaia, (Φώκαια (modern-day Foça 598 BCE), Agathe (France) by Phokaia (shortly after Massalia), Elea (Velia) by Phokaia and Massalia (ca. For communities named after St Agatha see Sainte-Agathe. Saint Agatha of Sicily or Saint Agatha (died 251 is a Christian "Velia" redirects here See also Velia (hill and Novi Velia. This article is about the ancient city For the modern city see Foça Phocaea, or Phokaia, (Φώκαια (modern-day Foça 540 BC), Emporion (Spain) by Phokaia/Massalia (early 6th century), Antipolis (France) by Achaea, Alalia (Corsica) by Phokaia/Massalia (c. Events and trends 546 BC — Croesus, Lydian king, is defeated by Cyrus of Persia near the River Halys Empúries ( Catalan name in Spanish: Ampurias) is a town on the Mediterranean coast of the Catalan comarca of Alt Empordà (Spain Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Aléria ( Ancient Greek, Alaliē and Latin Aleria) is a commune in the Haute-Corse 545BCE) and Cyrene (North Africa) by Thera (762/61 and 632/31 BCE)
Several formulae were generally adhered to on the solemn and sacred occasions when a new colony set forth. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan If a Greek city was sending out a colony, an oracle, especially one such as the Oracle of Delphi, was almost invariably consulted beforehand. An oracle is a person or agency considered to be a source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion an Infallible authority usually spiritual in nature Delphi ( Greek,) ( pronounce and dialectal forms) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western Sometimes certain classes of citizens were called upon to take part in the enterprises; sometimes one son was chosen by lot from every house where there were several sons; and strangers expressing a desire to join were admitted. A person of distinction was selected to guide the emigrants and make the necessary arrangements. It was usual to honor these founders of colonies, after their death, as heroes. Some of the sacred fire was taken from the public hearth in the Prytaneum, from which the fire on the public hearth of the new city was kindled. The Prytaneis were the executives of the boule of Ancient Athens. And, just as each individual had his private shrines, so the new community maintained the worship of its chief domestic deities, the colony sending embassies and votive gifts to the mother-city's principal festivals for centuries afterwards.
The relation between colony and mother-city, known literally as the metropolis, was viewed as one of mutual affection. A metropolis (from the Greek μήτηρ mētēr meaning 'mother' and πόλις pólis meaning 'city/town' is a big City, in most cases with Any differences that arose were made up, if possible, by peaceful means, war being deemed excusable only in cases of extreme necessity. The charter of foundation contained general provisions for the arrangement of the affairs of the colony, and also some special enactments. The constitution of the mother-city was usually adopted by the colony, but the new city remained politically independent. If the colony sent out a fresh colony on its own account, the mother-city was generally consulted, or was at least requested to furnish a leader. Frequently the colonies declaring their commitment to the various metropolitic alliances formed in the Greek mainland and for religious reasons would pay tribute in religious centres, like Delphi, Olympia or Delos . Olympia ( Greek: Olympí'a or Olýmpia, older transliterations Olimpia, Olimbia) a sanctuary of ancient Greece The island of Delos ( Greek: Δήλος Dhilos) isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos It is worth noting that the Peloponnesian War was in part a result of a dispute between Corinth and her colony of Corcyra (Corfu). Corinth, or Korinth ( Greek Κόρινθος ( is a city in Greece. Corfu (Κέρκυρα Kérkyra, ˈkʲe̞ɾkʲiɾa Κέρκυρα or Κόρκυρα Corcyra Corfù is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea The cleruchs, known in Greek as the klêrouchoi, formed a special class of Greek colonists. A cleruchy, (klerouchy in Hellenic Greece, was a specialized type of colony established by Athens. The trade factories set up in foreign countries, such as Egypt, were somewhat different from the ordinary colonies, the members retaining the right of domicile in their own fatherland and confining themselves to their own quarter in the foreign city. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now
It was an old custom in ancient Italy to send out colonies for the purpose of securing new conquests. This is an overview of the History of Italy during Roman times. The Romans, accordingly, having no standing army, used to plant bodies of their own citizens in conquered towns as a kind of garrison. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the These bodies would consist partly of Roman citizens, usually to the number of three hundred; partly of members of the Latin League, in larger numbers. Citizenship in the time of Ancient Rome was a privileged status afforded to certain individuals with respect to laws property and governance The Latin League (c 7th century BC - 338 BC) was a confederation of about 30 villages and tribes in the region of Latium near Ancient Rome organized for The third part of the conquered territory was handed over to the settlers. The coloniae civium Romanorum (colonies of Roman citizens) were specially intended to secure the two sea-coasts of Italy, and were hence called coloniae maritimae. The coloniae Latinae, of which there was a far greater number, served the same purpose for the mainland.
The duty of leading the colonists and founding the settlement was entrusted to a commission usually consisting of three members. These men continued to stand in the relation of patrons (patroni) to the colony after its foundation. The colonists entered the conquered city in military array, preceded by banners, and the foundation was celebrated with special solemnities. The coloniae were free from taxes, and had their own constitution, a copy of the Roman, electing from their own body their Senate and other officers of State. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. To this constitution the original inhabitants had to submit. The coloniae civium Romanorum retained the Roman citizenship, and were free from military service, their position as outposts being regarded as an equivalent. The members of the coloniae Latinae served among the socii, the allies, and possessed the so-called ius Latinum or Latinitas. This secured to them the right of acquiring property, the concept of commercium, and the right of settlement in Rome, and under certain conditions the power of becoming Roman citizens; though in course of time these rights underwent many limitations.
From the time of the Gracchi the colonies lost their military character. The Gracchi brothers were a pair of tribunes in 2nd century BC who attempted to pass Land reform legislation in Ancient Rome that would redistribute the major patrician Colonization came to be regarded as a means of providing for the poorest class of the Roman populace. After the time of Sulla it was adopted as a way of granting land to veteran soldiers. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c The right of founding colonies was taken away from the people by Caesar, and passed into the hands of the Roman emperors, who used it mainly in the provinces for the exclusive purpose of establishing military settlements, partly with the old idea of securing conquered territory. The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa It was only in exceptional cases that the provincial colonies enjoyed the immunity from taxation which was granted to those in Italy.
Most of this text is taken from Harry Thurston Pecks, Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquity 1898 and needs to be rewritten and expanded.