The term colonial history of the United States refers to the history of the land that would become the United States from the start of European settlement to the time of independence from Europe, and especially to the history of the thirteen colonies of Britain which declared themselves independent in 1776. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Thirteen Colonies were part of what became known as British America, a name that was used by Great Britain until the Treaty of Paris (1783 recognized the  Starting in the late 16th century, the Spanish, the British, the French, Swedes and the Dutch began to colonize eastern North America. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Kingdom of England was a State (927-1707 located in Western Europe dating from the ninth or tenth century to the early eighteenth century when it was legally This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands  Many early attempts—notably the Lost Colony of Roanoke—ended in failure, but successful colonies were soon established. The colonists who came to the New World were not alike; they came from a variety of different social and religious groups who settled in different locations on the seaboard. The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. The Dutch of New Netherland, the Swedes and Finns of New Sweden, the Quakers of Pennsylvania, the Puritans of New England, the English settlers of Jamestown, and the "worthy poor" of Georgia, and others—each group came to the new continent for different reasons and created colonies with distinct social, religious, political and economic structures. New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin Novum Belgium or Nova Belgica) 1614–1674 is the name of the former Dutch territory on the eastern coast The terms Finns and Finnish people ( Finnish: suomalaiset, Swedish: finländare) are used in English to New Sweden ( Nya Sverige in Swedish and Uusi-Ruotsi in Finnish) was a small Swedish settlement along the Delaware River The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as Pennsylvania Colony, was a North American colony granted to William Penn on March 4, 1681 A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the Jamestown, located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14 1607 The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies in British North America. 
Historians typically recognize four distinct regions in the lands that later became the Eastern United States. The Eastern Half of The United States, the American East, or simply the East is traditionally defined as the states east of the Mississippi River. Listed from north to south, they are: New England, the Middle Colonies, the Chesapeake Bay Colonies (Upper South) and the Lower South. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the Middle Colonies were a part of the original Thirteen Colonies that would later become The United States of America. The Chesapeake Bay is the largest Estuary in the United States. The Southern Colonies of British Colonial America consisted of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Maryland, and Virginia. Some historians add a fifth region, the frontier, as frontier regions from New England to Georgia resembled each other in certain respects. A frontier is a Political and Geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature Other colonies in the pre-United States territories include New France (Louisiana), New Spain (including Florida, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming), Columbia District (Washington state, Oregon and northern California) and Russian Alaska. The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Louisiana (La celina+mario) was the name of an administrative district of New France. The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America, The Columbia District was a fur trading district in the Pacific Northwest region of British North America in the 19th century Russian Alaska was the period between 1733 and 1867 in which Russia controlled the territory that today is the
The main colonizing regions of Europe were those where ocean-worthy ship building innovations and navigational technology and skills were developing, as well as an expanding population willing and able to establish themselves in foreign lands. The Spanish and Portuguese centuries-old experience of conquest and colonization during the Reconquista, coupled with new oceanic ship navigation skills (developed mainly in Italy), provided the tools, ability, and desire to colonize the New World. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The English, French, and Dutch of northwest Europe were slower to start colonies in America. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( The Dutch people ( Dutch:) are the dominant Ethnic group of the Netherlands. They had the ability to build ocean-worthy ships, but did not have as strong a history of colonization in foreign lands as did Spain, although the English conquest and colonization of parts of Ireland played a role in the later development of larger scale colonization efforts. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world
As the "New Monarchs" began to forge nations, they acquired the degree of centralized wealth and power necessary to begin systematic attempts at exploration. New Monarchs were the rulers of European nations during the 15th century who unified their nations creating a stable and centralized government Not all exploratory undertakings, however, were done by central governments. Charter companies and joint stock companies played a crucial role in exploration. A chartered company is an association formed by investors or Shareholders for the purpose of trade Exploration and Colonization. A joint stock company (JSC is a type of business entity it is a type of Corporation or Partnership. Spain's experience during the Reconquista gave their American colonization efforts qualities of centralized governmental control, military conquest, and religious missionary efforts. In contrast, northwest Europe's experience with early capitalism (mercantilism), dating back to organizations like the Hanseatic League, gave their colonization of America qualities of merchant-based investment and less government control. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Mercantilism is the idea that a colony should export more goods than it imports and that a colony should sell at higher prices and buy at lower prices The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hansa) was an alliance of trading cities and their Guilds that established and maintained trade
Spain established several colonies in the area that is now the United States. Several of these early attempts failed. In 1526, Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón founded the colony San Miguel de Guadalupe in present day Georgia or South Carolina. Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón (c 1475 probably Toledo Spain &ndash 18 October, 1526, (San Miguel de Guadalupe colony was a Spanish explorer The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. The colony only lasted a short while before disintegrating. It was also notable for perhaps being the first instance of African slave labor within the present boundaries of the United States. Pánfilo de Narváez attempted to start a colony in Florida in 1528. Pánfilo de Narváez (1470 &ndash 1528 was a Spanish conqueror and soldier in the Americas. The Narváez expedition ended in disaster with only four members making it to Mexico in 1536. The Narváez expedition was a Spanish attempt to install Pánfilo de Narváez as Adelantado (governor of Spanish Florida during The Spanish Colony of Pensacola in West Florida (1559) was destroyed by a hurricane in 1561. Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle and the County seat of Escambia County. The Ajacan Mission, founded in 1570, failed the next year, very near the site of the later English colony of Jamestown
The French established several colonies that failed, due to weather, disease or conflict with other European powers. The Ajacán Mission (a xa 'kan was a failed attempt in the 16th century by Spanish Jesuit priests to Christianize the Native A small group of French troops were left on Parris Island, South Carolina in 1562 to build Charlesfort, but left after a year when they were not resupplied from France. Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island is an 8095 Acre (329 km² military installation near Beaufort South Carolina (32°19'44"N 80°41'41"W South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. Fort Caroline established in present-day Jacksonville, Florida in 1564, lasted only a year before being destroyed by the Spanish from St. Augustine. Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. St Augustine is the County seat of St Johns County, Florida, in the United States. In 1604, Saint Croix Island, Maine was the site of a short-lived French colony, much plagued by illness, perhaps scurvy. Saint Croix is also an island in the United States Virgin Islands Saint Croix Fort Saint Louis was established in Texas in 1685, but was gone by 1688. French Texas was the period of Texas history from 1685 until 1689
The most notable English failures were the "Lost Colony of Roanoke" (1587-90) in North Carolina and Popham Colony in Maine (1607-8). North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States The Popham Colony (also known as the Sagadahoc Colony) was a short-lived English colonial settlement in North America that was founded in 1607 and It was at the Roanoke Colony that the first English child, Virginia Dare, was born in the Americas; her fate is unknown. Virginia Dare (born August 18 1587, date of death unknown was the first child born in the Americas to English parents Eleanor (or
Spain established a few small settlements in Florida, most of which were soon abandoned. The history of Florida can be traced back to when the first Native Americans began to inhabit the peninsula as early as 14000 years ago The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries The most important settlement was at St. Augustine, Florida, founded in 1565. St Augustine is the County seat of St Johns County, Florida, in the United States. It was repeatedly attacked and burned, with most residents killed or fled. Missionaries converted 26,000 natives by 1655, but a revolt in 1656 and an epidemic in 1659 proved devastating. This is a list of Revolutions and Rebellions BC 499 BC - 493 BC: Ionian Revolt. A pandemic (from Greek παν pan all + δήμος demos people is an Epidemic of Infectious disease that spreads through Pirate attacks were unrelenting against small outposts and even against St Augustine. Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering The British and their colonies repeatedly made war against Spain and its colonies and outposts. South Carolina launched large scale invasions in 1702 and 1704, which effectively destroyed the Spanish mission system. St Augustine survived, but English-allied Indians such as the Yamasee conducted slave raids throughout Florida, killing or enslaving most of the region's natives. The Yamasee were a Native American tribe that lived in coastal region of present-day northern Florida and southern Georgia near the Savannah River Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries Indian Slavery was the practice of using Indigenous peoples of the Americas as Slaves. St Augustine itself was captured in 1740. Their main food source was fish they found in rivers and animals they hunted.
The British and Spanish had been enemies for many decades. The conflicts in Spanish Florida were one part of a larger, global struggle. In the mid-1700s, invading Seminoles killed most of the remaining local Indians. The Seminole are a Native American people originally of Florida and now residing in Florida and Oklahoma. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Florida had about 3,000 Spaniards when Britain took control in 1763. Nearly all quickly left. Even though control was restored to Spain in 1783, Spain sent no more settlers or missionaries to Florida. The U. S. took possession in 1819.
Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of California from the early 1500s to the mid-1700s, but no settlements were established. This article covers in brief the history of California until the year 1899 for later events see History of California 1900 to present. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean.
During the last quarter of the 18th century, the first European settlements were established in California. Reacting to interest by Russia and possibly Great Britain in the fur-bearing animals of the Pacific coast, Spain created a series of Catholic missions, accompanied by troops and ranches, along the southern and central coast of California. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Father Junípero Serra, a Franciscan missionary, founded the mission chain, starting with San Diego de Alcalá in 1769. Fra Junípero Serra ( November 24, 1713 &ndash August 28, 1784) was a Spanish Franciscan Friar who founded The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of Religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between Mission San Diego de Alcalá, also known as the San Diego Mission Church, was founded on July 16, 1769, the first in the twenty-one Alta California The California Missions comprised a series of outposts established to spread the Christianity among the local Native Americans, with the added benefit of confirming historic Spanish claims to the area. The missions introduced European technology, livestock and crops, while keeping the native people in peonage. The words peon and peonage are derived from the Spanish peón (pe'on The highway and missions became for many a romantic symbol of an idyllic and peaceful past. The "Mission Revival Style" was an architectural movement that drew its inspiration from this idealized view of California's past. The Mission Revival Style was an architectural movement that began in the late 19th century and drew inspiration from the early Spanish missions in California.
The first quarter of the 19th century continued the slow colonization of the southern and central California coast by Spanish missionaries, ranchers, and troops. By 1820, Spanish influence was marked by the chain of missions reaching from San Diego to just north of today's San Francisco Bay area, and extended inland approximately 25 to 50 miles (40 to 80 km) from the missions. Outside of this zone, perhaps 200,000 to 250,000 Native Americans were continuing to lead traditional lives. The Adams-Onís Treaty, signed in 1819 set the northern boundary of the Spanish claims at the 42nd parallel, effectively creating today's northern boundary of California. The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 settled a border dispute in North America between the United States and Spain. The Spanish (and later the Mexicans) encouraged settlement of California with large land grants that were turned into cattle and sheep ranches. The Hispanic population reached about 10,000 in the 1840s.
New France was the area colonized by France from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River, by Jacques Cartier in 1534, to the cession of New France to Spain and Britain in 1763. The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the French colonization of the Americas began in the 14th century and continued in the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway Jacques Cartier (December 31 1491&ndashSeptember 1 1557 was a French explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France At its peak in 1712, the territory of New France extended from Newfoundland to Lake Superior and from the Hudson Bay to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes of North America. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world The territory was then divided in five colonies, each with its own administration: Canada, Acadia, Hudson Bay, Newfoundland and Louisiana. Canada was the name of the French colony that once stretched along the St The Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture ( ACADIA) is a Non-profit organization active in the area of Computer-aided architectural design Louisiana (La celina+mario) was the name of an administrative district of New France. About 16,000 French settlers came, and concentrated in villages along the St. Lawrence River. The area around New Orleans and west of the Mississippi passed to Spain, which ceded it to France in 1803, allowing France to sell it as the Louisiana Purchase to the United States. Louisiana (La celina+mario) was the name of an administrative district of New France. For the film see Louisiana Purchase (film. The Louisiana Purchase (French Vente de la Louisiane "Louisiana Sale"
England made its first successful efforts at the start of the 17th century for several reasons. During this era, English proto-nationalism and national assertiveness blossomed under the threat of Spanish invasion, assisted by a degree of Protestant militarism and adoration of Queen Elizabeth. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation An invasion is a military offensive consisting of all or large parts of the Armed forces of one geopolitical entity aggressively entering territory Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. At this time, however, there was no official attempt by the English government to create a colonial empire. Rather, the motivation behind the founding of colonies was piecemeal and variable. Practical considerations, such as commercial enterprise, over-population and the desire for freedom of religion, played their parts. A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism 's numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat. Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance .
Between the late 1610s and the American Revolution, the British shipped an estimated 50,000 convicts to its American colonies.  The first convicts to arrive pre-dated the arrival of the Mayflower. A convict is "a person found guilty of a Crime and sentenced by a court" or "a person serving a sentence in prison" sometimes referred to in Slang The Mayflower was the famous Ship that transported the English Separatists better known as the Pilgrims, from Southampton, England
The first successful English colony was Jamestown, established in 1607, on a small river near Chesapeake Bay. The venture was financed and coordinated by the London Virginia Company, a joint stock company looking for gold. The London Company (also called the Charter of the Virginia Company of London) was an English Joint stock company established by royal charter by Its first years were extremely difficult, with very high death rates from disease and starvation, wars with local Indians, and little gold. The colony barely survived, by turning to tobacco as a cash crop. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. In Agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for Money. By the late 17th century, Virginia's export economy was largely based on tobacco, and new, richer settlers came in to take up large portions of land, build large plantations and import indentured servants and slaves. In 1676, Bacon's Rebellion occurred, but was suppressed by royal officials. Bacon's Rebellion was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. After Bacon's Rebellion, African slaves rapidly replaced English and Irish indentured servants as Virginia's main labor force. The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to
The colonial assembly that had governed the colony since its establishment was dissolved, but was reinstated in 1630. It shared power with a royally appointed governor. A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government On a more local level, governmental power was invested in county courts, also not elected. A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its As cash crop producers, Chesapeake plantations were heavily dependent on trade. Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce. With easy navigation by river, few towns and no cities developed; planters shipped directly to Britain. High death rates and a very young population profile characterized the colony during its first years.
The Pilgrims were a small Protestant sect based in England and the Netherlands. The Colony of Connecticut was an English colony that became the U Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth or The Old Colony) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 until 1691 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it was an English settlement on the east coast of North America The Province of New Hampshire was a crown colony organized on October 7, 1691 during the period of British colonization of the Americas. Providence Plantation was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a theologian independent preacher and linguist on land gifted by the Narragansett sachem Canonicus Pilgrims, or Pilgrim Fathers (or Pilgrim Mothers) is a name commonly applied to the early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth Pilgrims, or Pilgrim Fathers (or Pilgrim Mothers) is a name commonly applied to the early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth One group sailed on the Mayflower and briefly landed in New York before their eventual settling in Massachusetts. The Mayflower was the famous Ship that transported the English Separatists better known as the Pilgrims, from Southampton, England The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. After drawing up the Mayflower Compact by which they gave themselves broad powers of self-governance, they established the small Plymouth Colony in 1620; Plymouth later merged with the Massachusetts Bay colony. The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth or The Old Colony) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 until 1691 William Bradford was their main leader. William Bradford ( March 19, 1590 – May 9, 1657) was a leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts The Connecticut Colony was an English colony that became the U. S. state of Connecticut. Originally known as the River Colony, the colony was organized on March 3, 1636 as a haven for Puritan noblemen. Providence Plantation was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a theologian, baptist preacher, and linguist on land gifted by the Narragansett sachem Canonicus. Roger Williams, fleeing from religious persecution in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, agreed with his fellow settlers on an egalitarian constitution providing for majority rule "in civil things" and "liberty of conscience".
The Puritans, a much larger group than the Pilgrims, established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 with 400 settlers. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it was an English settlement on the east coast of North America This group was the Puritans who sought to reform the Church of England by creating a new, pure church in the New World. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Within two years, an additional 2,000 settlers arrived. The Puritans created a deeply religious, socially tight-knit and politically innovative culture that is still present in the modern United States. They hoped this new land would serve as a "redeemer nation. Exceptionalism is the perception that a country society institution movement or time period is " exceptional " (i " Seeking the true religion, they fled England and in America attempted to create a "nation of saints" or the "City upon a Hill," an intensely religious, thoroughly righteous community designed to be an example for all of Europe. City upon a hill is a phrase that is associated with John Winthrop 's Sermon "A Model of Christian Charity" given in 1630 Roger Williams, who preached religious toleration, separation of Church and State, and a complete break with the Church of England, was banished and founded Rhode Island Colony, which became a haven for other religious refugees from the Puritan community. Roger Williams ( December 21, 1603 &ndash April 1, 1683) was an English theologian, a notable proponent of Religious Separation of church and state is a Political and Legal Doctrine that Government and religious institutions are to be kept separate Providence Plantation was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a theologian independent preacher and linguist on land gifted by the Narragansett sachem Canonicus Anne Hutchinson, a preacher of Antinomianism, likewise was exiled to Rhode Island. Anne Hutchinson ( July 20, 1591 – August 20, 1643) was the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion For the term in politics describing socialist movements see Autonomism Antinomianism (from the Greek ἀντί, "against"
Economically, Puritan New England fulfilled the expectations of its founders. Unlike the cash-crop oriented plantations of the Chesapeake region, the Puritan economy was based on the efforts of individual farmers, who harvested enough crops to feed themselves and their families and to trade for goods they could not produce themselves. There was a generally higher economic standing and standard of living in New England than in the Chesapeake. On the other hand, town leaders in New England could literally rent out the town's impoverished families for a year to anyone who could afford to board them, as a form of alms and as a form of cheap labor. Alms or almsgiving exists in a number of religions In general it involves giving materially to another as an act of religious virtue Along with farming growth, New England became an important mercantile and shipbuilding center, often serving as the hub for trading between the South and Europe. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive
The Middle Colonies, consisting of the present-day states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, were characterized by a large degree of diversity—religious, political, economic, and ethnic. Delaware Colony was an English Colony in North America. Settlement From the early Dutch settlement in 1631 to the colony’s The Province of New Jersey was an English Colony that existed within the boundaries of the current U The Province of New York (1664-1776 (Provincie New York resulted from the capture of the Dutch Republic colony of Provincie Nieuw-Nederland by the The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as Pennsylvania Colony, was a North American colony granted to William Penn on March 4, 1681 New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Many Dutch and Irish immigrants settled in these areas, as well as in Long Island and Connecticut. The Dutch people ( Dutch:) are the dominant Ethnic group of the Netherlands. The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate Long Island is an island located in southeastern New York, USA, its western shores directly across from Manhattan, from which the island stretches Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The Pennsylvania Dutch were included in this immigration. The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch, Pennsylvania Germans or Pennsylvania Deutsch) are the descendants of German
The colonial South included the plantation colonies of the Chesapeake region (Virginia, Maryland, and, by some classifications, Delaware) and the lower South (Carolina, which eventually split into North and South Carolina, and Georgia). The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies in British North America. The Province of Carolina from 1663 to 1712, was a North American British proprietary Colony, controlled by eight English noblemen The Province of North Carolina was originally part of the Province of Carolina, which was chartered by eight Lords Proprietors. The South Carolina Colony was originally part of the Province of Carolina, which was chartered in 1653
The first attempted English settlement south of Virginia was the Province of Carolina. It was a private venture, financed by a group of English Lords Proprietors, who obtained a Royal Charter to the Carolinas in 1663, hoping that a new colony in the south would become profitable like Jamestown. Lord Proprietor was the gubernatorial title for the noble "ruling" Proprietors of certain British proprietary colonies in North America such A Royal Charter is a Charter granted by the Sovereign on the advice of the Privy council to legitimize an incorporated body such as a city company Carolina was not settled until 1670, and even then the first attempt failed because there was no incentive for emigration to the south. However, eventually the Lords combined their remaining capital and financed a settlement mission to the area led by John West. John West may refer to People Reverend John West (1809–1873 Australian congregational minister author and newspaper editor The expedition located fertile and defensible ground at what was to become Charleston (originally Charles Town for Charles II of England), thus beginning the English colonization of the mainland. Charleston is a city in Charleston county in the US state of South Carolina. Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The original settlers in South Carolina established a lucrative trade in provisions, deerskins and Indian captives with the Caribbean islands. They came mainly from the English colony of Barbados and brought African slaves with them. Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation Barbados, as a wealthy sugarcane plantation island, was one of the early English colonies to use large numbers of Africans in plantation style agriculture. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae The cultivation of rice was introduced during the 1690s via Africans from the rice-growing regions of West Africa. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. North Carolina remained a frontier through the early colonial period.
At first, South Carolina was politically divided. Its ethnic makeup included the original settlers, a group of rich, slave-owning English settlers from the island of Barbados; and Huguenots, a French-speaking community of Protestants. The Kingdom of England was a State (927-1707 located in Western Europe dating from the ninth or tenth century to the early eighteenth century when it was legally The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Nearly continuous frontier warfare during the era of King William's War and Queen Anne's War drove economic and political wedges between merchants and planters. The first of the French and Indian Wars, King William's War ( 1689 – 1697) was the name used in the English colonies in America to refer to the North Queen Anne's War ( 1702 &ndash 1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and England (later The disaster of the Yamasee War, in 1715, set off a decade of political turmoil. The Yamasee War (also spelled Yemassee War) ( 1715 - 1717) was a conflict between colonial South Carolina and various Native American Indian By 1729, the proprietary government had collapsed, and the Proprietors sold both colonies back to the British crown. Proprietary Governors were individuals authorized to govern proprietary colonies
James Oglethorpe, an 18th century British Member of Parliament, established Georgia Colony as a common solution to two problems. James Oglethorpe (December 22 1696 &ndash June 30 1785 was a British general a Philanthropist, and was the founder of the colony of Georgia. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies in British North America. At that time, tension between Spain and Great Britain was high, and the British feared that Spanish Florida was threatening the British Carolinas. Oglethorpe decided to establish a colony in the contested border region of Georgia and populate it with debtors who would otherwise have been imprisoned according to standard British practice. This plan would both rid Great Britain of its undesirable elements and provide her with a base from which to attack Florida. The first colonists arrived in 1733.
Georgia was established on strict moralistic principles. Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings Slavery was forbidden, as was alcohol and other forms of supposed immorality. However, the reality of the colony was far from ideal. The colonists were unhappy about the puritanical lifestyle and complained that their colony could not compete economically with the Carolina rice plantations. Georgia initially failed to prosper, but eventually the restrictions were lifted, slavery was allowed, and it became as prosperous as the Carolinas. The colony of Georgia never had a specific religion. It consisted of people of varied faiths.
In 1763, Great Britain received East and West Florida from the Spanish. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands East Florida was originally a part of Spanish Florida. Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1763, which ended the Seven Years' War, Spain ceded West Florida was a region on the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico, which underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history The Floridas remained loyal to Great Britain during the American Revolution. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" They were returned to Spain in 1783 (in exchange for Havana), at which time most Englishmen left. The Spanish then neglected the Floridas: few Spaniards lived there when the US bought the area in 1819. they all had a court house[New England], a common and or an assembly.
One event that reminded colonists of their shared identity as British subjects was the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) in Europe. The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748 involved nearly all the powers of Europe This conflict spilled over into the colonies, where it was known as "King George's War"; most of the fighting took place in Europe, British colonial troops attacked French Canada. King George's War is the name given to the operations in North America that formed part of the 1740&ndash1748 War of the Austrian Succession.
At the Albany Congress of 1754, Benjamin Franklin proposed that the colonies be united by a Grand Council overseeing a common policy for defense, expansion, and Indian affairs. The Albany Congress, also known as the Albany Conference, was a meeting of representatives of seven of the British North American colonies in 1754 (specifically Benjamin Franklin ( April 17 1790 was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. While the plan was thwarted by colonial legislatures and King George II, it was an early indication that the British colonies of North America were headed towards unification. George II (George Augustus 10 November 1683 &ndash 25 October 1760 was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (
The French and Indian War (1754-1763) was the American extension of the general European conflict known as the Seven Years' War. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the The French and Indian War (1754&ndash1763 was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. The Seven Years' War (1756&ndash1763 involved all of the major European powers of the period causing 900000 to 1400000 deaths
The war is called the French and Indian because the Iroquois confederacy—which had been playing the British and the French against each other successfully for decades—saw that Britain was gaining more control and sided entirely with the French. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse The move did not succeed, and the French were defeated anyway. In the Treaty of Paris (1763), France surrendered its vast North American empire to Britain. The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain
The French and Indian War took on a new significance for the North American colonists in Great Britain when William Pitt the elder decided that it was necessary to win the war against France at all costs. William Pitt 1st Earl of Chatham PC (15 November 1708 &ndash 11 May 1778 was a British Whig Statesman who achieved his greatest fame as For the first time, North America was one of the main theatres of what could be termed a "world war". A world war is a War affecting the majority of the world's most powerful and populous nations During the war, the British Colonies' (including the thirteen colonies' that would later become the basis of the United States) position as part of the British Empire was made truly apparent, as British military and civilian officials took on an increased presence in the lives of Americans. The Thirteen Colonies were part of what became known as British America, a name that was used by Great Britain until the Treaty of Paris (1783 recognized the The war also increased a sense of American unity in other ways. It caused men, who might normally have never left their own colony, to travel across the continent, fighting alongside men from decidedly different, yet still "American", backgrounds. Throughout the course of the war, British officers trained American ones (most notably George Washington) for battle--which would later benefit the American Revolution. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Also, state legislatures and officials had to cooperate intensively, for arguably the first time, in pursuit of the continent-wide military effort.
The British and colonists triumphed jointly over a common foe. The colonists' loyalty to the mother country was stronger than ever before. However, disunity was beginning to form. British Prime Minister William Pitt the Elder had decided to wage the war in the colonies with the use of troops from the colonies and tax funds from Britain itself. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom This was a successful wartime strategy, but after the war was over, each side believed that it had borne a greater burden than the other. The British populace, the most heavily taxed of any in Europe, pointed out angrily that the colonists paid little to the royal coffers. The colonists replied that their sons had fought and died in a war that served European interests more than their own. The British answered that the colonists' poor discipline made them inferior soldiers anyway. This dispute was a link in the chain of events that soon brought about the American Revolution.
Although the colonies were very different from one another, they were still a part of the British empire in more than just name. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
Socially, the colonial elite of Boston, New York, Charleston, and Philadelphia saw their identity as British. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Although many had never been to England, they imitated British styles of dress, dance, and etiquette. Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather Dance (from French danser, perhaps from Frankish) is an Art form that generally refers to movement of the body usually rhythmic Etiquette is a code that governs the expectations of Social behavior, according to the contemporary conventional norm within a Society, This social upper echelon built its mansions in the Georgian style, copied the furniture designs of Thomas Chippendale, and participated in the intellectual currents of Europe, such as Enlightenment. A mansion is a large dwelling House. The word itself derives (through Old French) from the Latin word mansus (the perfect passive participle Georgian architecture is the name given in most English -speaking countries to the set of Architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840 Thomas Chippendale ( Otley, near Leeds baptised - November 1779 was a London Cabinet-maker and furniture designer in the mid-Georgian The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century To many of their inhabitants, the seaport cities of colonial America were truly British cities. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo
Many of the political structures of the colonies drew upon various English political traditions, most notably the Commonwealthmen and the Whig traditions. The organization and structure of British Colonial governments in America shared many attributes The Commonwealth men, Commonwealth's men, or Commonwealth Party is a term used by A The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to Many Americans at the time saw the colonies' systems of governance as modeled after the British constitution of the time, with the king corresponding to the governor, the House of Commons to the colonial assembly, and the House of Lords to the Governor's council. The constitution of the United Kingdom is the set of laws and principles under which the United Kingdom is governed A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords The organization and structure of British Colonial governments in America shared many attributes The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" The organization and structure of British Colonial governments in America shared many attributes The codes of law of the colonies were often drawn directly from English law; indeed, English common law survives not only in Canada, but even in the modern United States. English law is the legal system of England and Wales, and is the basis of Common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countriesand the Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive Eventually, it was a dispute over the meaning of some of these political ideals, especially political representation, and a growing unity among the new generations that led to the American Revolution. In Politics, representation describes how political power is alienated from most of the members of a group and vested for a certain time period in the hands of a small subset In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots"
Another point on which the colonies found themselves more similar than different was the booming import of British goods. In Economics, an import is any good (eg a Commodity) or Service brought into one country from another country in a legitimate fashion The British economy had begun to grow rapidly at the end of the 17th century, and by the mid-18th century, small factories in Britain were producing much more than the nation could consume. Finding a market for their goods in the British colonies of North America, Britain increased her exports to that region by 360% between 1740 and 1770. Because British merchants offered generous credit to their customers, Americans began buying staggering amounts of English goods. Credit is the provision of resources (such as granting a Loan) by one party to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately thereby generating From Nova Scotia to Florida, all British subjects bought similar products, creating and anglicizing a sort of common identity. Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the
The general sentiment of inequity that arose soon after the Treaty of Paris was solidified by the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which temporarily prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain The Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by King George III following Great Britain 's acquisition of French territory The Appalachian Mountains ( often called the Appalachians, are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. Colonists resented the measure, and it was never enforced.
Parliament had generally been preoccupied with affairs in Europe and let the colonies govern themselves. It was no longer willing to do so. A series of measures resulting from this policy change, while affecting the New England colonies most directly would continue to arouse opposition in the 'thirteen colonies' over the next thirteen years:
settling New England, the Puritans created self-governing communities of religious congregations of farmers, or yeomen, and their families. The Currency Act of 1764 is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 4 Geo The Sugar Act (citation 4 Geo III c 15 officially called the American Revenue Act, passed on April 5, 1764, was a revenue-raising Act The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III c Quartering Act is the name of at least two acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. The "Declaratory Act" may also refer to the Dependency of Ireland on Great Britain Act 1719. The Townshend Acts (1767 passed by Parliament on 29 June 1767 refer to two Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1767 originally proposed by Charles The Tea Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (13 Geo III c The Intolerable Acts or the Coercive Acts are names used to describe a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 relating to Britain's colonies Quartering Act is the name of at least two acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. The Quebec Act of 1774 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo The Massachusetts Government Act (citation 14 Geo III c 45 was passed by the Parliament of Great Britain and became a law on May 20, 1774. The Administration of Justice Act, or Act for the Impartial Administration of Justice, also popularly called the Murdering Act or Murder Act, an Act The Boston Port Act is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo Prohibitory Act of 1775 was Great Britain 's way of retaliating against an American revolt Yeoman is noun used to indicate a variety of positions or Social classes In the 16th century a yeoman was also a Farmer of middling social status who owned High-level politicians gave out plots of land to male settlers, or proprietors, who then divided the land amongst themselves. Large portions were usually given to men of higher social standing, but every white man had enough land to support a family. Also important was the fact that every white man had a voice in the town meeting. The town meeting levied taxes, built roads, and elected officials to manage town affairs.
The Congregational Church, the church the Puritans founded, was not automatically joined by all New England residents because of Puritan beliefs that God singled out only a few specific people for salvation. Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. Instead, membership was limited to those who could convincingly "test" before members of the church that they had been saved. They were known as "the elect" or "Saints" and made up less than 40% of the population of New England.
A majority of New England residents were small farmers. Within these small farm families, and English families as well, a man had complete power over the property and his wife. When married, English women lost their maiden name and personal identity, meaning they could not own property, file lawsuits, or participate in political life, even when widowed. The role of wives was to raise and nurture healthy children and support their husbands. Most women carried out these duties. In the mid-18th century, women usually married in their early 20s and had 6 to 8 children, most of whom survived to adulthood. Farm women provided most of the materials needed by the rest of the family which includes spinning yarn from wool and knitting sweaters and stockings, making candles and soap, and churning milk into butter. This article is about the fiber product For the type of joke see Shaggy dog story. Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species A candle is a Light source and sometimes a Heat source consisting of a solid block of Fuel and an embedded wick. SOAP (see below for name and origins is a protocol for exchanging XML -based messages over Computer networks normally using Butter is a Dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented Cream or Milk.
Most New England parents tried to help their sons establish farms of their own. When sons married, fathers gave them gifts of land, livestock, or farming equipment; daughters received household goods, farm animals, and/or cash. Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food Arranged marriages were very unusual; normally, children chose their own spouses from within a circle of suitable acquaintances who shared their religion and social standing. Arranged marriage (also called prearranged marriage) is a Marriage arranged by someone other than the persons getting married curtailing or avoiding the process Parents retained veto power over their children's marriages.
New England farming families generally lived in wooden houses because of the abundance of trees. A typical New England farmhouse was one-and-a-half stories tall and had a strong frame (usually made of large square timbers) that was covered by wooden clapboard siding. A large chimney stood in the middle of the house that provided cooking facilities and warmth during the winter. One side of the ground floor contained a hall, a general-purpose room where the family worked and ate meals. Adjacent to the hall was the parlor, a room used to entertain guests that contained the family's best furnishings and the parent's bed. Parlour (or parlor) from the French word parloir, from parler ("to speak" denotes an "audience chamber" Children slept in a loft above, while the kitchen was either part of the hall or was located in a shed along the back of the house. Because colonial families were large, these small dwellings had much activity and there was little privacy.
By the middle of the 18th century, this way of life was facing a crisis as the region's population had nearly doubled each generation—from 100,000 in 1700 to 200,000 in 1725, to 350,000 by 1750—because farm households had many children, and most people lived until they were 60 years old. As colonists in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island continued to subdivide their land between farmers, the farms became too small to support single families. This overpopulation threatened the New England ideal of a society of independent yeoman farmers.
Some farmers obtained land grants to create farms in undeveloped land in Massachusetts and Connecticut or bought plots of land from speculators in New Hampshire and what later became Vermont. Other farmers became agricultural innovators. They planted nutritious English grass such as red clover and timothy-grass, which provided more feed for livestock, and potatoes, which provided a high production rate that was an advantage for small farms. Trifolium pratense ( Red Clover) is a species of Clover, native to Europe, western Asia and northwest Africa, but planted Timothy-Bailey ( Phleum pratense) is an abundant perennial grass native to most of Europe except for the Mediterranean region Families increased their productivity by exchanging goods and labor with each other. They loaned livestock and grazing land to one another and worked together to spin yarn, sew quilts, and shuck corn. Grazing generally describes a type of Predation in which an Herbivore feeds on Plants (such as Grasses, or more broadly on a multicellular A quilt is a type of Bedding — a bed covering composed of a quilt top a layer of batting, and a layer of fabric for backing generally combined using the technique Migration, agricultural innovation, and economic cooperation were creative measures that preserved New England's yeoman society until the 19th century.
By 1750, a variety of artisans, shopkeepers, and merchants provided services to the growing farming population. A saltbox is a Wooden frame house with a long pitched Roof that slopes down to the back History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the Blacksmiths, wheelwrights, and furniture makers set up shops in rural villages. blacksmith is a person who creates objects from Iron or Steel by Forging the Metal; i A wheelwright (or Wainwright) is a person who builds or repairs Wheels Making and balancing a wheel is skilled work. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time There they built and repaired goods needed by farm families. Stores selling English manufactures such as cloth, iron utensils, and window glass as well as West Indian products like sugar and molasses were set up by traders. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Molasses or Treacle is a thick Syrup by-product from the processing of the Sugarcane or Sugar beet into Sugar. The storekeepers of these shops sold their imported goods in exchange for crops and other local products including shingles, potash, and barrel staves. Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of Potassium carbonate ( K 2 CO3) A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container traditionally made of Wood Staves and bound with Iron Hoops The These local goods were shipped to towns and cities all along the Atlantic Coast. Enterprising men set up stables and taverns along wagon roads to service this transportation system. A stable is a Building in which Livestock, especially Horses are kept A tavern or pot-house is loosely a place of Business where people gather to drink Alcoholic beverages and more than likely also be served Food
After these products had been delivered to port towns such as Boston and Salem in Massachusetts, New Haven in Connecticut, and Newport and Providence in Rhode Island, merchants then exported them to the West Indies where they were traded for molasses, sugar, gold coins, and bills of exchange (credit slips). Salem is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km south of Providence They carried the West Indian products to New England factories where the raw sugar was turned into granulated and sugar and the molasses distilled into rum. Rum is a Distilled beverage made from Sugarcane by-products such as Molasses and sugarcane Juice by a process of fermentation The gold and credit slips were sent to England where they were exchanged for manufactures, which were shipped back to the colonies and sold along with the sugar and rum to farmers.
Other New England merchants took advantage of the rich fishing areas along the Atlantic Coast and financed a large fishing fleet, transporting its catch of mackerel and cod to the West Indies and Europe. Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of Fish, mostly but not exclusively from the family Scombridae. Cod is the common name for the Genus Gadus of Fish, belonging to the family Gadidae, and is also used in the common name of a variety Some merchants exploited the vast amounts of timber along the coasts and rivers of northern New England. They funded sawmills that supplied cheap wood for houses and shipbuilding. A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards Sawmill process A sawmill's basic operation is much like those of 100 years ago a log enters Hundreds of New England shipwrights built oceangoing ships, which they sold to British and American merchants.
Many merchants became very wealthy by providing their goods to the agricultural population and ended up dominating the society of sea port cities. Unlike yeoman farmhouses, these merchants resembled the lifestyle of that of the upper class of England living in elegant two-and-a-half story houses designed the new Georgian style. These Georgian houses had a symmetrical façade with equal numbers of windows on both sides of the central door. A facade or façade (fəˈsɑːd is generally one side of the exterior of a Building, especially the front but also sometimes the sides and rear The interior consisted of a passageway down the middle of the house with specialized rooms such as a library, dining room, formal parlour, and master bedroom off the sides. Unlike the multi-purpose halls and parlours of the yeoman houses, each of these rooms served a separate purpose. In a Georgian house, men mainly used certain rooms, such as the library, while women mostly used the kitchen. These houses contained bedrooms on the second floor that provided privacy to parents and children.
Elementary education was widespread in New England. Education in the Thirteen American Colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries varied considerably depending on one's location race gender and social class Early Puritan settlers believed it was necessary to study the Bible, so children were taught to read at an early age. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin It was also required that each town pay for a primary school. Most boys in England had some form of formal education on account of this law. About 10 percent enjoyed secondary schooling and funded grammar schools in larger towns. A grammar school is one of several different types of School in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries Most boys learned skills from their fathers on the farm or as apprentices to artisans. Few girls attended formal schools, but most were able to get some education at home or at so-called "Dame schools" where women taught basic reading and writing skills in their own houses. By 1750, nearly 90% of New England's women and almost all of its men could read and write. Many churches in New England established colleges to train ministers while Puritans founded many places of higher learning such as Harvard College in 1636 and Yale College in 1701. Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, a Private university in the United States founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts Yale College was the official name of Yale University from 1718 to 1887 Later, Baptists founded Rhode Island College (near Brown University) in 1764 and a Congregationlist minister established Dartmouth College in 1769. This article is about the current institution that has used this name since 1960 Brown University is a highly esteemed private University located in Providence, Rhode Island and is a member of the Ivy League. Dartmouth College ( is a private, Coeducational University located in Hanover, New Hampshire, U Few people (no women and a small number of men) attended college, making higher education available only for wealthy merchant families.
New England produced many great literary works. In fact, more works were created in New England than all of the other colonies combined. Most of these works were histories, sermons, and personal journals, and were written by ministers or inspired by religious beliefs. A sermon is an oration by a Prophet or member of the Clergy. Sermons address a Biblical, theological, or religious topic Cotton Mather, a Boston minister published Magnalia Christi Americana (The Great Works of Christ in America, 1702), while revivalist Jonathan Edwards wrote his philosophical work, A Careful and Strict Enquiry Into. Cotton Mather (February 12 1663 &ndash February 13 1728 AB 1678 ( Harvard College) A . . Notions of. . . Freedom of Will. . . (1754). Most music had a religious theme as well and was mainly the singing of Psalms. Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included Because of New England's deep religious beliefs, artistic works that were not very religious or too "worldly" were banned. These endeavors included drama and other types of plays. Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance.
Some migrants who came to Colonial America were in search of the freedom to practice forms of Christianity which were prohibited and persecuted in Europe. Since there was no state religion, and since Protestantism had no central authority, religious practice in the colonies became diverse.
One attempt to consolidate religious practice is sometimes called the Great Awakening, a controversial term which refers to a northeastern Protestant revival movement that took place in the 1730s and 1740s. The First Great Awakening (referred to by some historians as the Great Awakening) was a period of heightened religious activity primarily in Great Britain and its The movement began with Jonathan Edwards, a Massachusetts preacher who sought to return to the Pilgrims' strict Calvinist roots and to reawaken the "Fear of God". This article is about the theologian (b 1703 for other uses of Jonathan Edwards see Jonathan Edwards. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the English preacher George Whitefield and other itinerant preachers continued the movement, traveling across the colonies and preaching in a dramatic and emotional style. Early life He was born at the Bell Inn Southgate Street Gloucester, England. Followers of Edwards and other preachers of similar religiosity called themselves the "New Lights", as contrasted with the "Old Lights", who disapproved of their movement. To promote their viewpoints, the two sides established academies and colleges, including Princeton and Williams College. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. Williams College is a highly selective private liberal arts college located in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The Great Awakening has been called the first truly American event. 
A similar pietistic movement took place among some of the German and Dutch Lutherans, leading to internal dvisions. By the 1770s, the Baptists were growing rapidly both in the north (where they founded Brown University, and in the South (where they challenged the previously unquestioned moral authority of the Anglican establishment). Brown University is a highly esteemed private University located in Providence, Rhode Island and is a member of the Ivy League.
Unlike New England, the Mid-Atlantic Region gained much of its population from new immigration, and by 1750, the combined populations of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania had reached nearly 300,000 people. The City of New York New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern By 1750, about 60,000 Scots-Irish and 50,000 Germans came to live in British North America, many of them settling in the Mid-Atlantic Region. German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry William Penn, the man who founded the colony of Pennsylvania in 1682, attracted an influx of immigrants with his policies of religious liberty and freehold ownership. William Penn ( October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718) was founder and "Absolute Proprietor" of the Province of Pennsylvania, Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term "Freehold" meant that farmers owned their land free and clear of leases. The first major influx of immigrants came mainly from Ireland and consisted of Scots-Irish Presbyterians and some Irish Catholics. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity The second major immigration came with Germans trying to escape the religious conflicts and declining economic opportunities in Germany and Switzerland.
Much of the architecture of the Middle Colonies reflects the diversity of its peoples. In Albany and New York City, a majority of the buildings were Dutch style with brick exteriors and high gables at each end while many Dutch churches were shaped liked an octagon. Albany is the Capital of the State of New York and the County seat of Albany County. The City of New York Using cut stone to build their houses, German and Welsh settlers in Pennsylvania followed the way of their homeland and completely ignored the plethora of timber in the area. An example of this would be Germantown, Pennsylvania where 80 percent of the buildings in the town were made entirely of stone. Germantown is the name of six places in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, a state in the United States, including a neighborhood in Philadelphia Pennsylvania On the other hand, the Scots-Irish took advantage of America's ample supply of timber and constructed sturdy log cabins. A log cabin is a small house built from logs It is a fairly simple type of Log house.
Ethnic cultures also affected the styles of furniture. Rural Quakers preferred simple designs in furnishings such as tables, chairs, chests and shunned elaborate decorations. However, some urban Quakers had much more elaborate furniture. The city of Philadelphia became a major center of furniture-making because of its massive wealth from Quaker and British merchants. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Philadelphian cabinet makers built elegant desks and highboys. A tallboy or highboy is a piece of Furniture incorporating a double Chest of drawers and a Wardrobe on top German artisans created intricate carved designs on their chests and other furniture with painted scenes of flowers and birds. German potters also crafted a large array of jugs, pots, and plates, of both elegant and traditional design.
There were ethnic differences in the treatment of women. Among Puritan settlers in New England, wives almost never worked in the fields with their husbands. In German communities in Pennsylvania, however, many women worked in fields and stables. German and Dutch immigrants granted women more control over property, which was not permitted in the local English law. Unlike English colonial wives, German and Dutch wives owned their own clothes and other items and were also given the ability to write wills disposing of the property brought into the marriage.
Ethnicity made a difference in agricultural practice. As an example, German farmers generally preferred oxen rather than horses to pull their plows and Scots-Irish made a farming economy based on hogs and corn. Oxen (singular ox) are Cattle trained as draft animals. Often they are adult castrated males In Ireland, Scots-Irish farmed intensively, working small pieces of land trying to get the largest possible production-rate from their crops. In the American colonies, Scots-Irish focused on mixed-farming. Using this technique, they grew corn for human consumption and as feed for hogs and other livestock. Many improvement-minded farmers of all different backgrounds began using new agricultural practices to raise their output. During the 1750s, these agricultural innovators replaced the hand sickles and scythes used to harvest hay, wheat, and barley with the cradle scythe, a tool with wooden fingers that arranged the stalks of grain for easy collection. For the ancient Sicilian tyrant see Scythes. A scythe (ˈsaɪð from Old English siðe. Hay is a generic term for grass or Legumes that have been cut dried and stored for use as animal feed, particularly for grazing animals like Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for This tool was able to triple the amount of work down by farmers in one day. Farmers also began fertilizing their fields with dung and lime and rotating their crops to keep the soil fertile. Agricultural lime, also called garden lime, is a Soil additive made from pulverized Limestone or Chalk.
Before 1720, most colonists in the mid-Atlantic region worked with small-scale farming and paid for imported manufactures by supplying the West Indies with corn and flour. In New York, a fur-pelt export trade to Europe flourished adding additional wealth to the region. After 1720, mid-Atlantic farming stimulated with the international demand for wheat. A massive population explosion in Europe brought wheat prices up. By 1770, a bushel of wheat cost twice as much as it did in 1720. Farmers also expanded their production of flaxseed and corn since flax was a high demand in the Irish linen industry and a demand for corn existed in the West Indies. Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum Linen is a Textile made from the Fibers of the Flax plant Linum usitatissimum.
Some immigrants who just arrived purchased farms and shared in this export wealth, but many poor German and Scots-Irish immigrants were forced to work as agricultural wage laborers. Merchants and artisans also hired these homeless workers for a domestic system for the manufacture of cloth and other goods. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Merchants often bought wool and flax from farmers and employed newly-arrived immigrants, who had been textile workers in Ireland and Germany, to work in their homes spinning the materials into yarn and cloth. Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Large farmers and merchants became wealthy, while farmers with smaller farms and artisans only made enough for subsistence. The Mid-Atlantic region, by 1750, was divided by both ethnic background and wealth.
Seaports, which expanded from wheat trade, had more social classes than anywhere else in the Middle Colonies. By 1750, the population of Philadelphia had reached 25,000, New York 15,000, and the port of Baltimore 7,000. Merchants dominated seaport society and about 40 merchants controlled half of Philadelphia's trade. Wealthy merchants in Philadelphia and New York, like their counterparts in New England, built elegant Georgian-style mansions.
Shopkeepers, artisans, shipwrights, butchers, coopers, seamstresses, cobblers, bakers, carpenters, masons, and many other specialized professions, made up the middle class of seaport society. A butcher is someone who prepares various Meats and other related goods for sale Traditionally a cooper is someone who makes Wooden staved vessels of a conical form of greater length than breadth bound Sewing or stitching is the fastening of Cloth, Leather, Furs Bark, or other flexible materials using needle and This article refers to the cooking profession For other uses see Baker (disambiguation A baker is someone who primarily Bakes A carpenter (builder is a skilled craftsman who performs carpentry - a wide range of Woodworking that includes constructing buildings, Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar, and the term "masonry" can also refer to the units themselves Wives and husbands often worked as a team and taught their children their crafts to pass it on through the family. Many of these artisans and traders made enough money to create a modest life.
Laborers stood at the bottom of seaport society. These poor people worked on the docks unloading inbound vessels and loading outbound vessels with wheat, corn, and flaxseed. Many of these were African American; some were free while others were enslaved. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa In 1750, blacks made up about 10 percent of the population of New York and Philadelphia. Hundreds of seamen, some who were African American, worked as sailors on merchant ships.
The Southern Colonies were mainly dominated by the wealthy slave-owning planters in Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina. These planters owned massive estates that were worked by African slaves. Of the 650,000 inhabitants of the South in 1750, about 250,000 or 40 percent, were slaves. Planters used their wealth to dominate the local tenants and yeoman farmers. At election time, they gave these farmers gifts of rum and promised to lower taxes to take control of colonial legislatures.
Beginning in the 1720s, after many years of hard life and starvation, the next generation of planters began to construct large Georgian-style mansions,and hunt deer from horseback. Wealthy women in the Southern colonies shared in the British culture. They read British magazines, wore fashionable clothing of British design, and served an elaborate afternoon tea. Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market
Once women were married, their main duty was to produce offspring and tend to the family. These efforts were the most successful in South Carolina, where wealthy rice planters lived in townhouses in Charleston, a busy port city. Historically in the United Kingdom, Ireland and in many other countries a townhouse (or a "house in town" was a residence of a peer or member of the Active social seasons also existed in towns, such as Annapolis, Maryland, and on tobacco plantations along the James River in Virginia. Annapolis is the capital of the US state of Maryland, as well as the County seat of Anne Arundel County. The James River in the US state of Virginia is a long River, including its Jackson River source
The African slaves who worked on the indigo, tobacco, and rice fields in the South came from western and central Africa. The origins of Slavery in the colonial United States are complex and there are several theories that have been proposed to explain the trade As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Indigo is the Color on the Electromagnetic spectrum between about 420 and 450 nm in Wavelength, placing it between Blue and violet Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many They were all very poor and received just enough to live, this trait of low wealth still lingers today in southern United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Slavery in Colonial America was very oppressive as it passed on from generation to generation, and slaves had no legal rights. In 1700, there were about 9,600 slaves in the Chesapeake region and a few hundred in the Carolinas. About 170,000 more Africans arrived over the next five decades. By 1750, there were more than 250,000 slaves in British America; and, in the Carolinas, they made up about 60 percent of the total population. The first post-colonial Census found 697,681 slaves and 59,527 free blacks, who together made up about 20% of the country's population. Most slaves in South Carolina were born in Africa, while half the slaves in Virginia and Maryland were born in the colonies.