A collage (From the French: coller, to glue) is a work of formal art, primarily in the visual arts, made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The visual arts are art forms that focus on the creation of works which are primarily Visual in nature such as Painting, Photography Assemblage is an artistic process in which a three-dimensional artistic composition is made from putting together found objects Use of this technique made its dramatic appearance among oil paintings in the early 20th century as an art form of groundbreaking novelty. Oil painting is the process of painting with Pigments that are bound with a medium of Drying oil — especially in early modern Europe Linseed oil Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual
An artistic collage work may include newspaper clippings, ribbons, bits of colored or hand-made papers, portions of other artwork, photographs, and such, glued to a piece of paper or canvas. Clipping is the cutting-out of articles from a Paper Publication. A ribbon or riband is a thin band of flexible material typically Cloth but also Plastic or sometimes Metal, used primarily for binding and tying A photograph (often shortened to photo) is an Image created by Light falling on a light-sensitive surface usually Photographic film or an electronic
Techniques of collage were first used at the time of the invention of paper in China around 200 BC. Papermaking is the process of making Paper, a material which is used ubiquitously today for writing and packaging China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Events By place Seleucid Empire Antiochus III's forces continue their invasion of Coele Syria and Palestine. The use of collage, however, remained very limited until the 10th century in Japan, when calligraphers began to apply glued paper, using texts on surfaces, when writing their poems. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. is a form of Calligraphy, or artistic Writing, used for writing the Japanese language. 
The technique of collage appeared in medieval Europe during the 13th century. Gold leaf panels started to be applied in Gothic cathedrals around the 15th and 16th centuries. Metal leaf is a thin foil used for decoration It is also called composition leaf or schlagmetal. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. Gemstones and other precious metals were applied to religious images, icons, and also, to coats of arms. A gemstone or gem, also called a precious or semi-precious stone, is a piece of attractive Mineral, which &mdash when cut and polished &mdash Precious Metal is the eighteenth episode in the of the popular American Crime drama, which is set in Las Vegas, Nevada. An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn, "image" is a religious work of art most commonly a painting from Eastern Christianity. A coat of arms or armorial bearings (often just arms for short in European tradition is a design belonging to a particular person (or group of people 
In the 19th century, collage methods also were used among hobbyists for memorabilia (i. A souvenir (from French, for memory) memento or keepsake is an object a traveler brings home for the memories associated with e. applied to photo albums) and books (i. A photographic album, or photo album, is a collection of a series of Photographs generally in a Book. e. Hans Christian Andersen, Carl Spitzweg). Hans Christian Andersen (ˈhanˀs ˈkʰʁæʂd̥jan ˈɑnɐsn̩ in Danish or simply H Carl Spitzweg ( February 5, 1808 - September 23, 1885) was a German romanticist painter and Poet 
The term collage derives from the French "coller" meaning "glue". Glue or adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together  This term was coined by both Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso in the beginning of the 20th century when collage became a distinctive part of modern art. Georges Braque ( May 13, 1882 &ndash August 31, 1963) was a major 20th century French painter and sculptor Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 History of Modern art Roots in the 19th century Although modern Sculpture and Architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the nineteenth
Despite the pre-twentieth-century use of collage-like application techniques, authorities on art history generally do not consider collage, properly speaking, to have emerged until after 1900, in conjunction with the early stages of modernism. For example, the Tate Gallery's online art glossary states flatly that collage "was first used as an artists' technique in the twentieth century. Tate is the United Kingdom 's national museum of British and Modern Art and is a network of four art galleries in England: Tate Britain (opened in " . Additionally, the Guggenheim Museum's online art glossary plainly states that Braque and Picasso invented collage — which would obviously imply that any earlier artworks which might technically have anticipated collage were nevertheless not collage. The Guggenheim Museum refers to any of several Museums worldwide created and run by the Solomon R Collage, according to these sources, is an artistic concept associated with the beginnings of modernism and entails much more than the idea of gluing something onto something else. The glued-on patches which Braque and Picasso added to their canvases "collided with the surface plane of the painting. "  This was part of a methodical reexamination of the relation between painting and sculpture, and these new works "gave each medium some of the characteristics of the other," according to the Guggenheim essay. Furthermore, these chopped-up bits of newspaper introduced fragments of externally referenced meaning into the collision: "References to current events, such as the war in the Balkans, and to popular culture enriched the content of their art. " This juxtaposition of signifiers, "at once serious and tongue-in-cheek," was fundamental to the inspiration behind collage: "Emphasizing concept and process over end product, collage has brought the incongruous into meaningful congress with the ordinary. "  Arguably, any work of art which involves the application (with glue or by any other means) of things to a surface, but which lacks this purposeful incongruity, this quality of fragmented signifiers colliding, is not truly collage in any important sense.
Collage in the modernist sense began with Cubist painters Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 Cubism was a 20th century Avant-garde Art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European Georges Braque ( May 13, 1882 &ndash August 31, 1963) was a major 20th century French painter and sculptor Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 According to some sources, Picasso was the first to use the collage technique in oil paintings. According to the Guggenheim Museum's online article about collage, Braque took up the concept of collage itself before Picasso, applying it to charcoal drawings. The Guggenheim Museum refers to any of several Museums worldwide created and run by the Solomon R Picasso adopted collage immediately after (and was perhaps indeed the first to use collage in paintings, as opposed to drawings):
"It was Braque who purchased a roll of simulated oak-grain wallpaper and began cutting out pieces of the paper and attaching them to his charcoal drawings. Picasso immediately began to make his own experiments in the new medium. " 
In 1912 for his Still Life with Chair Caning (Nature-morte à la chaise cannée), Picasso pasted a patch of oilcloth with a chair-cane design onto the canvas of the piece. The manufacture of Textiles is one of the oldest of human technologies.
Surrealist artists have made extensive use of collage. Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members Cubomania is a collage made by cutting an image into squares which are then reassembled automatically or at random. Surrealism in Art, Poetry, and Literature utilizes numerous unique techniques and games to provide inspiration Automatism has taken on many forms the Automatic writing and drawing initially (and still to this day practiced by surrealists can be compared to similar or perhaps Inimage is a name given by René Passerson to what is usually considered a style of surrealist collage (though it perhaps qualifies instead as a decollage) in which parts are cut away from an existing image to reveal another image. Décollage, in Art, is the opposite of Collage; instead of an image being built up of all or parts of existing images it is created by cutting tearing away or otherwise
Collages produced using a similar, or perhaps identical, method used by Richard Genovese are called etrécissements by Marcel Mariën from a method first explored by Mariën. Richard Genovese (born 1947 is a collagist, photographer painter and theorist Surrealism in Art, Poetry, and Literature utilizes numerous unique techniques and games to provide inspiration Marcel Mariën ( April 29, 1920, Antwerp – September 19, 1993, Brussels) was a Belgian Surrealist Genovese also introduced excavation collage (that includes elements of decollage) which is the layering of printed images, loosely affixed at the corners and then tearing away bits of the upper layer to reveal images from underneath, thereby introducing a new collage of images. Penelope Rosemont invented some methods of surrealist collage, the prehensilhouette and the landscapade. Penelope Rosemont (born 1942 Chicago Illinois) attended Lake Forest College.
Collage was often called the art form of the twentieth century, but this was never fully realized.
Surrealist games such as parallel collage use collective techniques of collage making. Surrealism in Art, Poetry, and Literature utilizes numerous unique techniques and games to provide inspiration
Another technique is that of canvas collage, which is the application, typically with glue, of separately painted canvas patches to the surface of a painting's main canvas. Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making Sails Tents Marquees Backpacks and other functions Well known for use of this technique is British artist John Walker in his paintings of the late 1970s, but canvas collage was already an integral part of the mixed media works of such American artists as Conrad Marca-Relli and Jane Frank by the early 1960s. John Walker (born 1939 is an English painter and printmaker Walker studied in Birmingham. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. Mixed media, in Visual art, refers to an artwork in the making of which more than one medium has been employed Conrad Marca-Relli (born Corrado Marcarelli June 5, 1913 &ndash August 29, 2000) belonged to the early generation of New York School Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank the American artist was born Jane Babette Schenthal on July 25, 1918, in Baltimore Maryland The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 The intensely self-critical Lee Krasner also frequently destroyed her own paintings by cutting them into pieces, only to create new works of art by reassembling the pieces into collages. Lee Krasner ( October 27, 1908 — June 19, 1984) was an influential abstract expressionist painter in the second half of the 20th
The wood collage is a type that emerged somewhat later than paper collage. Mixed media, in Visual art, refers to an artwork in the making of which more than one medium has been employed Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank the American artist was born Jane Babette Schenthal on July 25, 1918, in Baltimore Maryland Kurt Schwitters began experimenting with wood collages in the 1920s after already having given up painting for paper collages . Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters ( 20 June 1887 - 8 January 1948) was a German painter who was born in The principle of wood collage is clearly established at least as early as his 'Merz Picture with Candle', dating from the mid to late 1920s  .
It is also interesting to note that wood collage in a sense made its debut, indirectly, at the same time as paper collage, since (according to the Guggenheim online), Georges Braque initiated use of paper collage by cutting out pieces of simulated oak-grain wallpaper and attaching them to his own charcoal drawings . Georges Braque ( May 13, 1882 &ndash August 31, 1963) was a major 20th century French painter and sculptor The idea of gluing wood to a picture was implicitly there from the start, since the paper used in the very first paper collages was a commercial product manufactured to look like wood.
It was during a fifteen-year period of intense experimentation beginning in the mid 1940s that Louise Nevelson evolved her sculptural wood collages, assembled from found scraps, including parts of furniture, pieces of wooden crates or barrels, and architectural remnants like stair railings or moldings. Louise Berliawsky Nevelson (born Leah Berliawsky, September 23 1899, Kiev, Czarist Russia - d Furniture is the Mass noun for the movable objects which may support the human body (seating furniture and beds, provide storage or hold objects on horizontal Generally rectangular, very large, and painted black, they resemble gigantic paintings. Concerning Nevelson's Sky Cathedral (1958), the Museum of Modern Art catalogue states, "As a rectangular plane to be viewed from the front, Sky Cathedral has the pictorial quality of a painting. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, USA, on 53rd Street between Fifth . . " Yet such pieces also present themselves as massive walls or monoliths, which can sometimes be viewed from either side, or even looked through.
Much wood collage art is considerably smaller in scale, framed and hung as a painting would be. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e It usually features pieces of wood, wood shavings, or scraps, assembled on a canvas (if there is painting involved), or on a wooden board. Such framed, picture-like, wood-relief collages offer the artist an opportunity to explore the qualities of depth, natural color, and textural variety inherent in the material, while drawing on and taking advantage of the language, conventions, and historical resonances that arise from the tradition of creating pictures to hang on walls. A relief is a Sculptured Artwork where a modeled form is raised (or alternatively lowered from a flattened background without being disconnected from it Texture refers to the properties held and sensations caused by the external surface of objects received through the sense of touch. Contemporary examples of this technique can be found in the works of Geeta Chaudhuri, a wood collage artist from India. The technique of wood collage is also sometimes combined with painting and other media in a single work of art.
Frequently, what is called "wood collage art" uses only natural wood - such as driftwood, or parts of found and unaltered logs, branches, sticks, or bark. Driftwood is Wood that has been washed onto a shore or beach of a sea or river by the action of winds tides waves or man This raises the question of whether such artwork is collage (in the original sense) at all (see Collage and modernism). A collage (From the coller to glue is a work of formal art primarily in the Visual arts, made from an assemblage of different forms thus creating a new whole This is because the early, paper collages were generally made from bits of text or pictures - things originally made by people, and functioning or signifying in some cultural context. The collage brings these still-recognizable "signifiers" (or fragments of signifiers) together, in a kind of semiotic collision. In Semiotics, a sign is "something that stands for something else to someone in some capacity" Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of sign processes (semiosis or signification and communication signs and Symbols both A truncated wooden chair or staircase newel used in a Nevelson work can also be considered a potential element of collage in the same sense: it had some original, culturally determined context. A newel is the upright post about which the steps of a circular Staircase wind Unaltered, natural wood, such as one might find on a forest floor, arguably has no such context; therefore, the characteristic contextual disruptions associated with the collage idea, as it originated with Braque and Picasso, cannot really take place. (Driftwood is of course sometimes ambiguous: while a piece of driftwood may once have been a piece of worked wood - for example, part of a ship - it may be so weathered by salt and sea that its past functional identity is nearly or completely obscured. Driftwood is Wood that has been washed onto a shore or beach of a sea or river by the action of winds tides waves or man )
Though Le Corbusier and others used techniques that are akin to collage, collage as a theoretical concept only became widely discussed after the publication of Collage City by Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter in 1978. Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier ( October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965) was a Swiss Colin Rowe (born Rotherham England 1920 - died November 5, 1999, Arlington County Virginia, U The authors were, however, not championing collage in the pictorial sense, much less seeking the types of disruptions of meaning that occur with collage. Instead they were looking to challenge the uniformity of Modernism and saw collage with its non-linear notion of history as a means to reinvigorate design practice. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Not only does historical urban fabric have its place, but in studying it, designers were, so it was hoped, able to get a sense of how better to operate. Rowe was a member of the so-called Texas Rangers, a group of architects who taught at the University of Texas for a while. Texas Rangers refers to a group of Architects who taught at the University of Texas School of Architecture in Austin Texas, from 1951 to An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction Another member of that group was Bernhard Hoesli, a Swiss architect who went on to become an important educator at the ETH-Zurirch. Bernhard Hoesli (b 1923 1984 was a Swiss Architect and Collage artist Whereas for Rowe, collage was more a metaphor than an actual practice, Hoesli actively made collages as part of his design process. He was close to Robert Slutzky, a New York based artist, and frequently introduced the question of collage and disruption in his studio work. . . .
The concept of collage has crossed the boundaries of visual arts. In Music montage (literally "putting together" or sound collage ("gluing together" is a technique where Sound objects or compositions In music, with the advances on recording technology, avant-garde artists started experimenting with cutting and pasting since the middle of the twentieth century. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard George Martin created collages of recordings while producing the records of The Beatles. Sir George Henry Martin CBE (3 January 1926 is a British record producer arranger and Composer. The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 By the 1990s and 2000s, with the popularity of the sampler, it became apparent that "musical collages" had become the norm for popular music, especially in rap, hip hop (rap-pop), and electronic music. A sampler is an electronic musical instrument closely related to a Synthesizer. In Music montage (literally "putting together" or sound collage ("gluing together" is a technique where Sound objects or compositions Popular music is Music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more Rapping (also known as emceeing, MCing, spitting, or just rhyming) is the Rhythmic spoken delivery of Rhymes wordplay and Hip hop is a cultural movement which developed in New York City in the 1970s primarily among African Americans and Latinos. Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production  In 1996, DJ Shadow released the groundbreaking album, Endtroducing....., made entirely of preexisting recorded material mixed together in audible collage. DJ Shadow (born Josh Davis, June 29, 1972) is an American music producer, DJ and Songwriter. Endtroducing is the debut Studio album by hip hop artist DJ Shadow. In 2000, The Avalanches released Since I Left You, a musical collage consisting of approximately 3,500 musical sources (i. The Avalanches is an Electronic music group from Melbourne, Australia, best known for its live DJ sets and debut album Since I Left You Since I Left You is the debut Album by Melbourne -based electronic music group The Avalanches, first released on November 27, e. , samples). 
Digital collage is the technique of using [computer] tools in collage creation to encourage chance associations of disparate visual elements and the subsequent transformation of the visual results through the use of electronic media.
Collage novels are books with images selected from other publications and collaged together following a theme or narrative. A Collage novel is a form of Artist's book approaching closely (but preceding the Graphic novel.
The bible of discordianism, the Principia Discordia, is described by its author as a literary collage. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Discordianism is a modern Religion centered on the idea that Chaos is as important as order. Principia Discordia is a Discordian Religious text written by Greg Hill ( Malaclypse The Younger) and Kerry Thornley A collage in literary terms may also refer to a layering of ideas or images.
Decoupage is a type of collage usually defined as a craft. Mechanics of muscle ( The human body is the entire physical and mental structure of a Human Organism. Decoupage (or découpage) is the Art of decorating an object by gluing colored Paper cutouts onto it in combination with special A craft is a Skill, especially involving practical arts. It may refer to a Trade or particular art It is the process of placing a picture onto an object for decoration. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** Often decoupage causes the picture to appear to have depth and look as though it had been painted on the object.
The process is to glue (or otherwise affix) a picture to an object, then adding more copies of the picture on top, progressively cutting out more and more of the background, giving the illusion of depth in the picture. The picture is often coated with varnish or some other sealant for protection.
Collage made from photographs, or parts of photographs, is called photomontage. Photomontage is the process (and result of making a composite photograph by cutting and joining a number of other photographs Photomontage is the process (and result) of making a composite photograph by cutting and joining a number of other photographs. The composite picture was sometimes photographed so that the final image is converted back into a seamless photographic print. The same method is accomplished today using image-editing software. The technique is referred to by professionals as "compositing", and in casual internet usage it is often called "photoshopping". Photo manipulation is the application of Image editing techniques to Photographs in order to create an Illusion or Deception (in contrast to mere
Other methods for combining pictures are also called photomontage, such as Victorian "combination printing", the printing from more than one negative on a single piece of printing paper (e. g. O. G. Rejlander, 1857), front-projection and computer montage techniques. Oscar Gustave Rejlander ( Sweden 1813 &ndash Clapham, London on 18 January, 1875) was a pioneering Victorian art photographer Much like a collage is composed of multiple facets, artists also combine montage techniques. Romare Bearden’s (1912-1988) series of black and white "photomontage projections" is an example. Romare Bearden ( September 2, 1911 &ndash March 12, 1988) was an African-American Artist and Writer. His method began with compositions of paper, paint, and photographs put on boards 8 1/2x11 inches. Bearden fixed the imagery with an emulsion that he then applied with handroller. Subsequently, he enlarged the collages photographically.
The 19th century tradition of physically joining multiple images into a composite and photographing the results prevailed in press photography and offset lithography until the widespread use of digital image editing. Offset printing is a commonly used Printing technique where the Inked image is transferred (or "offset" from a plate to a rubber blanket then to the Image editing encompasses the processes of altering Images whether they be digital photographs traditional analog photographs or Illustrations Contemporary photo editors in magazines now create "paste-ups" digitally.
Creating a photomontage has, for the most part, become easier with the advent of computer software such as Adobe Photoshop, Pixel image editor, and GIMP. Pixel image editor (formerly known as Pixel32 is an Image editor written by the Slovak programmer Pavel Kanzelsberger The GNU Image Manipulation Program, or GIMP, is a free Raster graphics editor used to process digital graphics and photographs These programs make the changes digitally, allowing for faster workflow and more precise results. They also mitigate mistakes by allowing the artist to "undo" errors. Yet some artists are pushing the boundaries of digital image editing to create extremely time-intensive compositions that rival the demands of the traditional arts. The current trend is to create pictures that combine painting, theatre, illustration and graphics in a seamless photographic whole.
When collage uses existing works, the result is what some copyright scholars call a derivative work. Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for Scholarly method &mdash or as it is more commonly called scholarship &mdash is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as In Copyright law, a derivative work is an expressive creation that includes major basic copyrighted aspects of an original previously created first work The collage has a copyright separate from any copyrights pertaining to the original incorporated works.
Due to redefined and reinterpreted copyright laws, and increased financial interests, some forms of collage art are significantly restricted. For example, in the area of sound collage (such as hip hop music), some court rulings effectively have eliminated the de minimis doctrine as a defense to copyright infringement, thus shifting collage practice away from non-permissive uses relying on fair use or de minimis protections, and toward licensing. In Music montage (literally "putting together" or sound collage ("gluing together" is a technique where Sound objects or compositions Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with De minimis is a Latin expression meaning about minimal things, normally in the phrases de minimis non curat Praetor or de minimis 'Copyright infringement' (or copyright violation) is the unauthorized use of material that is covered by Copyright law in a manner that violates Fair use is a doctrine in United States copyright law that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights holders such as use for De minimis is a Latin expression meaning about minimal things, normally in the phrases de minimis non curat Praetor or de minimis The verb license or grant license means to give permission The noun license is the document demonstrating that permission  Examples of musical collage art that have run afoul of modern copyright are The Grey Album and Negativland's U2. The Grey Album is an album by Danger Mouse, released in 2004. Negativland is an Experimental music and Sound collage band which originated in the San Francisco Bay Area in the late 1970s
The copyright status of visual works is less troubled, although still ambiguous. For instance, some visual collage artists have argued that the first-sale doctrine protects their work. The first-sale doctrine is a limitation on Copyright that was recognized by the U The first-sale doctrine prevents copyright holders from controlling consumptive uses after the "first sale" of their work. The de minimis doctrine and the fair use exception also provide important defenses against claimed copyright infringement. De minimis is a Latin expression meaning about minimal things, normally in the phrases de minimis non curat Praetor or de minimis Fair use is a doctrine in United States copyright law that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights holders such as use for  The Second Circuit in October, 2006, held that artist Jeff Koons was not liable for copyright infringement because his incorporation of a photograph into a collage painting was fair use. The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals. Jeff Koons (born January 21 1955) is an American artist whose work incorporates Kitsch imagery using painting sculpture and other forms