Cologne Cathedral with Hohenzollern Bridge
|Coat of arms||Location|
|Mayor||F. Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom officially de Hohe Domkirche St The Hohenzollernbrücke ( German for Hohenzollern bridge) is a Bridge crossing the river Rhine in the German city Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Germany (Deutschland is a Federal Republic consisting of sixteen States, known in German as Länder (singular North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen usually shortened to NRW, official short form NW is the westernmost and - in terms of population and economic output - the A Regierungsbezirk is a type of government region of Germany, a subdivision of certain federal states ( ''Bundesländer'') Cologne is one of the five governmental districts of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. German districts (de ''Kreise'' or de ''Landkreise'' in the states of Nordrhein-Westfalen and Schleswig-Holstein, singular de ''Kreis'' and de ''Landreis'' This is a list of urban districts in Germany. Germany is divided into 429 districts (not to be confused with the larger Regierungsbezirk) these consist Burgomaster (alternatively spelled Burgo[[meister]], literally translated meaning master of the town or master of the Fortress Schramma (CDU)|
|Area||405. The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest Political party in Germany. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 15 km² (156. 4 sq mi)|
|Elevation||37 m (121 ft)|
|- Density||2,447 /km² (6,338 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
Cologne (German: , IPA: [kœln]; local dialect: Kölle [ˈkœɫə]) is Germany's fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume Year 50 was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Central European Time ( CET) is one of the names of the Time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. Central European Summer Time ( CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. UTC+1 is used in the following locations Central European Time West Africa Time Western European Summer Time UTC+2 corresponds to the following Time zones Eastern European Time Egypt Standard Time Central Africa Time German car number plates ( Kfz-Kennzeichen) show the place where the car carrying them is registered __FORCETOC__ Postal codes in Germany, Postleitzahl (plural Postleitzahlen abbreviated to PLZ consist of five digits which indicate the wider area (first two digits and the see also Telephone numbering in Germany for further codes including service numbers cell phones etc A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Kölsch (Colognian is a very closely related small set of Dialects or variants of the Ripuarian Central German group of languages Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen usually shortened to NRW, official short form NW is the westernmost and - in terms of population and economic output - the The Rhine-Ruhr Area (Rhein-Ruhr in Germany is one of the largest Metropolitan areas in Europe with about 11800000 inhabitants It is one of the oldest cities in Germany, having been founded by the Romans in the year 38 BC. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Cologne was granted the status of a Roman "city" in the year 50 AD.
Cologne lies on the River Rhine. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge The city's famous Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom) is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom officially de Hohe Domkirche St Bishops and Archbishops of Cologne Bishops of Colonia Agrippina, 88–784 All names before Maternus ('II' are to be approached with considerable The University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln) is one of Europe's oldest universities. The University of Cologne ( German Universität zu Köln) is one of the oldest universities in Europe and with over 44000 students one
Cologne is a major cultural centre of the Rhineland and has a vibrant arts scene. The Rhineland ( Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. Cologne is home to more than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archaeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either Prehistoric or historic or contemporary and The city's Trade Fair Grounds are host to a number of trade shows such as the Art Cologne Fair, the International Furniture Fair (IMM) and the Photokina. Cologne Trade Fair are an International Exhibition Center located in Cologne, Germany. Art Cologne is an art fair held annually in Cologne, Germany. The photokina is the world's biggest Trade fair for the Photographic and Imaging industries Cologne is also well known for its celebration of Cologne Carnival and the LGBT festival Christopher Street Day (CSD). The Cologne carnival is a Carnival that takes place every year in Cologne, Germany. Christopher Street Day ( CSD) is an annual European LGBT celebration held in various cities across Europe
Within Germany, Cologne is known as an important media centre. Several radio and television stations, including Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR), RTL and VOX (TV channel), are based in the city. The Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR, officially " Westdeutscher Rundfunk Köln " translated "Western German Broadcasting Cologne" is a German RTL (formerly RTL plus) is a German commercial Television station distributed via cable and satellite along with DVB-T VOX is a German Television channel, headquartered in Cologne and part of the RTL Group, Europe's largest TV radio and production company The city also hosts the Cologne Comedy Festival, which is considered to be the largest comedy festival in mainland Europe. The Cologne Comedy Festival is an international festival of comedy held in Cologne, Germany every year since 1991 
In 2005 Cologne hosted the 20th Roman Catholic World Youth Day with Pope Benedict XVI. The 20th World Youth Day 2005 (XX Weltjugendtag Köln was a Catholic youth festival that started on August 16 and continued until August 21, Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger It was one of the largest-ever meetings, with over a million participants.
Cologne is the fourth-largest city in Germany in terms of inhabitants after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. Officially, the city still has somewhat fewer than a million inhabitants (as of December 31, 2006: 989,766 ). Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. However, this might change rapidly as the city's registration rules will change in the course of 2007. Cologne is the centre of an urban area of around 2 million inhabitants (including the neighbouring cities of Bonn, Hürth, Leverkusen, and Bergisch-Gladbach). Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia Hürth is a city near Cologne in the Rhein-Erft-Kreis, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Leverkusen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the eastern bank of the Rhine, half way between Cologne and is a city and capital of the Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis (district in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
According to local statistics, in 2006 the population density in the city was 2,528 inhabitants per square kilometer. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 31. 4 percent of the population has migrated there, and 17. 2 percent of Cologne's population is non-German. The largest group, comprising 6. 3 percent of the total population, is Turkish . As of September 2007, there are about 120,000 Muslims living in Cologne, mostly of Turkish origin .
In the city the population was spread out with 15. 5% under the age of 18, 67. 0% from 18 to 64 and 17. 4% who were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females there were 95. 3 males.
Cologne is incorporated under the Gemeindeordnung Nordrhein-Westfalen (GO NRW) (Municipality Code of North Rhine-Westphalia). North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen usually shortened to NRW, official short form NW is the westernmost and - in terms of population and economic output - the The city's administration is headed by a mayor (Oberbürgermeister) and three deputy mayors. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Cologne was the first city in Germany with a tax specifically for prostitution (see prostitution in Germany). Prostitution is the act of performing Sexual activity in exchange for Money. Prostitution in Germany is legal and widespread In 2002 the government changed the law in an effort to improve the legal situation of prostitutes
The three crowns symbolise the Magi (Three Wise Men) whose bones are said to be kept in a golden sarcophagus in Cologne Cathedral (see Shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne Cathedral). The Magi (singular Magus, from Latin via Greek μάγος; Old English: Mage; from Persian maguš and Kurdish A sarcophagus is a Funeral receptacle for a Corpse, most commonly carved or cut from stone In 1164, Rainald of Dassel, the archbishop of Cologne, brought the relics to the city, making it a major pilgrimage destination. Rainald of Dassel (c 1120 &ndash August 14, 1167 near Rome) was Archbishop of Cologne from 1159 to 1167 and Archchancellor of A relic is an object or a personal item of religious significance carefully preserved with an air of Veneration as a tangible memorial In Religion and Spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or Search of great Moral significance This led to the design of the current cathedral as the predecessor was considered too small to accommodate the pilgrims.
The eleven tears are a reminder of Cologne's patron, Saint Ursula, a Britannic princess, and her legendary 11,000 virgin companions who were supposedly martyred by Attila the Hun at Cologne for their Christian faith in 383. This article is about the saint For schools by the same name see St Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings (The entourage of Ursula and the number of victims was significantly smaller; according to one source, the original legend referred to only eleven companions and the number was later inflated by relic traders. )
Cologne is well-known for its beer, called Kölsch. Kölsch is a local Beer speciality brewed in Cologne, Germany. Kölsch is also the name of the local dialect. Kölsch (Colognian is a very closely related small set of Dialects or variants of the Ripuarian Central German group of languages This has led to the common joke that Kölsch is the only language you can drink.
Cologne is also famous for Eau de Cologne (Kölnisch Wasser). Cologne or Eau de Cologne is a Toiletry, a Perfume in a style of that from Cologne, Germany. At the beginning of the 18th century, Italian expatriate Johann Maria Farina (1685-1766) created a new fragrance and named it after his hometown Cologne, Eau de Cologne (Water of Cologne). Johann Maria Farina (1685-1766 also known as Giovanni Maria Farina, was a German - Italian Cologne Perfume maker primarily responsible In the course of the 18th century the fragrance became increasingly popular. Eventually, Cologne merchant Wilhelm Mülhens secured the name Farina, which at that time had become a household name for Eau de Cologne, under contract and opened a small factory at Cologne's Glockengasse. In later years, and under pressure from court battles, his grandson Ferdinand Mülhens chose a new name for the firm and their product. Ferdinand Mülhens ( December 23, 1844 - January 15, 1928) was a land owner and entrepreneur in Königswinter, Germany. It was the house number that was given to the factory at Glockengasse during French occupation of the Rhineland in the early 19th century, number 4711. The Rhineland ( Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. 4711 (pronounced "fortyseven-eleven" or "Siebenundvierzigelf is the Eau de Cologne brand of Mäurer & Wirtz and is produced in Stolberg near Aachen In 1994, the Mülhens family sold their company to German Wella corporation. Wella is a German company and one of the world’s leading cosmetics suppliers In 2003 Procter & Gamble took over Wella. Procter & Gamble Co ( P&G,) is a Fortune 500, American global corporation based in Cincinnati Ohio, that manufactures a wide Today, original Eau de Cologne still is produced in Cologne by both the Farina family (Farina gegenüber since 1709), currently in the eighth generation, and by Mäurer and Wirtz who bought the 4711 brand in December 2006.
Cologne carnival is one of the biggest street festivals in Europe. The Cologne carnival is a Carnival that takes place every year in Cologne, Germany. It is held annually; the season starts officially on 11 November at 11 minutes past 11 with the proclamation of the new Carnival Season, and it continues until Ash Wednesday. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare But the so-called "Tollen Tage" (mad days) don`t start until Weiberfastnacht (Women's Carnival) or, in dialect, Wieverfastelovend (Thursday before Ash Wednesday), which is the beginning of the street carnival. Hundreds of thousands of visitors flock to Cologne during this time. Generally around a million people are celebrating in the streets on the Thursday before Ash Wednesday. 
The first urban settlement on the grounds of what today is the centre of Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, which was founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Germanic tribe. The History of Cologne, Germany's oldest major city can be broken into several periods The Ubii were a Germanic tribe first encountered dwelling on the right bank of the Rhine in the time of Julius Caesar, who formed an alliance with them The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic Cologne became acknowledged as a city by the Romans in 50 AD by the name of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium. Considerable Roman remains can be found in contemporary Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a notable discovery of a 1900 year old Roman boat was made in late 2007.  From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus, Marius and Victorinus. The Gallic Empire (in Latin Imperium Galliarum) is the modern name for the independent realm that existed from 260 to 273, during the For the alleged son of this emperor also called Postumus see Postumus Junior; for the son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa see Agrippa Postumus Marcus Aurelius Marius was emperor of the Gallic Empire in 268 Marcus Piav(vonius Victorinus was emperor of the secessionist Gallic Empire from 268 to 270 or 271 following the brief reign of Marius. In 310 under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine A bridge is a Structure built to span a Gorge, Valley, Road, railroad track, River, Body of water
Maternus, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight The city was the capital of a Roman province until occupied by the Franks in 459. In 785, Cologne became the seat of an archbishopric. In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead
During the time of the Holy Roman Empire in the Middle Ages, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven prince-electors and one of the three ecclesiastical electors. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Bishops and Archbishops of Cologne Bishops of Colonia Agrippina, 88–784 All names before Maternus ('II' are to be approached with considerable The Prince-Electors (or simply Electors) of the Holy Roman Empire ( German: Kurfürst ( pl The archbishops had ruled large temporal domains but in 1288 Sigfried II von Westerburg was defeated in the Battle of Worringen and forced into exile at Bonn. The Battle of Worringen was fought on June 5, 1288 near the town of Worringen (also called Woeringen which is now considered to be a suburb of Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
Cologne's location on the river Rhine placed it at the intersection of the major trade routes between east and west and was the basis of Cologne's growth. A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo Cologne was a member of the Hanseatic League and became an Free Imperial City in 1475. The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hansa) was an alliance of trading cities and their Guilds that established and maintained trade In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a City formally ruled by the Emperor only &mdash Interestingly the archbishop nevertheless preserved the right of capital punishment. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Thus, the municipal council (though in strict political opposition towards the archbishop) depended upon him in all matters concerning criminal jurisdiction. This included torture, which sentence was only allowed to be handed down by the episcopal judge, the so-called "Greve". This legal situation lasted until the French conquest of Cologne.
Besides its economic and political significance Cologne also became an outstanding centre of medieval pilgrimage, when Cologne's Archbishop Rainald of Dassel gave the relics of the Three Wise Men to Cologne's cathedral in 1164 (after they in fact had been captured from Milan). Rainald of Dassel (c 1120 &ndash August 14, 1167 near Rome) was Archbishop of Cologne from 1159 to 1167 and Archchancellor of "Three Kings" or "Three Wise Men" redirects here Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Besides the three magi Cologne preserves the relics of Saint Ursula and Albertus Magnus. This article is about the saint For schools by the same name see St
The economic structures of medieval and early modern Cologne were characterised by the town's status as a major harbour and transportation hub upon the Rhine. Craftsmanship was organised by self-administrating guilds, some of which were exclusive to women.
As a free city Cologne was a sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and as such had the right (and obligation) of maintaining its own military force. Wearing a red uniform these troops were known as the Rote Funken (red sparks). These soldiers were part of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire ("Reichskontingent") and fought in the wars of the 17th and 18th century, including the wars against revolutionary France, when the small force almost completely perished in combat. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in The tradition of these troops is preserved as a military persiflage by Cologne's most outstanding carnival society, the Rote Funken .
The free city of Cologne must not be confused with the Archbishopric of Cologne which was a state of its own within the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Since the second half of the 16th century the archbishops were taken from the Bavarian dynasty Wittelsbach. Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 The Wittelsbach family is a European Royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. Due to the free status of Cologne, the archbishops usually were not allowed to enter the town. Thus they took residence in Bonn and later in Brühl on Rhine. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia Brühl is a city in Germany, located 20 km south of Cologne, in the Rhein-Erft-Kreis. As members of an influential and powerful family and supported by their outstanding status as electors, the archbishops of Cologne repeatedly challenged and threatened the free status of Cologne during the 17th and 18th century, resulting in complicated affairs, which were handled by diplomatic means and propaganda as well as by the supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire. The Prince-Electors (or simply Electors) of the Holy Roman Empire ( German: Kurfürst ( pl
Cologne lost its status as a free city during the French period. According to the Peace Treaty of Lunéville (1801) all the territories of the Holy Roman Empire on the left bank of the Rhine were officially incorporated into the French Republic (which already had occupied Cologne in 1798). The Treaty of Lunéville was signed on February 9 1801 between the French Republic and the Holy Roman Empire by Joseph Bonaparte and The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Thus, this region later became part of Napoleon's Empire. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Cologne was part of the French Département Roer (named after the River Roer, German: Rur) with Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) as its capital. In the Terminology of Political geography and Historiography a National department (département departamento is an administrative The Rur -German in Dutch and French Roer, &mdash not to be confused with the Ruhr &mdash is a river in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands The Rur -German in Dutch and French Roer, &mdash not to be confused with the Ruhr &mdash is a river in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands ( Ripuarian: Oche, Dutch: Aken, Spanish: Aquisgrán, Italian: Aquisgrana, French, The French modernised public life by introducing the Code Napoleon as civil code and removing the old elites from power, to cite two examples. The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) is the French Civil code, established under The Code Napoleon was in use in the German territories on the left bank of the Rhine until the year 1900, when for the first time the German Empire passed a nationwide unique civil code ("Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch"). The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) is the French Civil code, established under The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) is the Civil code of Germany. In 1815, at the Congress of Vienna, Cologne was made part of the Kingdom of Prussia, administered successively in the Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg and the Rhine Province. The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of the major powers of Europe, chaired by the Austrian statesman Clemens Wenzel von Metternich The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising }The Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (Provinz Jülich-Kleve-Berg was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1815-1822 The Rhine Province (Rheinprovinz also known as Rhenish Prussia ( Rheinpreußen) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free
The permanent tensions between the Roman Catholic Rhineland and the overwhelmingly Protestant Prussian state repeatedly escalated with Cologne being in the focus of the conflict. The Rhineland ( Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. In 1837 the archbishop of Cologne Clemens August von Droste-Vischering was arrested and imprisoned for two years after a dispute over the legal status of marriages between Protestants and Roman Catholics ("Mischehenstreit"). Baron Clemens August von Droste-Vischering, German Clemens August Freiherr von Droste-Vischering ( 21 January 1773 &ndash 19 October In 1874 during the Kulturkampf archbishop cardinal Paul Melchers was arrested and imprisoned. The German term (literally "culture struggle" refers to German policies in relation to Secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted Paul Melchers ( 6 January 1813 - 14 December 1895) was a Cardinal and Archbishop of Cologne. He fled to the Netherlands and was searched for like an ordinary criminal by a warrant of apprehension. These conflicts alienated the Catholic population from Berlin and contributed to a deeply felt anti-Prussian resentment, which was still significant after World War II, when the former mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer, became the first West German chancellor. Konrad Hermann Josef Adenauer ( 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967 was a German Statesman.
During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Cologne incorporated numerous surrounding towns, and by the time of World War I had already grown to 700,000 inhabitants. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The twentieth century of the Common Era began on World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Industrialisation changed the city and spurred its growth. Especially booming branches were vehicle construction and engine building. Heavy industry was less ubiquitous as opposed to the Ruhr Area. The Ruhr Area, ( German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott, Kohlenpott or Revier) is an Urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia The cathedral, started in 1248 but abandoned around 1560, was eventually finished in 1880 not only as a religious building but also as a German national monument celebrating the newly founded German empire as well as the continuity of the German nation since the Middle Ages. Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom officially de Hohe Domkirche St The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification Sometimes urban growth happened very much at the expense of the town's historic heritage with many buildings being broken down (e. g. the city walls or the surroundings of the cathedral) or replaced by contemporary constructions. On the other side Cologne was turned into a heavily armed fortress (opposing the French and Belgian fortresses of Verdun and Liège) with two fortified belts surrounding the town, the relics of which can be seen until today. Verdun (medieval Wirten official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune Liège (ljɛːʒ Older English: Luick, Walloon: Lidje, German: Lüttich; Latin: Leodium, Dutch The military demands of what finally turned out to be Germany's largest fortress meant a huge obstacle to urban development, as forts, bunkers and dugouts with a vast and plain shooting field before them completely encircled the town and prevented any expansion beyond the fortified line, resulting in a very dense built-up area within town itself.
After WWI, during which several minor air raids had targeted the city, Cologne was occupied by British Forces under the terms of the armistice and the subsequent Versailles Peace Treaty. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. The occupation lasted until 1926.  In contrast to the harsh measures of French occupation troops in the Rhineland the British acted much more tactfully towards the local population. The mayor of Cologne (the future West German chancellor) Konrad Adenauer paid them respect for their political significance, as the British withstood the French ambitions for a permanent Allied occupation of the Rhineland. Konrad Hermann Josef Adenauer ( 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967 was a German Statesman. In 1919 the University of Cologne (which had been closed by the French in 1798) was refounded. The University of Cologne ( German Universität zu Köln) is one of the oldest universities in Europe and with over 44000 students one It was meant as a substitute for the German University of Strasbourg which had become French in 1918/19. The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, founded in 1631 was divided in the 1970s into three separate institutions with a total The era of the Weimar Republic (1919 - 1933) rendered very prolific for Cologne. The term Weimar Republic ( ˈvaɪmarɐ repuˈbliːk is used by historians to signify the democratic and Republican period of Germany from 1919 to 1933 Many improvements were made under the guidance of Mayor Konrad Adenauer, especially as far as public governance, housing, planning and social affairs are concerned. Large public parks were created, in particular the two "Grüngürtel" (green belts), which were planned on the areas of the former fortifications. They had been dismantled according to the de-militarisation of the Rhineland under the terms of the peace treaty, albeit this project was unfinished until 1933. The Rhineland ( Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. Public housing was executed in a way that it became exemplary all over Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. As Cologne competed for hosting the Olympics a modern stadium was erected in Müngersdorf. By the end of the British occupation German civil aviation was readmitted over Cologne and the airport of Butzweilerhof soon became an outstanding hub of national and international air traffic, second in Germany only to Berlin-Tempelhof. For the United States Air Force military use of this facility see Tempelhof Central Airport Berlin-Tempelhof Airport also By 1939 the population had risen to 772,221. Compared to other major cities the Nazis did not gain decisive support in Cologne and the votes cast for the NSDAP at the election for the Reichstag always accounted below the average result of the Reich. The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945 The Reichstag ( German for "Imperial Diet " was the Parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, 
During World War II, Köln was a Military Area Command Headquarters (Militärische Bereich Befehl Hauptsitze) for Military District (Wehrkreis) VI in Münster. Münster ( is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Cologne was under the command of Generalleutnant Freiherr Roeder von Diersburg, who was responsible for military operations at Bonn, Siegburg, Aachen, Jülich, Düren, and Monschau. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia Siegburg (ie Fort on the Sieg river) is a city in the district of Rhein-Sieg-Kreis, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany ( Ripuarian: Oche, Dutch: Aken, Spanish: Aquisgrán, Italian: Aquisgrana, French, Jülich (in old spellings also known as Guelich or Gülich, cf Düren is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, capital of Düren district. Monschau (Montjoie is a Town in the west of Germany, located in the district Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia. Cologne was the Home Station for the 211th Infantry Regiment and the 26th Artillery Regiment.
In World War II, Cologne endured exactly 262 air raids by the Western Allies, which caused approximately 20,000 civilian casualties and completely wiped out the centre of the city. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. During the night of May 31, 1942, Cologne was the site of "Operation Millennium", the first 1,000 bomber raid by the Royal Air Force in World War II. Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The City of Cologne was bombed in 262 separate air raids by the Allies during World War II. 1,046 heavy bombers attacked their target with 1,455 tons of explosive. This raid lasted about 75 minutes, destroyed 600 acres (243 ha) of built-up area, killed 486 civilians and made 59,000 people homeless. By the end of the war, the population of Cologne was reduced by 95%. This loss was mainly caused by a massive evacuation of the people to more rural areas. The same happened in many other German cities in the last two years of war. At the end of 1945, the population had already risen to about 500,000 again.
By that time, essentially all of Cologne's pre-war Jewish population of 20,000 had been displaced. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The synagogue, originally built between 1895 and 1899 by architects Wilhelm Schreiterer and Bernhard Below, was severely damaged during the pogrom of November 9, 1938 (Kristallnacht) but ultimately destroyed by Allied bombing between 1943 and 1945. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Kristallnacht ( literally "Crystal night" or the Night of Broken Glass was a Pogrom in Nazi Germany on November 9–10 1938 The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. It was reconstructed in the 1950s. The Cologne synagogue was the stage of a historic event in 2005, when the German-born pope Benedict XVI was the second pope ever to visit a synagogue. Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger
Despite Cologne's status of being the largest city in the region, nearby Düsseldorf was chosen as the political capital of the Federal State North Rhine-Westphalia. Düsseldorf (ˈdʏsəldɔɐf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Germany (Deutschland is a Federal Republic consisting of sixteen States, known in German as Länder (singular North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen usually shortened to NRW, official short form NW is the westernmost and - in terms of population and economic output - the With Bonn being chosen as the provisional capital (provisorische Bundeshauptstadt) and seat of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany, Cologne benefited by being sandwiched between the two important political centres of former West Germany. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia West Germany ( Inf German: Westdeutschland or West-Deutschland) was the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany ( The city became home to a large number of Federal agencies and organisations. After re-unification in 1990 Berlin was made the Federal capital of Germany. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany.
For Cologne mayors refer to: List of mayors of Cologne. This is a list of mayors of Cologne. It includes the Lord Mayors of Cologne ( Oberbürgermeister der Stadt Köln) since 1815 as well as the city
In 1945 architect and urban planner Rudolf Schwarz called Cologne the "world's greatest heap of debris". Rudolf Schwarz may refer to Rudolf Schwarz (architect (1897-1961 German architect Rudolf Schwarz (conductor (1905-1994 Austrian-born Schwarz designed the master plan of reconstruction in 1947, which called for the construction of several new thoroughfares through the downtown area, especially the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive"). The Master plan took into consideration the fact that even shortly after the war a large increase in automobile traffic could be anticipated. Plans for new roads had already to a certain degree evolved under the Nazi administration, but the actual construction became easier in times when the majority of downtown lots were undeveloped. The destruction of famous Romanesque churches like St. Gereon, Great St. Martin, St. Great Saint Martin Church is a Romanesque Catholic church in Cologne, Germany. Maria im Capitol and about a dozen others in World War II meant a tremendous loss of cultural substance to the city. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The rebuilding of those churches and other landmarks like the Gürzenich event hall was not undisputed among leading architects and art historians at that time, but in most cases, civil intention prevailed. The reconstruction lasted until the 1990s, when Romanesque church of St. Kunibert was finished.
It took some time to rebuild the city. In 1959 the city's population reached pre-war numbers again. Afterwards the city grew steadily, and, in 1975, the number exceeded 1 million inhabitants for about one year. Since then, the number lingers slightly underneath.
In the 1980s and 1990s Cologne's economy prospered from two factors: First, the steady growth in the number of media companies, pertaining to both the private and the public sector. Catering especially to these companies is the newly developed Media Park, which creates a strongly visual focal point in downtown Cologne and includes the KölnTurm, one of Cologne's most prominent high-rises. And second, a permanent improvement of the diverse traffic infrastructure, which makes Cologne one of the most easily accessible metropolitan areas in Central Europe.
Due to the economic success of the Cologne Trade Fair, the city arranged a large extension to the fair site in 2005. Cologne Trade Fair are an International Exhibition Center located in Cologne, Germany. At the same time the original buildings, which date back to the 1920s are rented out to RTL, Germany's largest private broadcaster, as their new corporate headquarters. RTL Group ( is Europe's largest TV radio and production company and is majority-owned by German media conglomerate Bertelsmann.
The centre of Cologne was completely destroyed during World War II. The reconstruction of the city followed the style of the 1950s, while respecting the old layout and naming of the streets. Thus, the city today is characterised by simple and modest post-war buildings, with few interspersed pre-war buildings which were reconstructed due to their historical importance. Some buildings of the "Wiederaufbauzeit" (era of reconstruction), for example the opera house by Wilhelm Riphahn, are nowadays regarded as classics in modern architecture. Wilhelm Riphahn (also Wilhelm Riphan; born July 25, 1889 in Cologne &ndash December 27, 1963 in Cologne was a Nevertheless, the uncompromising style of the opera house and other modern buildings has remained controversial.
Road building had been a major issue in the 1920s under the leadership of mayor Konrad Adenauer. Konrad Hermann Josef Adenauer ( 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967 was a German Statesman. The first German limited access road was constructed after 1929 between Cologne and Bonn. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia Today, this is A 555. Exit list ( Kölner Ring) In 1965 Cologne became the first German city to be fully encircled by a freeway belt. Roughly at the same time a downtown bypass motorway (Stadtautobahn) was planned, but only partially executed, due to opposition by environmental groups. The completed section became Bundesstraße ("Federal Road") B 55a which begins at the Zoobrücke ("Zoo Bridge") and meets with A 4 and A 3 at the interchange Cologne East. is an Autobahn that crosses Germany in a west-east direction The western segment has a length of 134 km (83 mi the part in the east is 381 km (237 mi long is an Autobahn in Germany that links the border to the Netherlands near Wesel in the northwest to the Austrian border near Passau Nevertheless, it is referred to as Stadtautobahn by most locals. Fully accomplished in contrast was the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive"), a new four/six lane downtown thoroughfare, which had already been anticipated by planners like Fritz Schumacher in the 1920s. The last section south of Ebertplatz was completed in 1972.
In 2005 the first stretch of an eight-lane freeway in North Rhine-Westphalia was opened to traffic on Bundesautobahn 3, part of the eastern section of the freeway belt between the interchanges Cologne East and Heumar. North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen usually shortened to NRW, official short form NW is the westernmost and - in terms of population and economic output - the
Cologne has Deutsche Bahn Service with Intercity and ICE-trains stopping at Köln Hauptbahnhof (Cologne Central Station), Köln-Deutz station and at Cologne Bonn Airport (Konrad-Adenauer-Flughafen). Deutsche Bahn AG ( DB AG, DBAG or DB) is the German national Railway company InterCity (commonly abbreviated IC on timetables and tickets is the classification applied to certain long-distance Passenger train services in The InterCityExpress or ICE (German pronunciation) is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and neighbouring countries Köln Hauptbahnhof (English Cologne Central Station, Abbr: Köln Hbf) is the central railway station in Cologne, Germany Köln Messe/Deutz is a railway station in Cologne, Germany. It is situated next to the Rhine river and just several hundred metres away from Köln Cologne/Bonn Airport ( German: Flughafen Köln/Bonn, also called Konrad-Adenauer-Flughafen or Flughafen Köln-Wahn) is an international ICE and Thalys high-speed trains link Cologne with Brussels and Paris. Thalys is an international high-speed train operator built around the high-speed lines between Paris, Brussels, Cologne and Amsterdam Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city There are frequent ICE trains to other German cities, including Frankfurt-am-Main and Berlin. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany.
The Cologne Stadtbahn (Kölner-Verkehrs-Betriebe AG) operates an extensive light rail system (partially underground) serving Cologne and some neighbouring cities, referred to as the S-Bahn, and U-Bahn. The Cologne Stadtbahn is a Light rail system in the German city of Cologne as well as several surrounding cities (Leverkusen-Schlebusch only and towns For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems. This article has been partially translated from the German Wikipedia article Nearby Bonn is linked by the S-Bahn as well as Deutsche Bahn trains, and occasional recreational boats on the Rhine. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge
There also are frequent buses covering most of the city and surrounding suburbs, and Eurolines coaches to London via Brussels. Eurolines is a coach (long distance bus organisation operating international bus routes within Europe to over 500 destinations in over 25 countries London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is
Like most German cities, Cologne has a traffic layout designed to be bicycle-friendly. " Bicycle-friendly " describes policies and practices which may help some people feel more comfortable about traveling by Bicycle with other traffic There is an extensive cycle network, featuring pavement-edge cycle lanes linked by cycle priority crossings. In many of the small city-centre streets with one-way restrictions, cyclists are explicitly allowed to cycle both ways.
Cologne's international airport is Cologne Bonn Airport (CGN). Cologne/Bonn Airport ( German: Flughafen Köln/Bonn, also called Konrad-Adenauer-Flughafen or Flughafen Köln-Wahn) is an international It is also called Konrad-Adenauer-Airport after Germany's post-war Chancellor, Konrad Adenauer, who was born in Cologne and was mayor of the city from 1917 until 1933. Konrad Hermann Josef Adenauer ( 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967 was a German Statesman. The airport is shared with the neighbouring city of Bonn. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia Most destinations are located in Europe, however, there are two proper intercontinental services: a daily flight to Newark Liberty Airport (EWR) and Iran Air flights to Tehran's Mehrabad International Airport 4 times a week. Newark Liberty International Airport, first named Newark Airport and later Newark International Airport, is an international Airport within the Mehrabad Airport (فرودگاه مهرآباد is an Airport that serves Tehran, Iran. More intercontinental flights are offered at nearby Düsseldorf International Airport (DUS). Düsseldorf International Airport (Flughafen Düsseldorf International,is the third largest airport in Germany, located in Düsseldorf, the capital city
The city is host to the football team 1. FC Köln who compete in the Bundesliga and American football team Cologne Centurions who played in the now defunct NFL Europa. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The Bundesliga is the highest level of Germany 's football league system. American football, known in the United States and Canada simply as football, is a competitive Team sport known for mixing strategy with The Cologne Centurions were an American football team that played in NFL Europa. NFL Europa was an American football league which operated in Europe from 1991 until 2007. These two teams both play out of the RheinEnergieStadion, one of the stadiums used during the 2006 FIFA World Cup. The RheinEnergieStadion is a football Stadium in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th instance of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament The city is also home of the ice hockey team Kölner Haie (Cologne Sharks), of the DEL, the highest ice hockey league in Germany. Championship teams 1976/77 Erich Kühnhackl, Craig Sarner Marcus Kuhl Detlef Langemann Henryk Jaworowski Peter Schiller Udo Kießling Franz The Deutsche Eishockey Liga ( German Ice Hockey League, shortname DEL is a German high-calibre Ice hockey league and has the highest number of American Their home arena is the Kölnarena. The Lanxess Arena (formerly known as Kölnarena, German for Cologne Arena) is an Indoor arena in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia Furthermore Cologne is home of the basketball team Köln 99ers of the Basketball Bundesliga(BBL). Köln 99ers, that was known as RheinEnergie Köln from 2001 - 2007, (often RE Köln or REK is a Basketball club based in Cologne
Since 1997 the city has hosted the annual Cologne Marathon. The Cologne Marathon (Ford Köln Marathon is an annual marathon held in Cologne, Germany.
In 2010 Cologne will host the "VIII Gay Games Cologne", which will have about 30,000 participants competing in over 30 disciplines of sports; the Gay Games is a quadriennial athletic and cultural event. The Gay Games is the world's largest sporting and cultural event organized by and specifically for LGBT athletes artists musicians and others
This is a list of cities which are "cultural pen pals" of Cologne, as well as the year they first established this relationship.
Notable people whose roots can be found in Cologne:
Liverpool ( is a City and Metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Lille (lil Rijsel is a city in northern France. It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in the country This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Liège (ljɛːʒ Older English: Luick, Walloon: Lidje, German: Lüttich; Latin: Leodium, Dutch The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. 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Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Localities Alt-Treptow Plänterwald Baumschulenweg Johannisthal Niederschöneweide Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. |name = Islamabad|native_name = |nickname = |settlement_type = Capital City |total_type Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Katowice (Katovice Kattowitz is a City in Silesia in southern Poland, on the Kłodnica Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Bethlehem ( بيت لحم,, lit "House of Meat" Βηθλεέμ Bethleém בית לחם Beit Lehem, lit "House of Bread" is a Name There are differences of opinion as to what the Palestinian territories should be called Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches (pronunciation in Romanian: /'kluʒ na'poka/ Klausenburg Kolozsvár Napoca Castrum Clus Claudiopolis קלויזנבורג Kloiznburg until 1974 Cluj, is the third Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Dunstable is a Market town in Bedfordshire, England. It lies on the eastward tail spurs of the Chiltern Hills, 30 miles north of London The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Porz (Köln-Porz is a borough or Stadtbezirk of Cologne, It is situated on the right side of the Rhine in the south-east of the city The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Rodenkirchen is a southern Borough of Cologne (Köln in Germany. Igny is the name of part of the name of the following communes in France Igny Essonne, in the Essonne department Igny Haute-Saône This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Brive-la-Gaillarde ( Limousin dialect of Occitan language Briva la Galharda) is a commune of France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Hazebrouck is a commune of the Nord département, in northern France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Eygelshoven is a small village near the town of Kerkrade in the southeast of the Netherlands, close to the German and Belgian borders The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Konrad Hermann Josef Adenauer ( 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967 was a German Statesman. Events 1477 - Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France. Year 1876 ( MDCCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. The Head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (Kanzler Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim ( September 14, 1486 – February 18 1535) was a German magician, Occult Libri tres de occulta philosophia ( Three Books about Occult Philosophy) is Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa 's study of occult philosophy acknowledged as Julia Agrippina; known as Agrippina Minor ( Latin for the ‘younger’, Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA from the year 50 Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus or Claudius I ( August 1, 10 BC &ndash October 13, AD 54 ( Tiberius Claudius Drusus from birth to Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Dirk Bach ( 23 April 1961 in Cologne) is a German television comedy actor best known as Pepe in the German version of Sesamstraße Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Heinrich Birnbaum, also known as De Piro (the Latinized form of his German name ( 1403 - February 19, 1473) was a pious and learned Robert Blum ( 10 November 1807 - 9 November 1848) was a German politician and member of the National Assembly of 1848 Events 1444 - Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Vladislaus III of Varna (aka Ulaszlo I of Hungary and Wladyslaw Year 1807 ( MDCCCVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Heinrich Theodor Böll ( December 21, 1917 — July 16, 1985) was one of Germany 's foremost post- World War II writers Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred Max Christian Friedrich Bruch (January 6 1838 &ndash October 2 1920 also known as Max Karl August Bruch was a German Romantic Composer and conductor Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King Year 1838 ( MDCCCXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Alex Patricio Calatrava Weber (born June 14, 1973 in Cologne, Germany) is a Tennis player from Spain, who turned professional Events 1276 - While taking exile in Fuzhou in southern China, away from the advancing Mongol invaders, the remnants of the Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Florian Maria Georg Christian Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck (b Events 1194 - King Richard I of England gives Portsmouth its first Royal Charter. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. Max Ernst ( 2 April 1891 &ndash 1 April 1976) was a German painter, Sculptor, Graphic artist, and Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Angela Nathalie Gossow (born 5 November 1974 in Cologne, Germany) is a Death metal Vocalist from Cologne Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany) Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Melodic death metal (also referred to as melodeath) is a Subgenre of Death metal which combines the melody of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal Arch Enemy is a Swedish Melodic death metal band formed in 1996 by Carcass guitarist Michael Amott along with Johan Liiva, Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Udo Kier (born October 14 1944, as Udo Kierspe) is a German Actor. Events 1066 - Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings - In England on Senlac Hill seven miles from Hastings, the forces Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Werner Klemperer ( March 22, 1920 – December 6, 2000) was an Emmy Award -winning comedic actor best known for his role as Colonel Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 79 - Mount Vesuvius begins stirring on the feast day of Vulcan the Roman god of fire Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Uwe Krupp OO-vah KROOP (born June 24 1965 in Cologne, West Germany) is a retired German hockey defenceman Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team Sport played on Ice. Heiner Lauterbach (born April 10, 1953 in Cologne, Germany) is a German actor Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Ottmar Liebert (born 1959 is a German-born composer and guitarist born to a Chinese-German father and a Hungarian mother Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Willy Millowitsch (January 8 1909 &ndash September 20 1999 was a German Playwright, a stage and TV actor and the director Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Events 240 BC - 1st recorded Perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January BAP is a German rock group History The group was founded in 1976 under the name Wolfgang Niedecken's BAP in Cologne, Germany by Wolfgang "Kingdom of Corsica" redirects here For the 14th-century union with Sardinia, see Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica Theodore of Events 1248 - The Dutch city of Ommen receives city rights and fortification rights from Otto III the Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office Year 1756 ( MDCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Jacques Offenbach (born Jacob Offenbach 20 June 1819 in Cologne &ndash 5 October 1880 in Paris) was a German Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 1819 ( MDCCCXIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar in the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year Events 869 - The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople Year 1880 ( MDCCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1876 ( MDCCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Frederik William Prausnitz ( August 26, 1920, Cologne - November 12, 2004, Lewes Delaware was a German-born American conductor and teacher Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Christa Päffgen ( October 16, 1938 ? &ndash July 18, 1988) was a German Singer - Songwriter, fashion model Christa Päffgen ( October 16, 1938 ? &ndash July 18, 1988) was a German Singer - Songwriter, fashion model Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 390 BC - Roman - Gaulish Wars Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) This article is about the band For their self-titled album see The Velvet Underground (album; for the book see The Velvet Underground (book Ultra Violet by David Shankbonejpg|thumb| Ultra Violet (Isabelle Collin Dufresne]]The Warhol Superstars were a Clique of New York City personalities promoted Stefan Konrad Raab (born on October 20, 1966, in Cologne) is a German Entertainer, music producer singer and Comedian. Events 1740 - Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Jürgen Rüttgers (born June 26, 1951 in Cologne) is a German Politician ( CDU) and Minister-President of Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January A minister-president (Ministerpräsident is the Head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments who presides over the council of ministers North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen usually shortened to NRW, official short form NW is the westernmost and - in terms of population and economic output - the Markus Pirol Stockhausen (born May 2, 1957) is a German Trumpeter and Composer. Events 1194 - King Richard I of England gives Portsmouth its first Royal Charter. Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) Joost van den Vondel ( November 17, 1587 - February 5, 1679) was a Dutch writer and playwright Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers Events 1576 - Henry of Navarre converts to Roman Catholicism in order to ensure his right to the throne of France. Robert Weimar (born 13 May 1932 Cologne is a German Professor of law and Psychologist. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Year 1932 ( MCMXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. 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